连词是一种虚词， 它不能独立担任句子成分而只起连接词与词， 短语与短语以及句与句 的作用。连词主要可分为两类：并列连词和从属连词。纵观广东 8 年高考试题来看，连词是 一个必考点。（8 年共计考查连词达 15 到小题，合计 22.5 分）
1. (2007 ) when I realized that the vill
agers who had gathered around me were arguing as to ___1___ should have the honour of receiving me as a guest in their house 2.(2007 ) .... the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to a small town some 20 kilometers away ___2___there was a garage. 3.(2008) He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, __3____ he felt very happy since the crop did “grow” higher 4.(2008)One day, he came up with an idea ____4___ he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches . 5.(2009 ) Jane paused in front of a counter ___5___some attractive ties were on display. 6.(2010 ) We understand this lesson best ______6__ we receive gifts of love from .children. 7.(2011) My friends walked me to the bus stop and waited with me 7_ the bus arrived. 8.(2011) Behind him were other people to ____8______ he was trying to talk, .. 9.( 2012 )_____9____he thought he cloud escape attention by sitting at the back ,he was wrong . 10.( 2012 )Of course whenever they turned to look at him ,they had to look at Mary ,___10____made her feel like a star. 11.( 2012 )The new boy looked at the teacher for a few seconds and all the other students wondered ___11___ the boy would do 12. (2013) So Nick called to his son ”Go to the store and buy some salt, but pay a fair price for it :neither too much_______12______too little.” 13. (2013) Nick;s guests, ____13_____ had heard their conversation, asked why they should not buy sale more cheaply if they could. 14.(2014)We were told that our rooms hadn?t been reserved for that week, ___14_____ for the week after. I didn?t understand why this would happen and my credit card had already been charged for the reservation. 15.(2014)The next day, my brother and I went to the beach ____15____we watched some people play volleyball
归纳总结 并列连词可以连接两个对等的(或平行的)词、短语或句子, 常用的并列连词有： ⑴ 表示联合: and (同, 和), when (=and just at this time 就在这时) , not only ...but (also) ...(不仅??而且??)， neither ...nor ... (既不??也不??). ⑵ 表示选择: or (或者, 否则), otherwise (否则), or else (否则), either...or (不 是??就是) ⑶ 表示转折: but (但是, 可是, 只是因为), yet (可是), not ...but ... (不是??而 是??) ⑷ 表示因果: for (因为) 和 so (所以, 因此) ⑸ 表示对比: while (而, 却)
一点说明: when 表示“就在此时”时, 主要用于 was/were doing sth. when sth./ sb. did; was/were about to do sth. when sth./ sb. did; was/were on the point of doing sth. when sth./ sb. did 等句型中, 表示“当某人或某物正在或正要做某事, 就在这时突然又发生了另一事” 。 三点注意： ⑴ so 不与 because 连用。 ⑵ but, while 不与 although 连用, 但 yet, still 可与 although 连用。 ⑶not only ...but also ...连接两个句子时, 前一分句用部分倒装。 专项练习一：用适当的连词填空 1. He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, ________he felt very happy since the crop did “grow” higher. 2. I then realized she had no arms _______ legs, just a head, neck . 3. He took the old man not just across the river, ________ to his home. 4. ...the government of a developed country may well prefer to see a slowly increasing population, rather than one which is stable __________ in decline 5. ...people do not connect their success with ability _________ with factors such as luck. 6. The sport first appeared in 1896, ______ none were contested during the 1904 and 1928 Games. 7. It is often said that the joy of traveling is not in arriving at your destination ___________ in the journey itself.。 8. Stand over there, ___________ you?ll be able to see the oil painting better. 9. He found it increasingly difficult to read, _____________ his eyesight was beginning to fail. 10. He was about halfway through his meal __________ a familiar voice came to his ears. 11. Start out right away, ________ you?ll miss the first train. 12. We were swimming in the lake ____________ suddenly the storm started. 13. We are going to the bookstore in John?s car. You can come with us ___________ you can meet us there later. 14. I am thirsty,___________it is hot 15. Some of us don?t have much pocket money, _______they feel unhappy. 16. 79.3％ of the surveyed netizens say that their main motivation is to help their parents to live a better life ___________ 67.7％ claim that they work hard in order to change their own fate. 17. He helps me__________I help him. 18.After class, not only do I listen to English programs on TV and on the radio ________I?ve learned a lot from the Internet and other sources 19. I was just leaving____________the telephone rang.。 20. Hurry up,________you?ll be late. 21. ______ could theory do without practice， ______ could practice do without theory. 22. I am reading a novel， ______ she is reading a letter. 23. Something went wrong with my bike this afternoon， ______ I walked home. 24. 25. 26. 27. ______ she did not speak distinctly ______ I did not hear well. Li Ping doesn't talk much， ______ he thinks a lot. She must go out， ______ the lights are out. I never saw him again， ______ did I hear from him.
28. We were about to leave ______ it began to rain. 29. I often help him ______ he often helps me. 30. It doesn't look like rain， ______ you?d better take your umbrella with you.
从属连词用来引导名词从句和各类的状语从句。 综观广东历年的高考题， 我们发现均出 现对连词应用的考查。由此可见连词在英语学习和运用中的重要性.
类型 从 属 连 词
时 间 状 语 when(当……时), while (在……期间)， as(随着, 一边……一边……), before, after, 从句 since, till/until, whenever, as soon as, the moment 等 原 因 状 语 because(因为), as(由于), since(既然), now (that) (既然), seeing (that) (由于, 鉴于), 从句 considering (that) (考虑到), given (that)等 条 件 状 语 (as...)as, (not as/so...)as, than 等 从句 目 的 状 语 so that, in order that, in case， lest(免得, 以防)等 从句 结 果 状 语 so that(以致, 结果) so/such ...that 等 从句 地 点 状 语 where(在……的地方), wherever (在……的任何地方)等 从句 比 较 状 语 (as...)as, (not as/so...)as, than 等 从句 方 式 状 语 as (按照, 像??那样), as if 或 as though (好像) 从句 让 步 状 语 although, though, as, while( 虽 然 ), even if/though ( 即 使 ), whatever, wherever, 从句 however, whenever(=no matter when 无论何时), whether ...or ...(无论……还是……)
专项练习二：用适当的连词填空 1. We understand this lesson best _____ we receive gifts of love from children. 2. ______ they decide which college to go to, students should research the admission procedures. 3. The girl had hardly rung the bell ________ the door was opened suddenly, and her friend rushed out to greet her. 4. The old man asked Lucy to move to another chair _______ he wanted to sit next to his wife. 5. The little boy won?t go to sleep _______ his mother tells him a story. 6. John thinks it won?t be long ________ he is ready for his new job. 7. I?m sorry you?ve been waiting so long, but it?ll still be some time ________ Brian gets back. 8. ______________________ the Internet is of great help, I don?t think it?s a good idea to spend too much time on it. 9. ________ hungry I am, I never seem to be able to finish off this loaf of bread. 10. A small car is big enough for a family of three _______ you need more space for baggage. 11. You?d better not leave the medicine ______ kids can get at it. 12. Don?t promise anything ________ you are one hundred percent sure.
13. All people, _________ they are old or young, rich or poor, have been trying their best to help those in need since the disaster. 14. — Did you return Fred?s call? — I didn?t need to _______ I?ll see him tomorrow. 15. There were some chairs left over _________ everyone had sat down. 16.If you happen to get lost in the wild, you?d better stay _______ you are and wait for help. 17.It is hard for Greek government to get over the present difficulties ______ it gets more financial support from the European Union. 18._______ we have enough evidence. we can't win the case. 19._______ small, the company has about 1,000 buyers in over 30 countries. 20.I cannot hear the professor clearly as there is too much noise ________ I am sitting. 21 I have heard a lot of good things about you ________I came back from abroad. 22.Mark needs to learn Chinese _______ his company is opening a branch in Beijing. 23._______I have to give a speech, I get extremely nervous before I start. 24.One can always manage to do more things, no matter _______ full one?s schedule is in life. 25.She says that she?ll have to close the shop _______ business improves. 26.In the global economy, a new drug for cancer, _______ it is discovered, will create many economic possibilities around the world. 27.You must learn to consult your feelings and your reason _______ you reach any decision. 28. It?s much easier to make friends ________ you have similar interests. 29.—Coach, can I continue with the training? —Sorry, you can?t ________you haven?t recovered from the knee injury. 30. I don't believe we've met before, ________ I must say you do look familiar.
⑴ that 没有任何意义, 不作任何句子成分, 只起连接作用, 故常可省略；但 that 引导定 语从句时, 它代表先行词, 且在从句中作主语、宾语或表语。 ⑵ if/whether 有“是否”之意； ⑶ who, which, what, when, where, how，whoever(凡是??的人)等连接代词或连接副词, 这些词本身有词义, 也作句子成分, 连接代词在从句中作主语、宾语、表语. (4)where, when, how 等连接副词在从句中作状语。 几个注意点： ⑴ 主语从句作主语, 主句谓语动词通常用单数; 为使句子平衡, 常用 it 作形式主语。 ⑵ 表语从句还可以用 as if, as though 引导。 ⑶ 表示“是否”, 引导宾语从句时可用 if 或 whether, 但在介词后或直接与 or not 连用 时, 只能用 whether 引导 引导表语从句、同位语从句或位于句首的主语从句时, 只能用 whether, 不用 if ⑷ 同位语从句一般放在 fact, news, idea, promise, suggestion, advice 等抽象名词之 后, 说明或解释这些抽象名词的具体内容。多用 that 引导, 不能由 which 引导 ⑸ 当宾语从句又带有补语时, 要用 it 作形式宾语 ⑹ 在表示 “建议”“命令”“要求” , 如 advice, suggestion, proposal, order， demand, request 等词后的名词性从句, 其谓语通常用 “(should＋) 动词原形” 。 ⑺what 可引导名词性从句但不能引导定语从句。
专项练习三： 用适当的连词填空 1. One day, he came up with an idea ________he would pluck up all of his crop a few inches. He did so the next day. 2. ...when I realized that the villagers who had gathered around me were arguing as to ______ should have the honour of receiving me as a guest in their house 3. I want to be liked and loved for _________ I am inside. 4. Part of the reason Charles Dickens loved his own novel, David Copperfield, was _______ it was rather closely modeled on his own life. 5. ________ some people regard as a drawback is seen as a plus by many others 6. Cindy shut the door heavily and burst into tears. No one in the office knew ________ she was so angry. 7. — I prefer shutting myself in and listening to music all day on Sundays. — That?s _________I don?t agree. You should have a more active life. 8. — Have you finished the book? — No. I?ve read up to ________the children discover the secret cave. 9. It never occurred to me _______ you could succeed in persuading him to change his mind. 10. Before the sales start, I make a list of ______ my kids will need for the coming season. 11. How much one enjoys himself traveling depends largely on ________ he goes with, whether his friends or relatives. 12. Thank you for ________ you?ve said, I hope I will never be too busy to help others 13. ...and also the bike was used to get groceries, saving us from having to walk long distances from ________ we live. 14. Professors do not have the time to explain ________a university library works; they expect... 15. The news ______ our athletes won another gold medal was reported in yesterday?s newspaper. 16. _________was most important to her, she told me, was her family 17 _______ struck me most in the movie was the father?s deep love for his son. 18. The only way to succeed at the highest level is to have total belief _______ you are better than anyone else on the sports field. 19.Police have found______ appears to be the lost ancient statue. 20._______ I want to tell you is the deep love and respect I have for my parents. 21.________ you said at the meeting describes a bright future for the company. 22.Some people care much about their appearance and always ask if they look fine in _______ they are wearing. 23.I have no idea _________ the cell phone isn?t working, so could you fix it for me? 24.It remains to be seen ________the newly formed committee?s policy can be put into practice. 25.It?s good to know ________ the dogs will be well cared for while we?re away. 26. When asked _____ they needed most, the kids said they wanted to feel important and loved. 27.Do not let any failures discourage you, for you can never tell _____close you may be to victory. 28From space, the earth looks blue. This is _______ about seventy-one percent of its surface is covered by water. 29. ________makes the book so extraordinary is the creative imagination of the writer. 30.Experts believe _______ people can waste less food by shopping only when it is necessary.
归纳总结 1.定义:定语从句一般都紧跟在它所修饰的名词或代词后面,这个名词或代词叫做先行词;连 接主句与从句的词叫关系词。 2.关系词有三个作用:一是连接主句与从句; 二是指代先行词;三是在从句中充当句子成分。 3.选择关系词的两条重要依据:先行词是 人还是物；在从句中作何种句子成分 特别提醒：当先行词是表示时间、地点或原因的词语时, 不一定填关系副词 when, where, why, 只有当这些词在定语从句中作状语时, 才会用关系副词, 否则要用关系代词 专项练习四：用适当的连词填空 1. He filled his leather container so that he could bring some back to an elder ________had been his teacher. 2. Jane paused in front of a counter _________ some attractive ties were on display. 3. ...the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to a small town some 20 kilometers away ________ there was a garage. 4. Children who are not active or ________ diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly. 5. Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planet _________ life has developed gradually 6. I?ve become good friends with several of the students in my school _______I met in the English speech contest last year. 7. The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre with her sister ________ she would stay for an hour. 8. As a child, Jack studied in a village school, ________ is named after his grandfather. 9. I refuse to accept the blame for something _______ was someone else?s fault. 10. That?s the new machine _______ parts are too small to be seen. 11. I saw this beautiful girl, ______ smile just melted me and almost instantly gave me a completely new sense of what life is all about. 12. The long history of the Chinese Knot dates back to ancient times _______ people first used knots for fastening, wrapping, hunting and fishing. 13. In a developing country _______ a vastly expanded population is pressing hard upon the limits of food, space and natural resources ... 14. They will fly to Washington, ________ they plan to stay for two or three days. 15. He _______ laughs last laughs best. 16. Those ________ want to see the movie should book the tickets in advance. 17. This is the very book ________ I am looking for. 18. He will tell you everything ________ he heard about. 19. All ________ glitters is not gold. 20. This is the boy _________ mother is a teacher. 21. I?ll never forget the day ______ I spent my holiday in Hawaii. 22. I?ll never forget the day __________ I spent there. 23. The school ______ I learned English was very large. 24. The school __________I visited yesterday was very large. 25. Can you tell me the reason _____ you were absent today?
26. The reason __________ he gave for not coming was that his mother didn?t allow him to 27. The newly built café , the walls of ______ are painted light green, is really a peaceful place for us, specially after hard work. 28. The settlement is home to nearly 1, 000 people, many of ______ left their village homes for a better life in the city. 29. The growing speed of a plant is influenced by a number of factors, most of ______are beyond our control。 30. The man pulled out a gold watch, the hands of ______were made of small diamonds 31. This is the pen __________ ______I wrote the letter. 32. The man came ________ ______ I learned the news. 33. Here is the hero ______________we are proud of. 34. The day ___________he was born on is October 10th 35. She was educated at Beijing university, ______ _______she went to have her advanced study abroad. 36. Alice asked the policeman _______ ________she worked to contact her whenever there was an accident 37. In the dark street, there wasn?t a single person ________ ______she could turn for help 38. I have many friends, __________ __________ some are businessmen. 39. The girl ______ ________my father is talking at the school gate is my elder sister. 40. They will visit the farm ________ _________my brother works. 41. Water is very important for us, _______ _________we can?t live. 42. I looked into their eyes, I found they didn?t care, ______told me it would be useless, but when I looked into yours, I saw kindness. 43. Jim passed the driving test, ______ surprised everybody in the office. 44. ______ is often the case, we have worked out the production plan. 45. ____ is mentioned above, paper is first made in China 46. Helen was much kinder to her youngest son than to the others, ________, of course, made the others envy him. 47. _______ is reported in the newspapers, talks between the two countries are making progress. 48. The result of the experiment was very good, ______we hadn?t expect 49. The weather turned out to be very good, ________was more than we could expect. 50. _______is known to all, the moon travels round the earth once every month.
连词答案:高考链接： 1.who 2.where 3.but 4.that 5.where 6.when 7. until 8. whom 9.If 10.which 11. what 12. nor 13. who 14. but 15. where 专项练习一 1,but 2.or 3. but 4. or 5.but 6.but 7. but 8. and 9. for 10. when 11. or 12. when 13. or 14. for 15. so 16. while 17 and 18. but also 19 when 20. or 21. Neither...nor 22. while 23.so 24.Either...or 25.but 26.for 27. nor/28.when 29. and 30.but 专项练习二 1.when 2.Once 3.when 4. because 5. unless 6. before 7.before 8.Although 9.However 10. unless 11.where 12. unless 13 whether 14.because 15.when 16.where 17.unless 18.Unless 19.Although 20. where 21. since 22. since 23.whenever 24.how 25. unless 26.wherever 27. before 28 when 29 .as 30.although 专项练习三 1.that 2.who 3.what 4.that 5.What 6.why 7. where 8., where 9. that 10. what 11.who 12.what 13.where 14.how 15. that 16.What 17, What 18. that 19.what 20.What 21.What 22.what 23 why 24.whether 25.that 26. what 27. how 28 because 29. Who 30. that 专项练习四 1.who 2. where 3.where 4.whose 5. where 6.who 7.where 8. which 9. that 10. who 11. whose 12.when 13 where 14.where 15.who 16.who 17.that 18.that 19.that 20. whose 21.when 22. that/which 23. where 24.that/which 25. why 26. that/which 27. which 28. whom 29. which 30.which 31. with which 32. from whom 33. whom 34. that/which 35. after which 36. with whom 37. to whom 38. of whom 39. to which 40 on which 41. without which 42. which 43. which 44 As 45.As 46. which 47.As 48. which 49. which 50. As
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