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高考英语语法教学课件-定语从句


定语从句

但在下列情况中,只能用 that,不用 which:
①当先行词是 all, a lot, (a) little, few, much,

none, anything, something, everything, nothing 等词
时。如: All that can be done has been

done. In this factory I saw little / much that was different from ours.

②当先行词被 all, any, no, much, little, few,
every 等限定词所修饰时。如:

We heard clearly every word that he said.

③当先行词是序数词或被序数词所修饰时。如: The first thing that should be done is to get the tickets. When people talk about Hangzhou, the first that comes to mind is the West Lake. ④当先行词是形容词最高级或被形容词最高级所 修饰,以及先行词被序数词和形容词最高级同时修饰 时,如: Is that the best that you can do? That’s the most expensive hotel that we’ve ever stayed in. This novel is the second best one that I have ever read.

⑤当先行词被 the very, the only, the next, the
last等所修饰时。如:

This is the very book that I want to find.
⑥当先行词为指人和指物的两个并列名词词组 时。如:

The guests spoke highly of the children and their
performances that they saw at the Children’s Palace.

She described in her compositions the people and
places that impressed her most. ⑦当主句是以 which 开头的特殊疑问句时。如:

Which is the car that killed the boy?

问题2: 1) Last month, part of Southeast Asia was struck by floods, from _______effects the people are still suffering. (05天津卷) B A. that B. whose C. those D. what 2) George Orwell, ______ was Eric Arthur, wrote many political D novels and essays. (04北京) A. the real name B. what his real name C. his real name D. whose real name “whose +名词中心词”这一结构在定语从句中既能作主语 (如题2),又能作宾语(如题1)。whose 的先行词常用来 指人(如题2),但有时也可以用来指具体事物或抽象概念 (如题1),这时可以与of which 结构互换,词序是:“名 词+of which” 。题1可变为:from the effects of which …

问题3: 1、_____ is often the case, we have worked out the production D
plan. (04江苏) A. Which B. When C. What D. As 2、John said he’d been working in the office for an hour, _______ was true. (01北京春季) C A.he B.this C.which D.who 非限制性定语从句一般采用 which 或 as 来引导。使用这 两个词时要注意三点: (1)as 引导的从句可以放在主句 之前,而which 引导的从句只能放在主句之后。(2)从 意义上讲,which 指前面主句的内容;而 as 指代的是作 为一般人都知道的常识性的东西,因此常译成“就 象……那样、正如所……的”。 (3)如果定语从句的内 容对主句的内容起消极作用,则用 which,而不用 as,

问题4:
What surprised me was not what he said but 湖北) A.the way

A
he said it. (04

B.in the way that

C.in the way D.the way which 该句的意思是“使我感到惊奇的不是他说了些什么,而是 他表达的方法。”句中“what he said”和“the way he said it”

是并列结构作表语。假如 the way 在从句中作状语,其中的
关系词有三种不同的表达方式。1) the way + that; 2) the way 后省略关系词; 3) the way + in which。根据句意可以排除B、

C;答案D which 前缺少介词 in,所以答案为A。

2、关系代词和关系副词的比较

问题1:
three months ago? (05北京春季) A. where B. when C. that

1、Do you still remember the chicken farm _____ we visited D. what

C

2、There were dirty marks on her trousers ______ she had wiped her hands. (04全国II) A. where B. which C. when D. that 当先行词是表时间的 time, day 等和表地点的 place, house 等 时,一定要注意分析从句的结构。如果缺少主语或宾语,关 系词应该用 which 或 that, 缺少时间状语或地点状语时,才 能用 when 或 where。题1中的 farm 作 visited 的宾语,故选 C;题2中的 trousers 作 wiped 的地点状语,故选A。

A

使用关系副词应注意下列几点: 1、关系副词在意义上都相当于一定的介词 + which 结构: when = on (in, at, during…) + which; where = in (at, on…) + which; why = for which. 如: I was in Beijing on the day when (= on which) he arrived. The office where (= in which) he works is on the third floor. This is the chief reason why (= for which) we did it.

2、当先行词是表时间和表地点的 词时,一定要注意分析从 句的结构,如果缺少主语或宾语时,关系词应该用 which 或 that, 缺少时间状语或地点状语时,才能用 when 或 where,

试比较:
I’ll never forget the day when my hometown was liberated. I’ll never forget the days which / that we spent together last summer. His father works in a factory where radio parts are made.

His father works in a factory which / that makes radio parts.
3、 when 和 where 既可以引导限制性定语从句,也可以引 导非限制性定语从句。而 why 只能引导限制性定语从句。

介词加关系代词引导定语从句是近几年高考中 的热点,复习中需注意以下几个问题:
1. 关系代词作介词宾语,不论是在限制性定语从句中, 还是在非限制性定语从句中,当介词前置时,只能 用 whom 指人,which 指物;但如果介词后置,则 不受这种限制,关系代词还可以省去,特别是在口 语中。如: Do you know the boy to whom she was talking? Do you know the boy (that) she was talking to? The pencil (which / that) he was writing with suddenly broke. 2. 要确认关系代词前用什么介词,需根据从句中的动 词与先行词的关系来确定。所以解题时需分析从句 与主句之间的关系。

巩固练习:
1. American women usually identify their best friend as D someone _____ they can talk frequently. (04上海) A. who B. as C. about which D. with whom C 2. The English play ______ my students acted at the New Year’s party was a great success. (04全国I) A for whichB at which C in which D on which C 3. There are altogether eleven books on the shelf, ______ five are mine. (04全国IV) A on which B in which C of which D from which 4. The journey around the world took the old sailor nine A months, _____ the sailing time was 226 days. (04广西) A. of which B. during which C. from which D. for which

4. 非限制性定语从句与并列句的区别
问题1:
There are two buildings, high. (04湖北) A.the larger B.the larger of them

D
stands nearly a hundred feet

C.the larger one that D.the larger of which 要区别是并列句还是非限制性定语从句,关键是看两个
句子之间是否有连词,若有表示并列关系的连词或分号破折

号,那就是并列句;如果两句之间没有这些连接符号,那就
是非限制性定语从句,此时就需考虑使用适当的关系代词或 关系副词了。

巩固练习:
1. The factory produces half a million pairs of shoes every year,
80%

A are sold abroad. (04辽宁)
B.which of C.of them D.of that

A.of which

2. I have many friends, (05全国卷1)

D some are businessmen.

A.of them B.from which C.who of D.of whom 题2也可以改为:some of whom are businessmen. 如果在之 前加上连词 and,就只能用 some of them,而且不能倒装。

5、注意 the same … as / such … as 的使用问题
当先行词被 the same 所修饰时,关系词既可以用 as,也可 以用 that。在表示具体事物时,有时两者有一定的区别。一般 说来,表示同一种类多用 as,表示同一事物多用 that。如:

This is the same instrument that I used yesterday. 这就是我
昨天用过的那台仪器。 This is the same instrument as I used yesterday. 这台仪器

跟我昨天用过的那台一样。
在抽象概念上,同种类和同一事物是没有绝对区别的,所 以两个词可换用:

I have the same opinion as / that you have.

这里要注意的是:
(1) 使用 as 时,它引导的定语从句中的动词可以省略,但 使用 that 时,定语从句中的动词不可省略。如: Women received the same pay as men. Women received the same pay that men received. (2) 在 “the same…that” 结构中,that只是用来加强语气, 强调“相同”。that可以省去而不改变句子原意,甚至连名词 前的 same 也可以省去。如:

This is the same instrument that I used yesterday. = This is the same instrument I used yesterday. = This is the instrument I used yesterday. 但在 “the same…as” 结构中,same 和 as 都不能省略。

(4) 当先行词前有 such, so, as 时,关系词应当用
as。如:

A wise man seldom talks about such things as he
doesn’t understand. He spoke in such easy English as everybody could understand. At this time of the day, all buses and trolleys have

to carry as many passengers as they can.
It is so easy a book as every schoolboy can read.

Let’s discuss such things as we can talk of freely.

另需注意:
This book is written in such easy English as

beginners can understand.(定语从句)
This book is written in such easy English that beginners can understand it.(结果状语从句)


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