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高中英语必修五第二单元课文及翻译


-必修 5 Unit 2 The United Kingdom Reading PUZZLES IN GEOGRAPHY People may wonder why different words are used to describe these four countries: England, Wales, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Yo

u can clarify this question if you study British history. First there was England. Wales was linked to it in the thirteenth century. Now when people refer to England you find Wales included as well. Next England and Wales were joined to Scotland in the seventeenth century and the name was changed to "Great Britain". Happily this was accomplished without conflict when King James of Scotland became King of England and Wales as well. Finally the English government tried in the early twentieth century to form the United Kingdom by getting Ireland connected in the same peaceful way. However, the southern part of Ireland was unwilling and broke away to form its own government. So only Northern Ireland joined with England, Wales and Scotland to become the United Kingdom and this was shown to the world in a new flag called the Union Jack. To their credit the four countries do work together in some areas (eg, the currency and international relations), but they still have very different institutions. For example, Northern Ireland, England and Scotland have different educational and legal systems as well as different football teams for competitions like the World Cup! England is the largest of the four countries, and for convenience it is divided roughly into three zones. The zone nearest France is called the South of England, the middle zone is called the Midlands and the one nearest to Scotland is known as the North. You find most of the population settled in the south, but most of the industrial cities in the Midlands and the North of England. Although, nationwide, these cities are not as large as those in China, they have world-famous football teams and some of them even have two! It is a pity that the industrial cities built in the nineteenth century do not attract visitors. For historical architecture you have to go to older but smaller towns built by the Romans. There you will find out more about British history and culture. The greatest historical treasure of all is London with its museums, art collections, theatres, parks and buildings. It is the centre of national government and its administration. It has the oldest port built by the Romans in the first century AD, the oldest building begun by the Anglo-Saxons in the 1060s and the oldest castle constructed by later Norman rulers in 1066. There has been four sets of invaders of England. The first invaders, the Romans, left their towns and roads. The second, the Anglo-Saxons, left their language and their government. The third, the Vikings, influenced the vocabulary and place-names of the North of England, and the fourth, the Normans, left castles and introduced new words for food. If you look around the British countryside you will find evidence of all these invaders. You must keep your eyes open if you are going to make your trip to the United Kingdom enjoyable and worthwhile. 人们可能会奇怪为什么用不同的词语来描述英格兰、威尔士、苏格兰和北爱尔兰这四个国家。如果你 研究英国的历史,你就能够弄明白这个问题。 首先是英格兰。威尔士于公元 13 世纪就同英格兰联合起来了。如今只要有人提起英格兰,你就会发 现威尔士总是包

括在内的。然后,于 17 世纪英格兰、威尔士同苏格兰联合起来,名字改为大不列颠。令人庆幸的是,当 苏格兰的詹姆士国王成为英格兰和威尔士的国王时,这三个国家在无(军事)冲突的情况下实现了联合。 最后在 20 世纪初通过同样的和平方式,英国政府尽力把爱尔兰也纳入进来,组成了联合王国。然而,爱 尔兰的南部却不情愿这样并分离出去建立了自己的政府。因此只有北爱尔兰同英格兰、威尔士、苏格兰联 合起来组成了联合王国,这一点从新的联合王国国旗( “联合杰克” )上就可以看得出来。 值得称赞的是:这四个国家在一些方面(比方说在货币和国际关系上) ,它们的确是共同合作的,但是 有些制度仍然区别很大。例如,北爱尔兰、英格兰和苏格兰在教育体制和立法体制上都存在着差异,并且 它们有着各自的足球队参加像世界杯之类的比赛! 在这四个国家中,英格兰是最大的。为了方便,它大致可以划分为三个地区。最靠近法国的那个地区叫 做英格兰南部,中部地区叫英格兰中部,最靠近苏格兰的那个地区叫英格兰北部。你会发现大部分人口居 住在南部, 但是大部分工业城市在中部和北部。 虽然就全国范围来说, 这些城市都不像中国的城市那样大, 但是它们都有着世界闻名的足球 队,有的城市甚至还有两个队!令人遗憾的是这些建于 19 世纪的工业城市并不能吸引游客。要找历史性 的建筑你得去罗马人建造的更古老的但是比较小的城镇。在那儿你能找到更多有关英国历史和文化的东 西。


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