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Unit 10 Stephen


Naturalism(自然主义)
(1880s-1920s)

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I. Historical Background

?Industrialism ? Industrialism produc

ed financial giants as well as an industrial proletariat(无产阶级). ? Slums(贫民区) appeared in great numbers and the city poor lived a life of insecurity, suffering, and violence. ? Self-reliance disappeared in the fast development of economy.
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I. Historical Background

? Darwinism (Origin of Species) ? the struggle for existence (purpose) ? survival of the fittest (principle) ? natural selection (process) ★Social Darwinism (Herbert Spencer)

The weak were diminished and their cultures delimited(有界限的), while the strong grew in power and in cultural influence over the weak. The weak and stupid would fall victim in the natural course of events to economic forces.
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Naturalism (自然主义) ? It was a term created by French novelist, Emile Zola (埃米尔· 左拉). In studying human life, the Naturalist used the discoveries and knowledge of modern science. He believed that opinions and morality were controlled by social, economic and psychological causes. The Naturalistic writers were philosophical pessimists. They explained that man was the product of social progresses and social evolution. Man was a weak and incompetent animal and man himself could not master his own fate, man was no longer free.
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左拉(1840-1902) Logo Emile Zola’s theory: 埃米尔·

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?The purpose of a novelist was to be a scientist, to place his characters in a situation and then to watch the influences of heredity(遗传,遗传特征) and environment destroy them, or, if they were good enough, to watch them overcome the inimical(有害的,不友善的) force of heredity and environment.
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★Ⅱ.Naturalism 自然主义

?Definition: The term naturalism describes a type of literature that attempts to apply scientific principles of objectivity and detachment to its study of human beings. It is a more deliberate kind of realism in novels, stories, and plays, usually involving a view of human beings as passive victims of natural forces and social environment.
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★Ⅱ.Naturalism自然主义

? In literature, it refers to the theory that literary composition should aim at a detached (超然的,分离的), scientific objectivity in the treatment of natural man. ? It developed on the basis of realism but went a step further than it in portraying social reality. ? Naturalism was a new and harsher realism.
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Ⅱ.Naturalism

? Naturalism is not a coherent literature movement; there is no uniform philosophy; it?s a reaction against the realist fiction of the 1870s and 1880s, whose scope was limited to middle-class or “local color” topics. In the Naturalistic works, there is a concern with the animal or the irrational (非理性)motivations for human behavior, sometimes manifested in connection with sexuality and violence

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Ⅲ.Naturalism: Basic Ideas

? Humans are controlled by laws of heredity and environment and they lack freedom of their own will. Brutish(野兽般的) impulses dictate(指使) human behavior. All of their actions are controlled. ? The universe is cold, godless, indifferent and hostile to human desires. Life becomes a struggle for survival. ? The struggle of the individual to adapt to environment, the fight for the spouse (配偶)and the Darwinian idea of the survival of the fittest become natural concerns of naturalist fiction and drama.
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Ⅲ.Features of naturalist writing

? A. Human is controlled by laws of heredity and

environment and has no free will or choice. The universe is cold, indifferent, and essentially Godless, man was enslaved, they are helpless, insignificant and lacking dignity. Everything is determined by a complex of internal chemisms(化学作用) and by the forces of social pressure. ? B. The naturalist writers report the life of the helpless people truthfully and objectively. They write their novels with a passion for scientific accuracy. There are a lot of factual details in their works. They paint life as it is lived in the slums(贫民窟), and are blamed of telling just the ugly side of it. The typical settings are slums, sweatshops, factories, farms. Company Logo

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Ⅲ.Features of naturalist writing

? C. The naturalists are different from the realists. Though the naturalists write about real life, they do not look at the average. They look at the violent, unpleasant and ugly sides of life. Instead of reflecting the middle-class life, they write about the life of failure, poverty and even crime. Characters are always ill-educated or lower-class whose lives are governed by the forces of heredity, instinct, and passion. The reality is found when the forces of Nature are most powerful in checking human desires, in keeping humans from realizing their dreams. ? D. There are less happy ending in the naturalistic fictions than in the realistic ones. The tone of Naturalistic writings is more ironic and pessimistic and less sympathetic and serious than realistic writings. Company Logo

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Ⅲ.Features of naturalist writing

?E. Life became a struggle for survival. Therefore, naturalistic novels reflect the struggle of man to adapt to environment. However the characters in the novels never give up. They died, but they didn’t admit defeat.

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Ⅳ.Major Naturalists
? Stephen Crane 斯蒂芬· 克瑞恩 (1881-1900) ? Maggie: A Girl of the Streets 《街头女郎玛 吉》: the first naturalistic novel in America ? The Red Badge of Courage 《红色英勇勋章》

Ⅳ.Major Naturalists
? Theodore Dreiser 西奥多· 德莱塞(1871— 1945 ): (the greatest literary naturalist) ? Sister Carrier 《嘉莉妹妹》(the greatest naturalistic work) ? American Tragedy《美国悲剧》

Ⅳ.Major Naturalists
? Frank Norris 弗兰克· 诺瑞斯(1870-1902 ) ? McTeague 《麦克提格》(a textbook and manifesto of American naturalism)

? ? ? ? ?

Jack London 杰克· 伦敦(1876-1916 ) The Call of the Wild 《野性的呼唤》 White Fang 《白牙》/《雪虎》 Sea Wolf 《海狼》 Martin Eden 《马丁· 伊登》

Ⅳ.Major Naturalists

Ⅳ.Major Naturalists
? O Henry 欧· 亨利 (1862 --- 1910) ? “The Gift of the Magi” 《麦琪的礼物 》 “The Cop and the Anthem” 《警察与赞美诗》

Ⅳ.American Naturalism
? It first came into existence in Maggie, a Girl of the Streets by Stephen Crane. It had its manifesto in McTeague by Frank Norris. It came to its maturity in Sister Carrie by Theodore Dreiser.

? ?

Novelist, poet; pioneer in the naturalistic tradition; Precursors(先驱) of Imagist poetry (意象派诗歌的先 驱): Crane, Dickinson


The Life of Stephen Crane
Nov.1st 1871: Stephen Crane, author of The Red Badge of Courage, is born. Crane, the youngest of 14 children, was born in 1871 in Newark, New Jersey. His father died when Crane was 9, and the family later settled in Asbury Park, New Jersey. At Syracuse University, Crane played baseball for a year before dropping out to become a journalist in New York City. He worked briefly for several newspapers and scraped by(勉强维持) in near poverty.

In 1893, at age 23, he published Maggie:A girl of the streets 《街头女郎麦姬》. Finding a publisher was difficult given the book?s scandalous (不体面 的)content, so Crane ultimately published it himself. The book was a critical success but failed to sell well.
He turned his attention to more popular topics and wrote The Red Badge of Courage《红色英勇勋章》 (1895). The book was serialized by a newspaper syndicate(财团), and Crane became an international celebrity at age 24.

After the novel?s success, the newspaper syndicate sent Crane to cover the West and Mexico. In 1897, he went to Cuba to write about the insurrection (起义) against Spain. On the way there, he stayed at a dingy (肮脏)hotel where he met Cora Howard Taylor, who became his lifelong companion.

In 1897, his boat to Cuba sank, and he barely survived. His short story “The Open Boat“《海上扁舟》 is based on his experiences in a lifeboat with the captain and cook. Crane later covered the war between Greece and Turkey, and settled in England, where he made friends with Joseph Conrad, H.G. Wells, and Henry James.
Crane contracted tuberculosis(肺结核) in his late 20s. Cora Howard Taylor nursed him while he wrote furiously in an attempt to pay off his debts. He exhausted himself and exacerbated (加 重)his condition. He died in June 1900, at the age of 28.

Major works
Maggie: A Girl of the Streets 《街头女郎麦姬》,1893
Crane’s first novel. a sympathetic study of an innocent and abused slum girl's descent into prostitution and her eventual suicide. It was considered so sexually frank and realistic, that the book had to be privately printed at first. Eventually it was hailed as(称赞为) the first genuine expression of Naturalism in American letters and established its creator as the American apostle(倡导者) of an artistic revolution which was to alter the shape and destiny of civilization itself.

The Red Badge of Courage《红 色英勇勋章》,1895 : an episode of the American Civil War one of the finest books of American literature; It was innovative stylistically as well as psychologically. Often described as a war novel, it focuses less on battle and more on the main character's psyche and his reactions and responses in a wartime situation. It reflects the private experience of Henry Fleming, a young soldier who flees from combat.

Other works:
The Open Boat,《海上扁舟》 (1897)

The Bride Comes to Yellow Sky, (1898)
The Monster, (1899) The Blue Hotel, (1899)

★Writing style:
? Naturalism,

? Realism,

? Impressionism(印象主义),
? the use of color and chiaroscuro(明暗对照法), ? Sentimentality.

Impressionism(印象主义)
Impressionism is a style of painting that gives the impression made by the subject on the artist without much attention to details . Writers accepted the same conviction that the personal attitudes and moods of the writer were legitimate elements in depicting character or setting or action . Briefly, it is a style of literature characterized by the creation of general impression and

? 文学方面的印象主义,一般来说是一种高度 个性化的写作手法,反映作家的个人气质。 ? 创作方法是致力于捕捉模糊不清的转瞬即逝 的感觉印象。 ? 文学中的印象主义者更注意这种瞬间感觉经 验如何转化为感情状态。 ? 反对对所描写的事物之间的联系进行合乎逻 辑或理性的提炼加工,于是他们本人也成了 传达外界刺激与本能反应之间的中介。

Influence
As a representative of American Naturalism and Impressionism, Stephen Crane is recognized by modern critics as one of the most innovative writers of his generation.
Poetry:

Crane’s poetry, written in free verse without rhyme, is thought to have been a precursor (先驱)to the Imagist movement(意象主义运动).

Fiction Stephen Crane's fiction is typically categorized as representative of Naturalism, Realism, Impressionism or a mixture of the three. Critic Sergio Perosa, for example, wrote in his essay "Stephen Crane fra naturalismo e impressionismo" that the work presents a "symbiosis" of Naturalistic ideals and Impressionistic methods. Maggie: A Girl of the Streets: Critics would later call the novel "the first dark flower of American Naturalism" for its distinctive elements of naturalistic fiction The Open Boat: 《海上扁舟》 H. G. Wells holds it beyond all question, the crown of all his work. And it is one of the most frequently discussed works in Crane's canon.

Memorial of Stephen Crane

The Stephen Crane House in Asbury Park, New Jersey, where the author lived with his family for nine years, serves as a museum dedicated to his life and work

The Open Boat《海上扁舟》
by Stephen Crane

Personal experience
? Published in 1897, “The Open Boat” is based on an actual incident from Stephen Crane?s life in January of that year. While traveling to Cuba to work as a newspaper correspondent during the Cuban insurrection against Spain, Crane was stranded(搁浅) at sea for thirty hours after his ship, the Commodore, sank off the coast of Florida. Crane and three other men were forced to navigate their way to shore in a small boat. One of the men, an oiler named Billy Higgins, drowned while trying to swim to shore. ? Crane wrote the story “The Open Boat”

Summary
? The Open Boat is not a story about four shipwrecked men, but the relationship between man, nature, and fate. ? The captain, the cook, the correspondent, and the oiler are survivors of a shipwreck and are trying to make their way to solid ground. The captain, who is both old and wise, is injured, but still in command of the small ?dingy? they traveled in.

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Major characters

? “ The Open Boat “ is divided into seven

sections ,each told mainly from the point of view the correspondent, based upon crane himself . The first part introduces the four characters ? The correspondent-a condescending observer detached from the rest of the group ? The captain-who is injured and morose(郁闷的) at having lost his ship, yet capable of leadership ? The cook-fat and comical, but optimistic that they will be rescued. ? The oiler-Billie, who is physically the strongest , and the only one in the story referred to by name
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Plot
? In the following four sections, the moods of the men fluctuate: ? Anger (their desperate situation) Empathy (the nature is indifferent to their fates ) Aroused Hope (see a lighthouse on the horizon ) Despair ( too dangerous to reach it, fail to make contact ) Resolution ( swim ashore )

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Major themes of “ The Open Boat”

? (1) Man’s eternal struggle against nature ? “ none of them knew the color of the sky” ? The survivors could not take their eyes off the waves, for to let their think of them guard down for a moment would mean certain death. They do not ask us think of them as heroes. They are simply doing what they need to in order to survive, and supporting one another in this effort. ? (2). The fragility of human existence ? (3) the struggle for survival ? (4) the power of community

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Style and Technique
? Stephen Crane?s fiction is typically categorized as representative of Naturalism, Realism, Impressionism or a mixture of the three. ? Because of the work?s philosophical speculations, “ The Open Boat “ is often classified a work of Naturalism

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