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Active reading 2: Mapping

Enhance your reading skills by using skimming and scanning techniques thr

ough in and out of classroom exercises

Get to know the history of chocolate and its manufacture specifically Get to know how chocolate may affect people in general (e.g. positive and negative effects)
Use some expressions and grammar points from the text

Active reading 2: Embarkation

Work in groups and discuss the following questions. 1. Do you like chocolate? If so, how often do you eat,

Discussion

and when? If not, why not? 2. What are the good and bad effects of eating chocolate? 3. What events or ideas do you associate with chocolate? 4. Why do we love chocolate?

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Active reading 2: Navigation

Groups 1-3 READ Paragraph 1 Groups 4-7 READ Paragraph 2 Groups 8-10 READ the last Paragraph

After reading, discuss your answer in relation to Exercise 2 with the person next to you. 1. Where does chocolate come from?
2. How is chocolate made? 3. Why do we love chocolate?

Active reading 2: Navigation

Comprehending the text
1. Where does chocolate come from? Chocolate came from Central America to Europe

in the !6th century.

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Comprehending the text
2. How was solid chocolate made? Cocoa beans were crushed into a powder, mixed with a liquid, then heated and poured into a mould, forming shapes as it cooled.

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Active reading 2: Navigation

Comprehending the text
3. Why do we love chocolate? It is possible that chocolate helps to release certain chemicals, called endorphins released

from our brain. These chemicals make chocolate
eaters feel happy. There are as many as 300 kinds of minerals and vitamins in chocolate.

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Active reading 2: Navigation

Making Aztec chocolate

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Active reading 2: Navigation

Making chocolate in the early 1800s
get beans from cacao tree
crush beans make a powder mix into a mixture add water

heat the mixture

pour into a mould

cool chocolate in different shapes

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Active reading 2: Navigation

Making chocolate after 1825
crush beans make a paste

add liquid
get beans from cacao tree

put paste under high pressure

add extra cacao butter cool & set into chocolate bars

form liquid chocolate and cocoa butter

make a smoother chocolate

Active reading 2: Destination

Please read the whole text within 5 minutes. In Pairs: SA finds as many dates and numbers as possible in the text. SB finds two sentences about Aztecs and three sentences about chemicals.

Active reading 2: Destination

Read paragraph 5 with me and give a sub-heading for this paragraph.

Make sub-headings for the remaining paragraphs.
G1&2 for Para. 6

G3&4 for Para. 4
G5&6 for Para. 3

G7&8 for Para. 1
G9&10 for Para. 2

Active reading 2: Destination

Sub-headings
Para. 1. The origin of chocolate

Para. 2. The early manufacture of chocolate
Para. 3. The development of milk chocolate Para. 4. Why is chocolate popular Para. 5. The role of sugar in chocolate Para. 6. Hormones and happiness from chocolate

Active reading 2: Embarkation

Quiz on chocolate
Match each expression from Column A with the appropriate explanations in Column B.
A B C D E F G H Column A cacao The Aztecs chocoholics Mars condensed milk sweet tooth Column B 1 2 3

4
5 6

cocoa butter 7 Swiss and 8 Belgian chocolate

is a yellow vegetable fat from cocoa beans. are people who love chocolate and eat a lot of it. one of the biggest manufacturers of chocolate bars. a tropical tree, the seeds of which are used for making chocolate and cocoa. is famous for its high quality. he/she likes to eat sweet food, such as cakes, puddings and ice cream. thick, sweet milk that is sold in cans. were natives of Mexico who were conquered by the Spanish in 1517.
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Active reading 2: Embarkation

Match each expression from Column A with the appropriate explanations in Column B.
A B C D E F G H Column A cacao The Aztecs chocoholics Mars condensed milk sweet tooth cocoa butter Swiss and Belgian chocolate Column B

Quiz on chocolate

4 a tropical tree, the seeds of which are used for making chocolate and cocoa. 8 were natives of Mexico who were conquered by the Spanish in 1517. 2 are people who love chocolate and eat a lot of it. 3 one of the biggest manufacturers of chocolate bars. 7 thick, sweet milk that is sold in cans. 6 he/she likes to eat sweet food, such as cakes, puddings and ice cream. 1 is a yellow vegetable fat from cocoa beans. 5 is famous for its high quality.
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Active reading 2: Embarkation

Quiz on chocolate
The cacao is a tropical tree, the seeds of which are used for making chocolate and cocoa. These trees are native to Central and South America. They give several harvests of cocoa beans each year.

Active reading 2: Embarkation

Quiz on chocolate
The Aztecs were natives of Mexico who were conquered by the Spanish in 1521. In the complex Aztec empire, the Aztecs ruled over many other tribes. Later on, fewer than 1,000 men led by a Spanish leader defeated the wellorganized empire within t w o y e a r s .
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Active reading 2: Embarkation

Quiz on chocolate
Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun in the Solar System. The planet is named after the Roman god of war, Mars. It is often described as the "Red Planet", as it gives Mars is one of the biggest a reddish appearance. manufacturers of chocolate bars. Chocolate bars sold as Mars vary in different regions of the world. The American version was discontinued in 2002 and was replaced with the slightly different Snickers.
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Active reading 2: Embarkation

Quiz on chocolate
If someone has a sweet tooth, they like to eat sweet food, such as cakes, puddings and ice cream.

Sugar, ice cream …

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Active reading 2: Embarkation

Quiz on chocolate
Cocoa butter is a yellow vegetable fat from cocoa beans. It is used in making chocolate because it can be molded into shapes, like chocolate bars or individual chocolate pieces, which remain solid until they melt in the mouth.

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Active reading 2: Embarkation

Discussion

Work in pairs and discuss the following questions.
1. Do you like chocolate? If so, how often do you eat, and when? If not, why not? 2. What are the good and bad effects of eating chocolate? 3. What events or ideas do you associate with chocolate? 4. Why do we love chocolate?

Active reading 2: Embarkation

Discussion
1. Do you like chocolate? If so, how often do you eat, and when? If not, why not?

Yes. I love it. I don’t eat it very often, about once a week, because it is quite expensive.

Back

Active reading 2: Embarkation

Discussion
2. What are the good and bad effects of eating chocolate?
positive Chocolate negative

energy joy

too much sugar in it

bad for my health

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Active reading 2: Embarkation

Discussion
3. What events or ideas do you associate with chocolate?

I associate it with holidays or Valentine’s Day.

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Active reading 2: Embarkation

Discussion
4. Why do we love chocolate?

It gives people energy.

we love it because it tastes sweet and milky.

Back

Active reading 2: Resources

Words to note
New Words

Phrases

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

confess crush inherit luxury melt nourishing stimulating

1. gain in popularity 2. account for

Active reading 1: Resources Acceleration

v. to admit that you have committed a crime 承认;供认;招供;交代; 忏悔

confess

Complete the following sentences.
confess to sb. / confess (to) (doing) something confess (to sb.) that… (1) Edwards confessed to _________________________. the priest before he died 临死前他向神父忏悔 a hatred of modern music at all. (2) I had not confess __________________________ 承认讨厌现代音乐 (3) He confessed to having heard about it. 承认听说过那件事 (4) He confessed that he had not told the truth . 承认没有讲真话。

Active reading 2: Resources

crush
vt. to put down or subdue 镇压;制服;压倒 Their plot to overthrow the government was crushed. 他们企图推翻政府的阴谋被粉碎了。 Complete the sentences with appropriate forms of crush. adj. 决定性的 (1) I was responsible for the _________ crushing defeat.

(2) Several people were crushed ________ to death by the falling rocks. (3) This machine crushes wheat grain to make flour.
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Active reading 2: Resources

1. to become or cause to become soft or liquid 2. to gradually disappear

melt vi.

Translate the following sentences.
1. 山顶上的雪在阳光下融化了。 The snow on top of the mountains melted away under the sun. 2. Sadness has all melted away. 愁绪全消。
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Active reading 2: Resources

nourishing
adj. providing the food needed to live, grow, and be healthy 滋养的;富有营养的 e.g. Vegetables and fruits are very nourishing.

Complete the sentences with words in the column.
nourishing nutrition nutritious nourish

怀抱(希望、怨恨等) 1. Milk nourishes a baby. nutrition for you. 2. Chocolate provides _________ nourish our hopes and dreams. 3. We need to _______ nourishing 4. Apples are thought to be very nutritious/ ____________________.
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Active reading 2: Resources

stimulating
adj. rousing or quickening activity or the senses

Translate the following expressions.
1. 使人感兴趣的讨论 2. 刺激人们对经济的信心 3. 扩大国内需求 1. A stimulating discussion 2. stimulating people's confidence in economy 3. stimulating domestic demand

Translate the following sentences. 1. These subjects are remarkably stimulating to the 启发的 mind of kids. 2. A difficult, demanding and stimulating task. 激励的
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Active reading 1: Resources

account for
Tell the meanings of account for in the following sentences. 1. Too much rain accounted for the poor crop. 引起,导致

2. It accounts for 30 per cent of all railway accidents.
(在数量或比例上)占

3. How do you account for your long absence from classes without asking for leave?
做出解释或说明

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Active reading 2: Resources

1.提神醒脑的滋补饮料 1. stimulating and nourishing drink

2.宗教仪式
3.昂贵的奢侈品 4.掰成块 5.最畅销的巧克力 6.出奇地畅销 7.承认

2. religious ceremony
3. expensive luxury 4. snap into pieces 5. best-selling chocolate 6. amazing popularity 7. confess to
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Active reading 2: Resources

8.强烈地感觉 9.爱吃甜食 10.从· · · · · · 遗传

8. have a very strong feeling of 9. sweet tooth 10. inherit from… 11. genetic trait 12. large amounts of

11.基因特征
12.大量的 13.幸福感 14.有同样的作用

13. a sense of well-being
14. have the same effect on

Active reading 2: Resources

Text

巧克力
1

巧克力是世界上最受欢迎的食品之一。它最早于16 世纪从中美洲引进到欧洲。巧克力是用可可豆做成的。 可可豆又称为Theobroma Cacao, 意思是“天神之粮”。 阿兹特克人常常把可可豆捣成酱,再加入调味香料,做 成提神醒脑的滋补饮料(也称为可可饮料)。

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巧克力也用于宗教仪式。由于它极其珍贵,甚至可以用 来纳税。当年欧洲的航海探险者带回了巧克力,又往巧克 力中加入了香甜的调味料,这种饮料随即就作为昂贵的奢 侈品受到人们的青睐。

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2

我们现在所知道的固体巧克力首次出现在 19世纪。可可 豆被磨成粉,加入液体搅拌,然后加热,倒入模子,冷却后 成形。下一步的发展就是学会如何从可可豆中提取可可油。 第一次尝试加工是在 1825年。可可豆被碾压成酱,经高压处 理,分离成液态巧克力和可可油。

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1882年,瑞士人鲁道夫· 莲开始在巧克力中添加可可油, 使之更加柔滑。(添加了可可油后)巧克力凝固成易折断 的条块,入口即化。可可油融化的温度和人的体温相同, 都是华氏97度。

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3

直到19世纪末,世界上最畅销的巧克力——比黑巧克 力更香甜柔滑的牛奶巧克力——才问世。1875年,另一位 瑞士制造商丹尼尔·彼得完善了巧克力的制作工艺。那时 刚刚发明出一种浓缩型的牛奶——炼乳,并且炼乳易与可 可酱溶合。目前中国市场上最畅销的巧克力是由美国的玛 氏公司于1956年首次研制生产的德芙巧克力。

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4

我们知道,大多数人都喜欢吃巧克力。但是,是 什么原因使得巧克力出奇地畅销?又是什么原因导致 了巧克力的上瘾特性,使许多人承认自己是巧克力迷 呢?大约有40%的女性和15%的男性承认他们很喜欢 吃巧克力。在傍晚和晚上,这种渴望尤其强烈。

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他们大多数都承认爱吃甜食。科学家们认为这可能是源 于父母遗传。这在实验室的老鼠实验中也得到了证实。如 果父亲或母亲爱吃巧克力,孩子就爱吃巧克力。这种基因 特征使我们更喜欢吃带甜味的东西。

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5

但是,巧克力的畅销并不只是由于现代巧克力产品中 所含的大量糖分。如果是糖分在起作用的话,那么其他含 糖产品就会对我们有同样的影响。但是我们并不像爱吃巧 克力那样爱吃别的甜食,因为巧克力给予我们不同的愉悦 感。

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6

大家也知道,像其他甜食一样,巧克力有助于大脑释 放出一种被称为内啡呔的荷尔蒙。这种化学物质让我们感 到快乐,给我们幸福感,类似于我们恋爱时的感觉!尽管 巧克力中包含大约300种化学物质——其中包含矿物质和 维生素,但是,我们还未能确定所有这些物质对我们的身 体有何影响。


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