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高考英语语法专题复习课件-主谓一致[1]


2010高考英语《语法》 专题复习系列课件

15《主谓一致》

主谓一致
谓语动词的数必须和主语 的人称和数一致,这就叫主 谓一致.

I am a teacher
She often does her homework in the morning. There is only one bo

x on the table. There are 50 students in our class.

但是如果主语不是单一 的,或主语名词的数比较特 殊时,其主谓一致一般要根 据语法一致(从前原则)\ 意义一致\就近原则.

一、语法一致原则
一般来说,语法形式是单数的主语,谓语动词用 单数形式,语法形式是复数的主语,谓语动词用 复数形式。 E g: (1)The number of errors was surprising.错误之多是惊人的 (2) We love our motherland .

二、 意义一致原则
主、谓语的一致不是根据其外部语法形态来决定, 而是取决于主语所表达的内在含义。主语形式虽 为单数,但在意义上却为复数,谓语动词应采取 复数形式,主语形式虽为复数,但在意义上视为 单数,谓语动词应采取单数形式。 E g(1)The crowd were fighting for their lives. 这些人正为生存而战斗。 (2)Three years in a strange land seems like a long time . 在异乡生活的三年,仿佛是很长的时间。

三、就近原则
谓语动词根据它前面最邻近的名词或代词 或其他词的数的形式,来决定其自身的数 的形式。 E g (1) Not only his children but also he himself wants to go there . (2) Either my wife or I am going to work there .

就近原则的使用情况:
当作主语的两个名词或代词由 or ,either…or ,neither…nor, whether…or….. not only …but also…,not……but……连接时;在there be…./here be……句型中

is (1)There ____a lamp, two pens and three books on the desk. are (2)Here ____some envelopes and paper for you.. (3)Not only his family but also he likes (喜欢)Chaplin’s _____ movies. am (4)You or I ____ going to receive them this afternoon.

5.Not only I but also Jane and Mary ____ tired of having one examination after another. A.is B.are C.am D.be

6. There ______ in this room. a. are too much furniture b. is too many furnitures c. are too much furnitures d. is too much furniture

7.Neither Tom nor his parents ______ at home. a. is b. are c. has d. was 8. Either the dean or the principal ______ the meeting. a. attends b.attend c. are attending d. have attended

9.______ was wrong. a. Not the teacher but the students b. Both the students and the teacher c. Neither the teacher not the students d. Not the students but the teacher 10.He didn’t say whether some English novels or an English dictionary _____ wanted. A. are B. is C. was D. were

有together with, with, as

well as , but , except ,besides, rather than, including ,along, along with, like.连接并列主语时,采取从
前原则.

1)They, together with Tom , are _______ going to swim this afternoon .(be) was 2) No one but your parents _____ there then .(be) 3) He, like you and your brother, is ________ very clever. (be) 4) The teacher, including his has students, _______going to see Professor Tell. (be) 5) Mary, together with his sisters has ________ gone back.(have)

1.An expert, together with some assistants, ____ to help in this work. A. was sent B. were sent C. is sending D. are sending 2.—____ either he or I fit for the job? —Neither he nor you ____. A. Am; are B. Is; are C. Are; are D. Is; is

3.Nothing but cars ____ in the shop. A. is sold B. are sold C. were sold D. are going to sell 4.A library with five thousand books _______ to the nation as a gift. A.is offered B.have offered C.are offered D.has offered

5.Not only the whole nation, but the whole Europe , indeed the whole human society ______ to alter its attitude to racial problems. a.need b.needs c. has a need d. have a need 6.To tell you the truth, I, as well as the other students, ______ hungry. A. sure am B. am sure C. sure are D. are sure

由and 或both----and 连接主 语,谓语动词用复数。
1.A poet and a novelist have visited our school. are 2.Wu Dong and Wu Xi ______ twin brother. (be)

1.The singer and the dancer ______ come to the meeting. A. has B. have C. are D. is 2. The secretary of the Party branch and the director of that factory often ____with the workers. A. works B. work C. is working D. are working

如果and 连接的两个词是指同一个人, 同一事物或同一概念,则两个名词共 用一个冠词,谓语用单数。
Eg: 1)The teacher and writer is her friend . 2) Butter and bread is her favorite food. lives 3) A journalist and author _____(live)in the house is (be) 4) The doctor and professor __ coming at once.

1.The League secretary and monitor ___ asked to make a speech at the meeting. A. be B. was C. are D. were 2. Wisky and soda ______ his favorite drink. a. is b. are c. were d. have been

3.Light and heat _____often sent out together with heavy smoke. A. is B. was C. are D. being 4. ______ was wrong. a. Not the teacher but the students b. Both the students and the teacher c. Neither the teacher not the students d. Not the students but the teacher

every…and (every)……; each …and (each)… ; no …and (no)… ; many a …and (many a)…连接两个单数名词作主语时,谓
语动词 用单数。

1.Every desk and every chair is ____ made of wood. (be) 2.Many a boy and girl has _____made the same mistake. (have) 3.No boy and no girl is ___ (be) in the classroom. 4.Many a student ____ (like) pop likes songs.

1.Each man and woman ______ the same rights. a. has b. have c. had d. is having 2. Many a student ______ the importance of learning a foreign language. a. have realized b. has realized c. have been realized d. has been realized

3.No chair and no desk ______ permitted to be taken away from the reading room. A. are B. were C. is D. be 4.Many a father ______learnt to his sorrow what it is to have a son who tells lies. A. have B. is C. are D. has

5.Every man, woman and child ______ some history, enough at least, to survive in the world. a. knows b. know c. is known d. are known

some (of), plenty of, a lot of ,most (of), the rest of ,all (of), half (of), part (of), the majority of,分数或百分数+of +名词等短语作主语 时,谓语动词与of 后的名词或则和其替代的名词保 持数的一致。

are/were 1)A lot of students _________ waiting outside .(be) 2)More than 70 percent of the is surface ___(be) covered by water . belongs 3)The rest of the money _____ (belong) to you .

1._____ of the land in that district _____ covered with trees and grass. A.Two fifth , is B.Two fifth ,are C.Two fifths , is D.Two fifths , are 2. I have finished a large part of the book ; the rest _____more difficult. A.is B.are C.was D.were

3.Most of his savings ______ in the Xin Hua Bank. a. has been kept b. is being kept c. have kept d. have been kept 4. The majority of the damage ______ easy to repair. a. is b. are c. were d. be

5.The majority of doctors ______ smoking is harmful to health. a. are believed b. had believed c. has believed d. believe 6. Three-fourths of the buildings ______. a. was destroyed b. is destroyed c. were destroyed d. has been destroyed

none 有时作单数看待,有时作复数 看待,主要根据说话人的意思决定。
eg.None of the books are easy enough for us.
None of us has a camera. None of the money is paid to me.

one/every one / each/ either/ neither/the other/another anybody/ anyone/ anything/ somebody/ someone/something/ everybody/everyone/everything/n obody/ no one/ nothing/ the number+of +复数名词作主语或是独 立充当主语时,谓语动词用单数。

Each of the students has a book. Neither of them has told me. Either of the answers is right.

1.They each _____ a new dictionary. A.has B.have C.is D.are 2.Each of you ______ responsible for the accident. a. am b. be c. is d. are

3.Each of the students in our class ______great interest in English and they each _______ a copy of New English-Chinese Dictionary. A.shows;have B.have;has C.is;have D.takes;has 4.The two sisters are forced to play the piano. In fact,neither of them ______ to play it. A.like B.liked C.likes D.liking

5.Nobody but his family ______the secret.

A.know C. have known

B. are known D. knew

one and a half做主 语时,谓语动词用做 单数。
One and a half years has passed.
One and a half apples has rotted away.

more +复数名词 +than one 和 more than one +单数名词 的意义相同,均表示“不只一 个”,但前者用作复数,后者用 作单数。more than + 两个以上 的数字+名词复数做主语时,谓语 动词用复数。

More students than one were punished. =More than one student was punished.

More than two hundred persons are present. More than one was killed in the battle.

1. More than one worker ______ dismissed. a. have been b. are c. has been d. has 2.More than one graduate ______ sent to the hardest place since 1979. A. is B. are C. has been D. have been

表示时间,数目,距离,价格, 度量衡等名词的复数作主语, 并作为整体看待时,谓语动词 用单数。
1)Four hours is enough to do the experiment . 2)Ten dollars is too much to pay for that shirt . 3)Thirty feet is long enough .

1.

“______ twenty dollars a big sum to her?” “I suppose so.” a. Will be b. Is c. Are d. Were 2. Three hours ______ enough for us to finish the task. a. are b. has c. is d. were

算术中的动词单复数都 可以, 多用单数。
Two and two makes/make four. Three times three is nine.

集合名词class , family, army, enemy, team , group , government, staff , audience , crowd, public ,committee 等作主语时, 若强调整体,谓语用单数,若表 示组成该集体的成员,谓语用复 数。

Eg:1) be My familyis ____very large . His family ________waiting are/were for him . 2) be/have The classis ___ made up of 54 students . have All the class _____gone to the playground .

1. The committee ______ over the problem among themselves for two hours. a. has argued b. has been arguing c. have argued d. have been arguing 2. The public ______ generous in their contributions to the earthquake victims. a. is b. was c. are d. has been

3. His family _____ always quarrelling among ______. A.is;itself B.are;themselves C.is;themselves D.are;itself

有些名词本身表示复数概念, 其谓语动词用复数形式,如

people, police ,cattle, goods, youth, clothes 等。

Eg : 1)The police are ____ after a thief. 2)Cattle _____ on grass . feed (feed) 3)All the goodshave _______ arrived. (have)

1.Cattle ______ on the hillside. a. grazes b. is grazing c. was grazing d. were grazing 2. The youth of China today ___ trying their best to study modern science and technology. A.is B.was C.were D.are

“定冠词+adj/分词”表示 一类具体的人或物时,谓 语用复数,若表示某一抽 象概念,则用单数 。

are 1)The old ____taken good care of here .(be)

2)The old ______(give) place to the new .
is 3) The true ___(be)to be distinguished from the false. are 4) The rich ____(be)for the plan, but the poor against it.

gives

1.The wounded _______ by the hospital. A.have been taken in B.has been taken in C.have taken in D.has taken in 2.In that country, the rich ______ richer, the poor, poorer. a. become b. has become c. becomes d. is becoming

what, who, which, any(of) , more, most, all(of) ,half(of), part (of) 等代词作主语,谓语 可以是单数,也可以是复数,主 要看它们指代的是什么来决定。

1 ) Which is your room?
2) Which are your rooms? 3) All that can be done has been done. 4) All of the workers are skilled.

5) A man who thinks only himself can never be happy. 6) He is not one of those who bow before difficulties.

一个不定式,动名词,从句作主 语时,谓语要用单数形式。两个 或两个以上的不定式,动名词或 是从句做主语时,,谓语用复数。 但是如同这两个结构指一个概念, 仍然用单数。

Reading is a good way. To say it is one thing , to do it is another. What he says and what he does do not agree.

Early to go to bed and early to rise makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.

1. When and where to build the new factory _____ yet. A.is not decided B.are not decided C.has not decided D.have not decided 2. What caused the accident ______ on the road. a. were stone b. were stones c. was stone d. was stones

3.Getting to other planets or to the moon _____ many problems. a.involve c. involving b. involves d. to involve

clothing, furniture, traffic, jewellery, baggage, equipment, luggage 等无生命 的集合名词作主语时,谓语动 词用单数。

Clothing is badly needed in this flooded area.

在定语从句中,谓语动词 总是与先行词保持一致。

1、He is one of the students who are modest. 2、He is the only one of the students who is modest. 3、All those who want to go on a journey ,please sign your names here.

在倒装句中,谓语动词往往与 其后的第一个主语取得一致。 也就是说,倒装句要采用就近 原则。

Where is your mother and your sisters? In the room was found a hat, a few suits of clothes and some shoes and socks.

1.Between the two rows of trees _____ a teaching building and two dormitores. A.stand B.stands C.standing D.are 2. On the wall ______two large portraits of his parents. A. hangs B.hanged C. hanging D.hang

3.Growing around the lake ________ wild flowers of different colors. A. is B. are C. has D. have

一个肯定的主语和一个否定 的主语,同时并用,谓语的 数往往依肯定的主语而定。
You, not I, are to be praised.

I ,not you, am be blame.

以s 结尾的词,但表示学科、 国家、机构、书籍、报刊等 名称作主语,谓语用单数。

Maths is a useful subject.
.

His “Selected Poems” ______first published in 1970. A. was B. were C. had been D. have been

1.The Philippines ______ to the south-east of China. a. lies b. lie c. lay d. lays 2. Mathematics ______ the language of science. a. is b. has been c. are d. have been

由山脉、群岛、瀑布、运 动会等s 结尾的专有名词 作主语谓语用复数。
The Olympic Games are
held once every four years.

表示成双成套的名词,如: trousers, shorts, shoes ,socks, scissors, glasses, compasses,等做 主语时,谓语动词用复数。

Tom’s trousers are too long.
Your glasses are on your nose.

There is a pair of shoes under the bed. The pairs of shoes have worn out.

—Where________my scissors? —________ right on the desk. A.are; It’s B.is; It’s C.are; They are D.is; They are

1.________ this pair of trousers fit him well? A. Are B. Is C. Do D. Does 2. Strangely enough,a pair of new trousers ______among the rubbish. A.were found B. was found C.found D. had found

(1)A cart and a horse ____ in B the distance. A (2)A cart and horse ____ in the distance. A.was seen B.were seen C.See D.sees

2.The factory, including its machines and buildings, _burnt last night. A.is B.are C.were D.was 3.(1) The students in our school each ____ an English D dictionary. (2) Each of the students in our C school ____ an English dictionary. A.are having B.had
C.has D.have

C 4.(1)Many students ____ that mistake before. D (2)Many a student ____ that mistake before. A.had made B.has been made
C.have made D.has made

5. I, who ____ your good friend, will share your joys and sorrows. A.was B.are C.is D.am 6.All but him and me ____ to the cinema. A.are going B.is going C.was going D.has going

7.Some person ____ calling for you at the gate. A.will be B.is being C.is D.are 8.The population of China ____ larger than that of the USA. A.will be B.are C.is D.was 9.Deer ____ faster than dogs. A.will run B.are running C.runs D.run

10.Every means ____ tried, but there is no result. A.have been B.has been C.will be D.were 11.This pair of trousers ____ my sister.My trousers ____. A.is belong to; is being washed B.belongs to; are being washed C.belong to; are being washed D.are belonging to; has been washed

13.To play basketball and to go swimming _useful for charactertraining. A.was B.is

C.are

D.were

14.What I want ____ an interesting book while what he wants ____ two cups of coffee. A.is; are B.is; is B.are; is D.are; are

15. Most of the artists will go to the United States next week. The rest _______ to visit Japan. A. has B. have C. are D. is 16. —_____your clothes? —No, mine _________ hanging over there. A. Is it; is B. Are there; are C. Is it; are D. are these; is

17. Large quantities of fruit _______ all over the world from China today. A. is shipped B. are shipped C. has shipped D. have shipped 18. All possible means ________ to save the wounded soldier. A. has been tried B. have been tried C. is to be tried D. are trying

19. Sixty percent of the milk _________ horrible. A. tasted B. taste C. was tasted D. were tasted 20. One thousand dollars ________ a large sum of money in her eye. A. are B. is C. should be D. seem to be

21. It _______ William and Carol who helped me the other day. A. has been B. are C. was D. were 22. Either you or the headmaster _______ the prizes to these gifted students at the meeting. A. is not decided B. are to hand out C. are handing out D. is to hand out

23. Three hours ______ enough for us to finish the task. a. are b. has c. is d. were 24. All that can be done ______. a. has done b. has been done c. have done d. have been done 25. One or perhaps more pages _______. a. is missing b. has been missed c. are missing d. was missing


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