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高考书面表达增分策略


高考书面表达增分策略
----从高考阅卷层面看书面表达
民进贺兰支部副主任:朱雁

Nov. 13, 2012

课标对书面表达的要求
近几年高考试卷命题及分析 书面表达的评分标准

2011、2012年高考试卷常见错误类型分析
书面表达的增高策略

课标对

书面表达的要求
七级要求:

1、能用文字及图表提供信息并进行简单描述;
2、能学出常见文体的短文,如报告或信函;

3、能描述人物或事件,并表达自己的见解;
4、能写有关个人情况的表格,如申请表、求 职表; 5、能做简单的书面翻译。

八级要求: 1、能用英文书写摘要、报告、通知、公 务函等; 2、能比较详细和生动地用英语描述情景、 态 度或情感; 3、能阐述自己的观点、评述他人的观点, 文体恰当、用词准确;

4、能在写作中恰当地处理引用的资料 及他人的原话; 5、能填写各种表格、写个人简历和申 请书,用语基本正确、得当; 6、能做非专业性的笔头翻译;

7、在以上写作过程中做到文字通顺, 格式正确。

近几年高考全国卷分析
2008:书信(自我介绍、祝贺、请求、感谢)

2009:便条(购物、还书、转述电话内容)
2010:书信(邀请、通知内容)

2011:书信(自我介绍、困难表达、求助、预约)
2012:书信(自我介绍、申请目的、希望表达)

命题特点
1、紧扣课标; 2、回归课本; 3、贴近生活; 4、常见文体; 5、开放性、灵活性

课标部分话题

1. Personal information:
(1). Individual data (name, age, date of birth, place of birth, telephone number, address, postal code, e-mail address, ID number, etc) (5) (2). Family data (name, age, relationship, etc)

(3). School data (school, grade, class, teacher, etc).

2. Family, friends and people around 3. Personal environments 4. Daily routines 5. School life

书面表达的评分标准 一、评分原则 1、评分时,先根据文章的内容和语言初步确 定其所属档次,然后以该档次的要求来衡量, 确定和调整档次,最后给分。 2、词数少于80或多于120,从总分中减去2分。 3、 评分时应注意主要内容为:内容要点、应 用词汇和语法结构的丰富性和准确性以及上下 文的连贯性。 4、拼写和标点符合是语言准确性的一个方面。 评分时应视其对交际的影响程度予以考虑。英 美拼写及词汇用法均可接受。

5、如书写较差以致影响交际,可降低一个档 次。 6、如完全是抄写试卷中的阅读理解文章,或 其它无关内容的均以0分计分。 7、如在文章中出现个人信息,如:个人姓名, 在评定分数的基础上扣1分。 8、跑题作文,直接进入一档,然后视其语言 表述的准确度酌情给分。

二、各档次的给分范围和要求: 第五档(21-25分) 1、完全完成了试题规定的任务。 2、覆盖了所有的内容要点和次要点。 3、 准确应用了较多的语法结构和词汇,有些 许小错误,但为尽力使用较复杂的结构或高级 词汇所致。 4、有效地使用了语句间的连接成分,全文结构 紧凑,流畅。 5、完全达到了预期的写作目的。

第四档(16-20分) 1、完成了试题规定的任务。 2、虽漏掉了一两个次要点,但覆盖所有要点 内容。 3、应用的语法结构和词汇能满足任务的要求。 4、 较准确地应用了语法结构或词汇,有些 许错误主要是因为尝试较复杂的语法结构或 词汇所致。 5、应用简单的语句间的连接成分,全文结构 紧凑。 6、达到了预期的写作目的。

第三档(11-15分) 1、漏掉一两个内容要点,写作内容基本完整。 2、应用的语法结构和词汇基本能满足任务的要 求。 3、有些语法结构或词汇方面的错误,但不影响 理解。 4、应用简单的语句间的连接成分,使全文内容 连贯。 5、整体而言,基本达到了预期的写作目的。

第二档(6-10分) 1、未能恰当完成试题规定的任务。 2、漏掉或未描述清楚一些主要内容,写了一 些无关内容。 3、语法结构简单,词汇知识有限。 4、较少使用语句间的连接成分,内容缺少连 贯性。 5、信息未能清楚地传递给读者。

第一档(1-5分) 未完成试题规定的任务。 --明显漏掉主要内容,写了一些无关内容,原因 可能是未理解试题要求。 --语法结构单调,词汇项目有限。 --较多语法结构或词汇方面的错误,影响了对写 作内容的理解。 --缺乏语句间的连接成分,内容缺少连贯性。 信息未能清楚的传达给读者。

0分作文

未能传达给读者任何信息;内容太少,无法评 判;写的内容均与所要求内容无关或所写内容 无法看清。

高考阅卷流程
考生试卷 评卷教师1

评卷教师2

3分内的分差取两人平均分 3分以上的分差随机发送给3评教师

无法评判的作文提交仲裁组教师评判

阅卷教师先试评 把握评分原则和标准

完成试评卷,才能进入正评

计算机会统计阅卷教师的批阅 速度、吻合率等一系列指标

考生基本功不扎实
1、标点符号和大小写的问题。 2、单词拼写错误、语法错误、汉语式表达。 3、遣词造句欠精确,容易引起误解。 选词不精确也多数考生容易出的问题。比如: My English is bad. My spoken English is good.

4、在书面表达中运用交际用语。 近几年高考书面表达多是应用文体中的 书信格式。诣在考查如何将交际用语书面化。 在考生的文章中,I thank you very much. How are you. Hello! How are you?等本是人 们见面时的日常口头交际用语,却是考生频繁 用于书信的语句。

5、句式单调,前后雷同,用词简单,表 达手段单一,缺少高级词汇和高级语法 结构的运用。
I am Li Hua. I am 18-year-old. I am studying in Huaxia Middle School. I like playing football. I like English, too. I need your help. Can you help me?

I’m Li Hua. My name is Li Hua. Can you help with me? My English is not good.

I like playing football. I also like playing computer games.
I am good at English.

6. 为了凑词数,重复表达。
上文:I come from China. 下文:Because/As you know, I’m from China. 上文:My English is bad.

下文:I am not good at English. I need your help. Can you help me?

I hope get some help. So I hope you can help me please. I hope the Learning Centre can help me. I hope you could help me to improve my study.

I think if Learning Centre can help me, I will study English better and make progress. So I hope Learning Centre can help me.

审题不清
1、条理不清,逻辑关系混乱,前言不搭后语

如:I have some problems that I got a serious heart attack. I want to talk to you that I have bad experiences. For example, I don’t know how to learn English and maths well. I don’t know this place some history and language. Thus, I communicate someboday isn’t very difficult. 困难(无具体内容) 爱好表达 自我介绍 困难表达 表决心 求助

1. My English is very bad. I want to be a English teacher. Because I like it very much. 2. I English is poor. I understand my lesson is difficult Because of I misunderstand about studing. 3. I often understand some words when I read newspaper or watch a English movie. So I can’t get along well with others.

降低一个档次----二档上到三档下 7----12

2、忽略要点,偏离主题,喧宾夺主。

比如:在2011年高考试卷中,对一些困难的表达 应是最重要的要点,却对预约、求助、感谢等须 一句话搞定的要点反复强调,如:If you have time this Friday afternoon, we’ll meet at the Learning Center. If you don’t have time, we’ll meet another day. If you help me, I’ll thank you. If you don’t help me, I don’t mind.
I meet some difficulties, I hope to get the school Learning Center’s help. I’m very interested in English and I’m a outgoing girl. My language about English is not very good.

China is a great country. There are a lot of places of interesting, such as the Great Wall, the Summer Palace, and so on. China also has lots of delicious food, such as Jiaozi, … and so on.

I want you to know something about China. China is a large country, which has plenty places of interesting.

I like playing paino. Because I am an outgoing girl, I like making friends with others. I also like traveling to other places. I can communicate with others. I want to attend it because I want to introduce China. China is a great country. There are many places of interesting, such as the Great Wall, the Forbidden City, and so on. There are many delisious food in China, such as ….

写了些无关信息

一档到二档作文

3、表达欠缺细节支撑,行文不细腻。 I am Li Hua. I am from China. I am 18 years old. I have a lot of hobbies. I like playing football. I like listening to music. I like English. I am outgoing and easygoing. I can conmunicate with others well. The reason why I want to join the Camp is that I want to introduce my counrty to the foreigners and want to learn others’ cultures. I hope you can agree with me. 13---14 Best wishes!

I am Li Hua. I am a student from China, studying in British. I meet some difficulties. I hope Learning Centre can help me solve them. If you are free this Sunday afternoon, we’ll meet then. Please help me.

Looking forward to your early reply!
Yours,

Li Hua

9----10

4、审题不清,写反了。
I want you to know something about China, and learn cultures about other countries. I can offer you some help as you meet some difficulties.

5、不会扩充信息,写了些无关内容 I need Learning Centre’s help. My mother will very happy.

一档

My English skills are bad, it feel me embrassed. I want have good English speak skills. I’m happy to study here. People here are friendly I always talk with them.

I speak English not well. I think speak is necessary and important to my English’s development. So, this is very important. Second, the important thing is that English grammar. So my writing is so badly all the time.

As you know, English is playing an important role in students study and the environment to school is closely linked to students life. So I hope you can help me in some fields. Such as teaching me to be optimistic, teaching me English speaking and so on.

I wang to join the club . First, as I am an outgoing girl, I want to make more friends with others there. Second, because my English is not good, I want to improve my English. Last, I want to introduce my hometown, China to other students and learn different cultures from others.

I wang to join the club . First, I want to introduce my hometown,China to other students and learn different cultures from others.
What’s more, as I am an outgoing girl, I want to make more friends with others there. In addition, because my English is not good, I want to improve my English.

2011年课标卷 假定你是李华,正在一所英国学校学习暑期课程, 遇到一些困难,希望得到学校辅导中心 (Learning Center)的帮助。根据学校规定,你 须书面预约,请按下列要点写一封信: 1.本人简介; 2.求助内容; 3.约定时间; 4.你的联系方式 (Email:lihua@126.com;Phone:12345678) 注意:1.词数100左右;2.可以适当增加细节,以 使行文连贯; 3.结束语以为你写好

Dear Sir/Madam, I’m Li Hua, a Chinese student taking summer courses in your university. I’m writing to ask for help. I came here last month and found my courses interesting. But I have some difficulties with notetaking and I have no idea of how to use the library. I was told the Learning Center provides help for students and I’m anxious to get help from you.

I have no class on Tuesday morning and Friday afternoons. Please let me know which day is OK with you. You may email or phone me. Here are my email address and phone number:lihua@1236.com; 12345678. Look forward to your reply. Yours, Li Hua 16---17分

要点:
1. A brief introduction of yourself I am Li Hua, a Chinese student aged 18 years old, studying in your country. 2. Expression of some difficulties I are faced with some difficulties in both academe and life here.

Academe/study
1. I have no idea on how to read widely and 合 analyze the texts.



2. Express my ipinions with reasons. Not only do I have no idea on how to read widely and analyze the texts, but also I have difficulty expressing my opinions with reasons.

A new way of Life
1. I can’t get customed to a new lifestyle. 2. I found it difficult to keep a balance between study and social life. 合并
What’s more, being in a quite different country, I can’t get customed to a new lifestyle here. In addition, I found it difficult to keep a balance between study and social life.

好处:要点间的逻辑关系更紧凑

Making an appointment: I wonder if it is convinient for you I wonder if you are available to make

an appointment this Friday afternoon.

(2012年)假定你是李华,从互联网上得知一 个国际中学生组织将在新加坡(Singapore)举 办夏令营,欢迎各国学生参加。请写一封电子 邮件申请参加。 内容主要包括: I.自我介绍(包括英语能力); 2.参加意图(介绍中国、了解其他国家); 3.希望获准. 注意: 1.词数100左右: 2.可以适当增加细节,以使行文连贯; 3.邮件开头和结尾已为你写好。

次要点:
1 、信息来源---from the Internet

2、举办地--- Singapore
要点: 内容主要包括: I.自我介绍(包括英语能力); 2.参加意图(介绍中国、了解其他国家); 3.希望获准.

No. 1
Recently, I got a good news through the Internet that an a international students hold a Summer Camp in organization will held an Singapore. Therefore, I’m now writing an email so that I can get a chance to attend, and introduce myself. My name is Li Hua, an 18-year-old boy, who will graduate from SH School. I study well in all my subjects, especialy in English. What’s more, I’m an English anouncer.

This meaningful activity provides me a good platform to know other countries’ culture. Meanwhile, it is a good orportinities for me to introduce China to the students from different countries accumulate more valuable experiece. Once permitted, I would appreciate . Looking forward to receiving your letter soon. Yours, 24 Li Hua

No. 2 I’ve learnt from the Internet a summer camp will be held by the International Middle School student Organization. Thus, I’m writing for aplying for it. Now I’d like to introcuce something about myself. My name is Li Hua, a senior Grade 3 Student. I’m 19 years old. What’s more, I have a good command of English, which is very convenient to communicate with other students. And it is of importance to let other students learn about China. I really want to apply for attending it.

Because I want to let more and more students learn about China. On the other hand, I want to know some other countries, such as America, Japan and so on. Above all, I also want to make friends with other country students, which can help me learn something about their culture. In this way, we will learn from each other. I really want to apply for it. Can you give me a chance to strengthen the ability of communication and show myself? Looking forward to your reply!
23

I’m Li Hua, a Senior Three student of China, aged 18. When surfing the Internet, I came across your invitation intended for middle school students around the world of an international summer camp to be held in Singapore. I’m writing to apply for a membership. Please let me introduce myself to you. I am chairman of the School’s Students’ Union, where both my leading ability and communication skills have been developed. Not only do I do well in schoolwork but I have a variety of hobbies, including doing

sports and reading. What’s more, what I take most pride in is my fluent spoken English. I once served as a guide when a group of foreign students came to my school. 表决心

If I can be in the summer camp, I’d llike to introduce my homeland China to the students from abroad, and in the meantime learn about their cultures by making friends with them.
I do hope you will accept me. Looking forward to your reply!

16

好作文靠什么支撑?
Arrangement 条理性 Accuracy 准确性

What’s to be tested?

What is tested in English writing? Fluency 流畅性

What kind of writing is good? clear structure all the required points conjunctives 连接 effective 有效

1、审题:题材、人称、时态、要点 对要点进行再加工整合

写 作

2. 以词及点:用一两个单词或短 语写出每句话的细节要点。

步 3. 联词成句:用联词成句的方法将 要点的词语扩展成句子。 骤 4、联句成文:用恰当的过渡词连 接要点 5、检查修改,规范抄写

①主语和谓语
②背景(适当增加时间、地点 条件、原因、结果等)

注意: ③逻辑关系
④开头与结尾
⑤语篇衔接

增强书面表达效果的技巧
1. 使用较高级的词汇
词汇反映你知识贮存量的多少,也是 衡量英语水平的一个重要标志。平时多积 累,多使用,才能达到熟能生巧的地步。

try my best to do sth.
make a great effort to do sth.

Many students like to join in the games. Many a student likes to participate in the games. a meeting a difficult task help

a conference
a challenging task assist(v.) assistance

2. 使用较丰富的句式
运用得当的句子结构可以给文章增色 不少,从而使整篇文章因此而生辉 。

推 1. 各种从句的使用; 2. 非谓语动词的使用; 荐 3. 倒装句的使用; 4 . with 复合结构的使用;使 5. 强调句的使用; 6. 虚拟语气的使用等等。 用

Many students like to join in the games. Many a student is attracted to join the games. The games are so attractive that many a student likes to join(is crazy about joining) in them. So attractive are the games that many a student likes to participate in them.

3. 使用恰当的连接词
使用恰当连接词,对写一篇有“英 语味”的文章很重要,能使文章上 下衔接自然、紧凑。
What’s more; In addition; As well; Besides; Not only…, but also…. On the other hand; and so on.

原因的表达: because for now that since because of due to owing to as the result of

分词也可表原因

后接句子

后接短语

我的备考策略 1、研究课标。 2、回归课本。 3、关注生活。 4、熟悉评分原则与标准。 5、经常练习并及时评讲。 找得分点

找话题

逐步提高

培养学生以下几种能力是必要的
良好的审题能力

准确运用高级词汇、高级结构的能力
缜密的英语思维能力

拓展信息要点的能力 交际用语书面化的能力

美文先美句

? ? ? ? ? ? ? ?

重视谋篇布局 打造正确句子 构造精品句子 用词多彩高级 句式富于变化 消灭汉式英语 巧用标点增彩 提升作品情感

精 品 作 文


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