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B3-U1


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Preview Ⅰ. Objectives Ⅱ. Suggested Teaching Plan Ⅲ. Background Information Ⅳ. Class Presentation

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Preview
This is the first unit of Book Three. I

n the Listening and Speaking section, you will learn how to use attitude words and phrases and will do some practical exercises. In the Reading and Writing section, the writers bring forward a topic very important to our lives — our attitude. As the writer of Text A tells us through a story about his friend Jerry, attitude is more important than anything else. Text B contains a list of four characteristics about happy and positive people. And in Text C, the writer illustrates how one can choose a positive attitude through his own personal experience.

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Ⅰ. Objectives
After studying this unit, the students are expected to be able to 1. master the basic language and skills to use attitude words and phrases; 2. understand the main idea of Text A, Text B and Text C, and master the useful sentence structures and words and expressions found in the exercises relevant to the first two texts; 3. know how to use the subjunctive mood (2);

4. know how to write a résumé; 5. use the reading skill of scanning.

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Ⅱ. Suggested Teaching Plan Suggested Time and Teaching Plan for Unit 1
Time
2 periods Contents Preview Plan The teacher begins with the Preview to make sure that the students have some idea of what this unit is all about. After that, the teacher activates Listening and Speaking exercises as follows:

Listening and Speaking

1) Attitude Words and Phrases
A. Give a brief lead-in talk on attitude words and phrases so as to define them;

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Time

Contents

Plan B. Have the students listen to Exercise 1 (2-3 times) and fill in the blanks with the missing words; C. Ask one student to read aloud the talk, so students can check their completed answers; D. Present more attitude words and phrases, make sure students know how to use those added attitude words and phrases, and organize the activity to accomplish Exercise 2.

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Time

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Plan

2) Using Attitude Words and Phrases
A. Go through the new words and phrases for the conversation in Exercise 3; B. Have the students listen to the conversation twice and fill in the blanks with missing words; C. Ask students to answer the questions about the conversation; D. Now have them look for the attitude words and phrases in the conversation; E. Next, students can role-play the conversation.

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Plan 3) Follow-up Practice (Be Selective) A. Go through the words and expressions from the ad in Ex.6 and have the students to do questioning exercises as guided after reading the ad. Note: One thing can be expressed in many forms. B. Listen to the conversation in Ex.7, do the exer-cises in it, and ask some students to speak out their questions. Note: One thing can be expressed in many forms. C. Listen to the recording of Ex.8 and ask the students to respond by translating orally the Chinese messages into English.

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Time

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Plan D. Assign the students to do questions and answers between the speaker and audience in pairs according to the talk in Ex.4, and do Ex.9 and Ex.10 individually as their homework. The teacher tells them how to do these exercises and presents any topicrelated expressions on the chalkboard in advance, which can be used when the students make preparation for oral presentation.

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Time 3 periods

Contents Review of the listening and speaking skills the students have learned

Plan

The teacher begins with the assignment mainly to have a review of the functional and notional language the students picked up in the previous unit. The teacher asks one or two pairs of students to act out the conversations between the uncle and niece, and then invites a few students to tell the class their messages based on the picture in Ex.9 or present their opinions on the topic of “Traditional Respect for Old Age in China” orally. After that, the teacher turns to the Reading and Writing section. (These activities should be completed in 15 minutes.)

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Time

Contents Text A & text-related exercises

Plan

1) Starter After a brief explanation of the instructions, the teacher A. gives the students a few minutes to think about the questions in the starter; B. asks some students to tell the others their responses. (10 minutes) 2) Text A The teacher A. lets the students answer the text-related questions, helps them identify the main idea of each paragraph and analyzes some

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Time

Contents

Plan language points while discussing the whole text with the students (one and a half periods); B. guides the students through the exercises, focusing on certain items or leaving some exercises as the students homework according to the students different levels of English (one period).

1 period

Grammar Review and

1) Grammar Review The teacher talks about the use of subjunctive mood (2), and at the same time, asks the students to do the grammar exercises in class.
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Time

Contents Practical Writing 2) Practical Writing

Plan

The teacher tells as well as shows the students how to reply to a résumé by doing Ex.12 of Practical Writing, and then requires the students to do Ex.13 and Ex.14 as their homework.

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Time

Contents

Plan

2 periods Text B, Text C & text- 1) Text B related exercises While discussing the text with the students, the teacher calls on the students to pay attention to the structure of the paragraphs of the text, asking the students to answer the questions about the text. Ex.16 and Ex.17 can be done either in class or after class.
2) Text C This text should be read by the students themselves as their homework or as fastreading in class.

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Time

Contents Basic Reading Skills

Plan 3) Basic Reading Skills The teacher tells the students how to use the reading skill of scanning, and asks them to do the exercises in Basic Reading Skills.

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Ⅲ. Background Information
Attitude Harvard University Carl Jung California Houston

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Attitude
Attitude is a key concept in social psychology. In the language of academic psychology, attitudes are positive or negative views of an “attitude object”: a person, behaviour, or event. Research has shown that people can also be “ambivalent” towards a target, meaning that they simultaneously possess a positive and a negative attitude towards it. There is also a great deal of new research emerging on “implicit” attitudes, which are essentially attitudes that people are not consciously aware of, but that can be revealed through sophisticated experiments using people?s response times to stimuli (how quickly they can make judgements about them). Implicit and “explicit” attitudes (i.e. the ones people report when they consciously ask themselves how much they like a thing) both seem to affect people?s behaviour, although in different ways. They tend not to be strongly associated with each other, although in some cases they are. The exact relationship between them is not currently well understood. (From http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attitude_%28psychology%29)
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Harvard University
Harvard University is the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States. It was founded in 1636, just 16 years after the Pilgrims landed at Plymouth. Harvard is also one of the richest private universities in the United States, with an endowment of over $4 billion. The main campus is in Cambridge, Mass. The university also has several schools in Boston. Harvard has played an important role in American life. American presidents John Adams, John Quincy Adams, Theodore Roosevelt, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and John F. Kennedy graduated from Harvard. President Rutherford B. Hayes attended Harvard law school. (From the 1998 World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia)

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Carl Jung
Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1961) was a Swiss psychiatrist and psychologist who developed the field of analytical psychology. His teachings extended beyond psychology and influenced other fields, including anthropology, philosophy, and theology. Jung challenged many of the theories proposed by the famous Austrian physician Sigmund Freud, who had developed the method of therapy called psychoanalysis. However, both Jung and Freud stressed the effects of unconscious ideas on human behavior. (From the 1998 World Book Multimedia Encyclopedia)

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California
A state of the western United States on the Pacific Ocean. It was admitted as the 31st state in 1850. The area was colonized by the Spanish and formally ceded to the United States by the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo (1848). California is often called the Golden State because of its sunny climate and the discovery of gold during its pioneering days. Sacramento is the capital and Los Angeles the largest city. Population, 29,839,250.

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Houston
A city of southeast Texas northwest of Galveston. Founded in 1836 and named for Sam Houston, it is a major industrial, commercial, and financial hub, the center of the U.S. aerospace industry, and a deep-water port connected with Galveston Bay and the Gulf of Mexico by the Houston Ship Channel. Houston is also the largest city in Texas. Population, 1,630,553.

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Ⅳ. Class Presentation
Listening & Speaking Reading & Writing Time for Fun

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Listening & Speaking
Attitude Words and Phrases Using Attitude Words and Phrases Follow-up Practice

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Follow-up Practice Read the following words and expressions which may be new to you. Read aloud the above letter in class. Pretend you are either the niece or her uncle and get ready to answer questions from the class. Then dramatize the situation in class. Read the following words and expressions which may be new to you. Read the following words which may be new to you. Listen and, during the timed pauses, translate orally into English the Chinese sentences in each of the following three short conversations. Take a close look at the picture below. Think about it for one minute. Then give a two-minute oral presentation to tell the class what you think it means. Have a discussion on the topic given below.
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Attitude Words and Phrases
You are going to listen to an instructor talking about attitude words and phrases. Listen carefully and fill in the blanks with the missing words. Instructor: by dictionary definition , is a judgment(判断) or opinion An attitude, ___________________ toward a fact or state. There are many attitude words and phrases in the English language . Nine times out of ten, an ___________________ the beginning of a _____________ attitude word or phrase is placed at judgment or opinion sentence. There, it reflects ___________________ to what follows. You are free to _____________ take an attitude toward a particular _______________ a matter of fact , your accurate(准确的) use of event. As an attitude word or phrase indicates(表明) your proper _________________ judgment or opinion .If you want to say expression of a ________________ something personal , you can say personally, in my opinion, from my point _____________ direct , you can say to of view, or if I may say so. If you want to say something be frank (坦率的), frankly, to be honest, honestly, or to tell the truth. If you _______________ want to say something precise , you can say to be precise(精确的). BACK NEXT

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Familiarize yourself with more attitude words and phrases. After that, raise questions on different subjects and topics and encourage the class to voice their attitudes or opinions using appropriate attitude words or phrases. 1. Of course,… 7. Obviously,… 13. Ideally,… 14. Generally speaking,… 15. Strictly speaking,… 17. In theory,…

2. To my surprise,… 8. Apparently,…

3. Perhaps,…
4. Naturally,… 5. Surely,…

9. Technically,…
11. Undoubtedly,…

10. Confidentially,… 16. Roughly speaking,…

6. Actually,…

12. Presumably,…

18. In practice,…

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Using Attitude Words and Phrases
Before you listen to the upcoming conversation, read the following words and expressions which may be new to you.

cinematography

电影摄影
[口] 极好的 布景;场景 华丽的

gorgeous

灿烂的

terrific
Setting superb

I am with you. = I agree with you. strike
给?以深刻印象 对?作过火表演

overdo

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Listen to the following conversation twice and fill in the blanks with the missing words. Wang Ying: That was great! terrific ! Li Ming: Yes, the cinematography was ______ Wang Ying: Personally, I think the settings were superb — __________ those colors were gorgeous . _____________ I am with you . What do you think of the acting? Li Ming: ____________ Wang Ying: Naturally, I was very struck with Zhang Ziyi. Actually , she?s my favorite movie star. Li Ming: She?s a good actress. _______ Wang Ying: How about Wang Dandan? To my surprise , she didn?t seem natural. Li Ming: ____________ overdid her role. Wang Ying: No question, she _____________ Li Ming: How do you feel about the story? ______, it didn?t tell us much. Wang Ying: Frankly Li Ming: But _________ the ending was good.
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Now listen to the above conversation again and answer the following questions. 1. What were they talking about? They were talking about a movie. 2. Is there anything particular about the movie they were talking about? They were talking about the cinematography, settings, and the acting. 3. What did Wang Ying say about Zhang Ziyi? She said that she?s a good actress and that she?s her favorite movie star. 4. What did Wang Ying say about Wang Dandan? She said that she seemed unnatural. 5. What did Wang Ying say about the story? She said that it didn?t tell us much.
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Follow-up Practice
Read the following words and expressions which may be new to you.

sensible 明智的 irrelevant 不相关的 paper qualifications (学历、学位)证书 plus 而且 as far as I remember 据我所知 on earth 究竟,到底 live on 靠?什么生活 awful 可怕的,糟糕

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Read the following informal letter silently while listening to the recording. My dear Francesca, Thank you very much for your letter. Surely, it makes an old uncle very happy to know that his niece is interested in what he thinks about her ideas and plans. To my surprise, you are thinking of leaving home. Frankly, I must say that I think it would be a very unwise thing to do. Fran, I know that you are a very sensible girl. I also know that, quite properly, your parents have brought you up to think for yourself. In your ?open? family you will have heard all the arguments for and against this sort of thing many times and, of course, you won?t be interested in hearing them again, least of all from me. Nevertheless, I really must say something: what you are thinking of doing could make you (and everyone else) very unhappy.

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You say that you find school boring, and that what you do there is irrelevant. Quite likely I agree with you, but obviously, if you want to do anything with the rest of your life, you have got to keep going just a little bit longer — at least until you?ve got some paper qualifications. Without them you won?t be able to do much at all. Undoubtedly, you will have thought about these things, but I wonder if you have considered how serious they really are. Plus, to my surprise, you say that you?re going to live with your boyfriend in London! As far as I remember, he hasn?t even got a job, has he? What on earth are you going to live on? Seriously, just think about it — you?re a bright, intelligent girl. You and I really need to have a serious talk together. So, Fran, please come and see me before you finally decide. If anything awful ever happened to you, I?d never forgive myself. Fondest love, as ever, Uncle Patrick
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Read aloud the above letter in class. Pretend you are either the niece or her uncle and get ready to answer questions from the class. Then dramatize the situation in class.

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Read the following words and expressions which may be new to you.

Lujiazui CBD Jinmao Building YAMAHA BBQ terrace sublet

= Lujiazui Central Business District
上海浦东陆家嘴金融开发区 金茂大厦(位于上海浦东金融开发区) 雅马哈(日本著名品牌) = barbeque 烤肉野餐 露台, 大阳台 分租

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Pretend you are a businessman who is looking for an apartment. Read the following advertisement for information. LUJIAZUI CBD, 3 Apartments for Rent 10 min walk to JINMAO Building, fully furnished 167 sqm, 141 sqm and 123 sqm, 3 bedrooms, 2 bathrooms, dining room, living room, office, kitchen (European standard), one apartment all rooms with floorheating, 50″ TV, YAMAHA home cinema, 65 sqm or 50 sqm garden with BBQ terrace. Health club free, car park available. Cleaning and service included. Pls call: 86-21-87654321
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Ask three questions over the phone for more information (write down your questions if necessary). Question 1 about the monthly rent: a. How much is the rent? b. How much do I have to pay for the monthly rent?

Question 2 about the distance to the nearest subway station: a. Is there a subway station nearby? b. Is it close to the subway station? c. Is it possible to walk to the nearest subway station? Question 3 about the possibility of subletting: a. Is it possible to sublet? b. Can I share an apartment? c. Can I sublet the apartment to someone?
Act out the above short conversation in class.
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Read the following words which may be new to you.

ad utilities deposit

= advertisement
公用事业设备 押金

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Listen twice to the taped conversation below between a student and a landlady whose role you are supposed to play. First, put down your answers to the student’s questions during the timed pauses. Second, speak your answers out loud.

Li Ming: Hello, I?m calling about the ad for the one-bedroom apartment. Is the apartment still available? Landlady: Yes, it is. Do you want to take a look? Li Ming: I?d like to. But how much is the rent? It?s $250 a month Landlady: ______________. Li Ming: Does that include utilities? It includes water but not gas and electricity Landlady: __________________________________. Li Ming: How about the deposit? one-month deposit __________________. Landlady: A Li Ming: Is it convenient for shopping? _________________________. it?s close to a supermarket Landlady: Yes, Li Ming: Can I take a look at the place today? Landlady: Anytime. PREV. Act out the above conversation in class.

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Listen and, during the timed pauses, translate orally into English the Chinese sentences in each of the following three short conversations. 1. A Female Voice: Uh, listen, I was wondering if you could help me. Do you happen to know where there’s a good place to buy art supplies?
我也拿不准,嗨, 让我想想看,噢, 对了,有个新地方,叫 人民广场——就在大街那一头,知道吗?

You:

KEY

I’m not really sure. Hey, let me think for a minute. Oh yeah, there’s that new place, People’s Square — you know, it’s down the main street.

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2. A Male Voice: You:
KEY

Well, what do you think of this, Mary? Do you like this restaurant?
噢, 亲爱的,看上去很好。喂,让我们瞧瞧能否在那边靠窗而坐,这样可 以看到湖光水色。

Oh, honey, it looks very nice. Oh, look, let’s see if we can sit over there by the window so we can look at the water. Oh, really, where are you going to go, if you get out?
嗯,你知道,我想去巴黎。我从未去过那里,我总是不断听人说起它那些 了不起的东西。不过,我不知道,噢, 我还没拿定主意是去那里还是去别 的什么地方。

3. A Male Voice: You:

KEY

Well, you know, I want to go to Paris. I’ve never been there, and I just keep hearing all those great things about it. I don’t know, uh, I haven’t made up my mind if I’m going there or somewhere else.
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Act out the above conversations in class.

Follow-up Practice9

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Take a close look at the picture below. Think about it for one minute. Then give a two-minute oral presentation to tell the class what you think it means.

Suggested Presentation:
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Suggested Presentation: An old man is sitting alone at a big round table. All the other chairs next to him are empty. On the table is a bottle of wine and a birthday cake lit up with candles. It looks as if a party were about to begin. Yet the only guest is his cat, who is sleeping under the table, uninterested. No one else is coming. It?s the old man?s birthday, a special time in his life. Yet this empty room, bare table, and sleeping cat make up the only party he will have. Yes, he has a brightly lit birthday cake. But it brings little joy — the man looks sad and lonely. You can imagine he is thinking, “I wish someone would come say happy birthday to me! I wish I could have a real party!” The cake?s candles are now burning low. He must quickly make a wish. Oh, if only the cheerful, happy voices of his grandchildren and children were there as he blows out the lit candles! But the room is quiet. No one hears his silent wish. Why is the old man completely alone at his birthday party? The picture describes an empty nest. The old man?s children and grandchildren are all distant from him. Maybe some are too busy to come to the party. Maybe others live too far away to come. What can be done?
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Have a discussion on the topic given below.

Traditional Respect for Old Age in China

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Reading & Writing
Text A Attitude Is Everything Text A Exercises Grammar Review Practical Writing Text B Text C What Makes a Good Attitude? Text B Exercises Attitude — One of Life’s Choices Comprehension of the Text Basic Reading Skills
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Practical Writing Résumés
Read the invitations below and answer the questions that follow. Write a résumé using the information provided below.

Write a résumé of your own based on the models given in Exercise 12.

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Grammar Review

虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood) (2)
Rewrite the following sentences.

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Text A

Starter

Everyone had times of darkness and unhappiness. When you find yourself faced with difficulty or troubled by something, what do you usually do? Talk to your classmates and exchange your solutions to such problems. You may first write down your own solutions in the spaces provided below. 1. ___________________________________ 2. ___________________________________ 3. ___________________________________

4. ___________________________________
5. ___________________________________

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Text A
CH

Attitude Is Everything Francie Baltazar-Schwartz

1 N Jerry was the kind of guy you love to hate. He was always in a good mood and always had something positive to say. When someone would ask him how he was doing, he would reply, “I?m on top of the world!” 2 He was a unique manager because N he had several waiters who had followed him around from restaurant to restaurant. N The reason the waiters followed Jerry was because of his attitude. He was a natural motivator. If an employee was having a bad day, N Jerry was there telling the employee how to look on the positive side of the situation.
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Text A
CH

N

3 N Seeing this style really made me curious. So one day I went up to Jerry and asked him, “I don?t get it! You can?t be a positive person all the time. How do you do it?” 4 Jerry replied, “Each morning I wake up and say to myself, ?Jerry, you have two choices today. You can choose to be in a good mood or you can choose to be in a bad mood.? I choose to be in a good mood. Each time something bad happens, I can choose to be a victim or I can choose to learn from it. I choose to learn from it. Every time someone comes to me complaining, I can choose to accept their complaining or I can point out the positive side of life. I choose the positive side of life.”
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Text A
CH

5 “Hey, it?s not that easy,” I protested. 6 “Yes it is,” Jerry said. “Life is all about choices. When you cut away all the junk, every situation is a choice. You choose how you react to situations. You choose how people will affect your mood. You choose to be in a good or bad mood. The bottom line: N it?s your choice how you live life.” 7 I reflected on what Jerry said. Soon thereafter, I left the restaurant industry to start my own business. We lost touch, but I often thought about him when I made a choice about life instead of just reacting to it.

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Text A
CH

8 Several years later, I heard that Jerry did

N

something you are never

supposed to do in the restaurant business: he left the back door open one
morning and was held up at gunpoint by three armed robbers. While trying to open the safe, his hand,
N

shaking from nervousness, slipped off the

combination. The robbers panicked and shot him. Luckily, Jerry was found

relatively quickly and rushed to the local hospital. After 18 hours of surgery
and weeks of intensive care, Jerry was released from the hospital with fragments of the bullets still in his body.
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Text A
CH

9 I saw Jerry about six months after the accident. When I asked him how he was, he replied, “I?m fine. Wanna see my scars?” I declined to see his wounds, but did ask him what had gone through his mind as the robbery took place. 10 “The first thing that went through my mind was that I should have locked the back door,” Jerry replied. “Then, as I lay on the floor, I remembered that I had two choices: I could choose to live, or I could choose to die. I chose to live.” 11 “ N Weren?t you scared? Did you lose consciousness?” I asked.

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Text A
CH

12 Jerry continued, “The paramedics were great. They kept telling me I was going to be fine. But when they wheeled me into the emergency room and I saw the expressions on the faces of the doctors and nurses, I got really scared. In their eyes, I read, ?He?s a dead man.? I knew I needed to take action.” 13 “What did you do?” I asked. 14 “Well, there was a big nurse shouting questions at me,” said Jerry. “She asked if I was allergic to anything. ?Yes,? I replied. The doctors and nurses stopped working as they waited for my reply. I took a deep breath and yelled, ?Bullets!? Over their laughter, I told them, ?I am choosing to live. Operate on me as if I am alive, not dead.?” 15 N Jerry lived thanks to the skill of his doctors, but also because of his amazing attitude. I learned from him that every day we have the choice to live fully. Attitude, after all, is everything. (702 words)
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Language Points
be/mean everything (to somebody): be the most important thing in someone?s life
是某人最重要的东西或事情

e.g. Money isn?t everything.
T

钱不是最重要的。

I love him. He means everything to me.
T

我爱他。他对我最重要。

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Language Points
Francie Baltazar-Schwartz / ?frB:nsi ?bB:ltB:??B:??wB:ts /



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Language Points
Jerry /?dVerI/: 杰里(Gerald或Jerome的昵称)

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1) How would you describe Jerry according to the text?

He was a guy people love to hate. He was always in a good mood and always had something positive to say.
2) Why did some waiters follow Jerry around from restaurant to restaurant? The waiters followed him around because he was a natural motivator.

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Chinese Version

心态最重要
弗朗西·巴尔塔萨-施瓦茨
杰里是那种叫人既爱又恨的家伙。他总是心情愉快并且总能说出一些积极的话来。
每当有人问他近况如何时,他总是回答说:“好极了!” 他是一个与众不同的经理,他从一家餐馆跳槽到另一家餐馆时,有几个服务员一直 跟随着他。这些服务员之所以跟随杰里是因为他的心态好。他天生善于激励人。如果某 一天哪个雇员碰上不顺心的事,杰里就会告诉他如何去看事情积极的一面。

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Language Points
Jerry was the kind of guy you love to hate.
杰里是那种叫人既爱又恨的家伙。

someone you love to hate 指运气好或成就大得几乎让人嫉妒的人。

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Language Points
… he had several waiters who had followed him around from restaurant to restaurant.
……他从一家餐馆跳槽到另一家餐馆时,有几个服务员一直跟随着他。 本句中的restaurant应当理解为杰里受聘担任经理的餐馆, follow (sb.) around 解释为 “到处跟随(某人)”。 又如:

She told him to go away and stop following her around.
T

她叫他离开,不要到处跟着她。

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Language Points
follow (sb.) around
到处跟随(某人)

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Language Points
The reason the waiters followed Jerry was because of his attitude.
这些服务员之所以跟随杰里是因为他的心态好。 本句中 the waiters followed Jerry 是定语从句,修饰 The reason, 定语从句和被 修饰语 reason 之间省略了连接词 why。

又如:

The reason why he accepted the job is not clear.
T

他接受这份工作的原因尚不清楚。

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Language Points
motivate/????ti?eIt/: vt. provide (sb.) with a strong reason for doing sth.
e.g.
激发,激励,使有动机

What can we do to motivate the players?
T

我们该怎么来激发这些球员呢?

Your have first got to motivate the children and then to teach them.
T

你首先得激发孩子们的学习兴趣,然后再去教他们。

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Language Points
Jerry was there telling the employee how to look on the positive side of the situation.
杰里就会告诉他如何去看事情积极的一面。 句中“telling the employee how to look on the positive side of the situation”作为状语表示伴随状况。

又如:

The students hurried into the classroom, talking and laughing loudly.
T

学生们大声说笑着急匆匆地走进教室。

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3) What was Jerry?s answer to the writer?s question about how he managed to keep a positive attitude all the time? He told the writer that each morning he was faced with two choices. He always chose to be in a good mood rather than in a bad one.

4) How did Jerry sum up his attitude about life?
He said, “Life is all about choices… it’s your choice how you live life.”

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Chinese Version
看到他这种风格确实令我感到好奇。于是有一天我便走到杰里面前问他:“我不 明白!你不可能一直都是一个积极乐观的人吧。你是怎么做到的?”

杰里回答说:“每天早上醒来后我都对自己说:‘杰里,今天你有两种选择。你
可以选择好心情,也可以选择坏心情。’我选择好心情。每当坏事发生时,我可以选 择成为受害者,也可以选择从中吸取教训。我选择从中吸取教训。每当有人向我抱怨 时,我可以选择接受他们的抱怨,也可以给他们指出生活积极的一面。我选择生活积

极的一面。”

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Language Points
Seeing this style really made me curious.
看到他这种风格确实令我感到好奇。 “Seeing this style”是动名词短语,作主语用。英语中用动名词或动名词短语作主 语是比较常见的, 又如:

Seeing is believing.
T

百闻不如一见。

It is great fun sailing a boat.
T

扬帆驶船是非常有趣的。

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curious / ?kj??rI?s/: a. eager to know or learn, esp. about sth. unfamiliar or mysterious 好奇的;好求知的 e.g.
“Why do you want to know about Catherine?” “Oh no reason. I?m just curious.”
T

“你为什么想了解凯瑟琳的情况呢?” “噢,不为什么,我只是感到好奇而已。”

A curious child is a teacher?s delight.
T

老师喜欢有求知欲的孩子。

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mood /??:d/: n. state of one?s feelings or mind at a particular time 心境;
情绪

e.g. The good weather put him in an excellent mood.
T

好天气让他心境极佳。

Color can affect mood and create atmosphere.
T

颜色能够影响情绪,创造气氛。

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something positive: 积极的话语或东西。
英语中 something, anything, nothing 等代词被形容词修饰时,该形容词应后置。 又如:

anything useful
T

任何有用的东西

something important
T

重要的东西

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on top of the world: very happy or proud, esp. because of success or good fortune (尤指因成功或好运而)非常高兴,非常幸福;心满意足 e.g. Nick was on top of the world.
T

尼克开心极了。

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unique /j?:?nI:k/: a. being the only one of its type; having no like or equal
唯一的,独一无二的;独特的

e.g. Every person is unique.
T

每个人都是独一无二的。

Joan has a unique talent for languages.
T

琼具有独特的语言天赋。

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get it: understand 懂,理解 e.g. I don?t get it — it doesn?t make sense.
T

我不懂——这没道理呀。

I?m sure you?ve got it wrong. Kate isn?t like that.
T

我肯定你搞错了。凯特不是那样的。

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wake up: stop being asleep e.g. James usually wakes up early.
T

醒来

飞行员看到目标时,立即用无线电通知了指挥部。

I woke up at five o?clock and couldn?t get back to sleep again.
T

我5点醒来后就再也睡不着了。

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Each time something bad happens,...
每当坏事发生时?? 本句中的“Each time”和下句中的“Every time”都用来引导时间状语,意为“每当”。 又如:

He felt nervous each time she spoke to him.
T

每当她跟他说话时,他都感到紧张。

Don?t come complaining to me every time something goes wrong.
T

别一出错就跑来向我抱怨。

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victim / ??IktI?/: n. person, animal or thing that suffers pain, death, harm, destruction, etc. as a result of other people?s actions, or of illness, bad luck, etc. 牺牲者;受害者;受灾者

e.g.
victims of crime
T

牺牲者;受害者;受灾者

flood victims
T

水灾灾民

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learn from: study (one?s mistakes, etc. and those of others) to ensure that they are not repeated 从(自己和别人的错误等)中吸取教训

e.g.
You have to learn from your mistakes.
T

你必须从所犯的错误中吸取教训。

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complain /k????leIn/: v. express feelings of annoyance, dissatisfaction, unhappiness, etc. ; say in an annoyed, unhappy, dissatisfied way 抱怨;诉苦;发牢骚 e.g.

Tom often complains about noise near his college.
T

汤姆经常抱怨学校附近的喧闹声。

She?s always complaining that her boss gives her too much work.
T

她总是发牢骚,说老板给她的工作太多。

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point out: bring to notice; call to attention; explain 指出;指明

e.g.

He pointed out my mistakes and hoped that I would correct them immediately.
T

他指出了我的错误,希望我立即改正。

As Mary pointed out, the story was rather hard to believe.
T

正如玛丽所指出的,这个故事令人难以置信。

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5) What made the writer still think of Jerry even after he had left the restaurant industry? It was Jerry’s attitude. The writer often thought of Jerry when he made a choice about life instead of just reacting to it.

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Chinese Version
“嗨,这可没那么容易吧,”我提出了异议。 “就这么容易,”杰里说道。“生活全在于选择。当你去除一切乌七八糟的东 西之后,每种处境都是一种选择。你选择如何去应付种种处境。你选择人们影响你

心情的方式。你选择心情好还是心情不好。关键是:如何生活是你自己的选择。”
我思索着杰里的话。不久之后,我离开了餐饮业,创建了自己的公司。我们失 去了联系,但是当我对生活作出某种选择而非仅仅对之作出反应的时候,我常常都 会想起他。

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hey /heI/: interj. (used to call attention or express surprise, interest, etc.)
(用于引起注意或表示惊讶、感兴趣等)嘿,喂

e.g.

Hey, those are mine.
T

嗨,哪些是我的。

Hey, what?s up?
T

喂,什么事?

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protest /?r???test/: 1. vt. state firmly; express strong disagreement or e.g. disapproval about (sth.) 声言;断言;抗议 Sarah protested that she wasn?t Tom?s girlfriend.
T

萨拉申明她不是汤姆的女朋友。

Students protested the decision.
T

学生们抗议这项新决定。

/ ??r??test/: 2. n. 抗议;声言,断言 e.g.

letters of protest
T

抗议信

Students protested the decision.
T

对战争的抗议
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cut away: remove by cutting 切除;剪去;砍掉 e.g. They cut away all the dead branches from the tree.
T

他们把树上枯死的枝杈全砍掉了。

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junk /???k/: n. old or unwanted things, usu. of low quality
废旧杂物;破烂,垃圾

e.g. This box is full of junk.
T

这个盒子里全是没用的东西。

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react /rI??kt/: vi. act or behave in a particular way in answer or opposition
作出反应,反应

e.g. How did she react when you told her the news?
T

你告诉她这个消息时,她如何反应?

Tom reacted angrily to Bill?s comments.
T

汤姆对比尔的评论作出了愤怒的反应。

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affect /??fekt/: vt. cause some result or change in; influence
影响

e.g. What happens in another country can within seconds affect life in our own country.
T

他国发生的事情可以在几秒钟内就对本国的生活产生影响。

Lack of sleep can seriously affect your mood.
T

缺少睡眠会严重影响你的情绪。

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Language Points
bottom line: deciding or crucial factor; essential point (in an argument, etc.)
决定性因素;关键因素;(论辩等的)基本论点,基本点

e.g. The bottom line is that we have to make a decision today.
T

最要紧的是我们今天必须作出决定。

The bottom line is that people?s health is at risk if they smoke.
T

基本事实是,吸烟危害人的健康。

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Language Points
… it?s your choice how you live life.
……如何生活是你的选择。 句首的it是形式主语,真正的主语是how you live life。 又如:

It is my pleasure to be able to help you again.
T

我很高兴能再次帮你忙。

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Language Points
reflect on: think deeply about; consider carefully 沉思,细想;仔细考虑 e.g. What questions does the text make you reflect on?
T

这篇课文使你思考些什么问题?

The manager demanded time to reflect on what to do.
T

经理要求给他时间考虑该做什么。

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thereafter /?e?r?B:ft?/: ad. [fml] after that in time or order; afterwards
[书] 之后,其后

e.g. Sophie was born in France, but shortly thereafter her family moved to the United States.
T

索菲出生在法国,但之后不久他们一家就移居到了美国。

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Industry / ?Ind?strI/: n. the production of goods for sale, esp. in factories; a particular branch of industry or trade 工业;产业 e.g. heavy industry
T

重工业

light industry
T

轻工业

car industry
T

汽车工业

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lose touch: no longer be in contact 失去联系 e.g. After Mr. Lee moved to Beijing, I lost touch with him.
T

李先生去北京后,我就跟他失去了联系。

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6) What happened to Jerry when he left the back door open one morning? He was held up by three armed robbers and got seriously wounded when the robbers shot him.

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Chinese Version
几年之后,我听说杰里做了件在餐饮业里绝对不会有人做的事情:一天早晨,他没关 后门,三名武装盗匪持枪劫持了他。他在试图打开保险箱的时候,他的手因为紧张而发抖, 从保险的密码锁上滑了下来。盗匪们紧张之下向他开了枪。幸运的是,杰里被人发现得比 较早,他被急速送到了当地医院。经过18 个小时的手术和几周的特别护理,杰里出院了, 但身体内还残留着子弹的碎片。

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something you are never supposed to do: 你永远不该做的事 be supposed to do sth. 意为“(某人)该做某事”。
又如:

What time are you supposed to be there?
T

你应该几点到达那儿?

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Language Points
hold up: stop by force in order to rob; rob at gunpoint 拦劫;持枪抢劫

e.g.
They held the same bank up twice in one week.
T

他们一星期内两次抢劫了同一家银行。

He was charged with holding up a cab driver.
T

他因为抢劫出租车司机被起诉。

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Language Points
gunpoint /?^Qn?CInt/ n. 枪口
at gunpoint: while threatening or being threatened with a gun 在枪口威胁下 e.g. She was held at gunpoint for 24 hours.
T

她被人持枪劫持了24小时。

The manager demanded time to reflect on what to do.
T

经理要求给他时间考虑该做什么。

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rob /r?b/: vt. take the property (of a person or organization) illegally, esp. by using violence, threats, etc. 抢劫,盗取 e.g. They killed four policemen while robbing a bank.
T

他们在抢银行时杀了4个警察。

They robbed the company of $2 million.
T

他们抢劫了这家公司200万美元。

robber / 'r?b?/: n. person who robs or has robbed 抢劫者,强盗,盗贼

e.g.
a bank robber
T

银行抢劫者
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shaking from nervousness: 因为紧张而发抖
这一分词短 语用作状语,表示原因。 又如:

Seeing that it was raining, John bought a new umbrella.
T

看到天在下雨,约翰买了一把新伞。

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Language Points
slip off: slide out of; become disengaged from
从…滑落,滑出;松脱

e.g.
The car slipped off the road because of the snow.
T

因为雪的缘故,汽车滑出了道路。

The last ice was slipping off the rocks.
T

最后的冰块从岩石上滑落。

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combination /?k??bI?neI??n/: n. the act of combining or state of being combined; the numbers or letters needed to open a combination lock
结合;联合;组合;(开启密码锁用的)号码组合字码组合,暗码

e.g.

A combination of factors may be responsible for his bad mood.
T

各种因素的组合可能是他情绪恶劣的原因。

the combination of a safe
T

保险箱的暗码

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Language Points
panic / ???nIk/: v. (cause to) feel panic (使)恐慌 e.g.

He started to panic when he saw the gun.
T

看到枪时,他开始恐慌起来。

Don?t panic. Everything will be all right soon.
T

别慌。很快一切都会好的。

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shoot /??:t/: v. fire a gun at (sb.); hit, wound or kill with a gun; fire (a gun, etc.) e.g. 向(某人)开枪;射中,射伤;射死;开(枪) If you move, I?ll shoot.
T

如果你动一动,我就开枪。

Tom?s grandfather taught him to shoot a gun
T

汤姆的祖父教他开枪。

The robbers shot three people before they escaped.
T

抢劫者逃跑之前开枪打死了3个人。

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relatively / ?rel?tI?/: ad. 相对地;比较地 e.g. This book is relatively easy to read.
T

这本书读起来相对比较容易。

relative: a. considered in relation or proportion to sb./sth. else; comparative e.g.
T

相对的;比较的

her relative lack of experience
她的经验相对缺乏

Since I got a job, I?ve been living in relative comfort.
T

我找到工作以来,一直生活得比较舒服。
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surgery / ?sf:??rI/: n. the science and practice of treating injuries or diseases by cutting or removing parts of the body e.g.
外科;外科手术

major surgery
T

大手术

emergency surgery for brain injuries
T

脑伤急诊手术

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intensive /In?tensI?/: a. giving a lot of attention to sth , often only for a short e.g. time 精心的;深入细致的;集中的 intensive farming
T

精耕细作

a knowledge-intensive industry
T T

知识密集型产业

make an intensive study of sth.
对某事进行深入的研究

intensive care: very special hospital care for people who are dangerously ill or very badly hurt (对危重病人的)特别护理
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fragment / ?fr?g??nt/: n. small part or piece of sth. 碎片

e.g.
glass fragments
T

玻璃碎片

He was piecing together torn fragments of a letter.
T

他正在把信的碎片拼起来。

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bullet / ?b?lIt/: n. small piece of metal with a rounded or pointed end, fired from a gun 子弹 e.g.

a rubber bullet
T

橡皮子弹

bullet wound
T

枪伤

He was killed by a bullet in the head.
T

他头部中弹被打死了。

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7) What did Jerry tell the writer about his reaction at the time of the robbery? He said that at the time of robbery, he thought first of all that he should have locked the back door. Then he decided to choose to live.

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Chinese Version
那次事故发生大约 6 个月后,我见到了杰里。当我问他身体如何时,他回答说: “我很好。想看看我的伤疤吗?”我没看他的伤疤,但却问了他在抢劫发生时心里 都想了些什么。

“我首先想到我应当把后门锁上才是,”杰里回答说。“随后,躺在地板上的时
候,我想起自己有两种选择:我可以选择生,也可以选择死。我选择了生。” “你就没有感到害怕?你失去知觉了吗?”我问。

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wanna / ???n?/: [口]= want to 或 want a e.g.

I wanna go where you go.
T

我想去你去的地方。

Wanna drink?
T

想喝一杯吗?

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scar /skB:/: n. mark left on the skin by a wound, etc.
e.g. He had a scar across his forehead.
T

伤痕;疤

他前额上横着一条疤。

Her mental scars will take time to heal.
T

她的心灵创伤需要时间愈合。

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decline /dI?kl?In/: v. refuse (sth. offered), usu. politely
拒绝;谢绝

e.g. Mary declined Tom?s invitation to dinner.
T

玛丽谢绝了汤姆的晚餐邀请。

The spokesman declined to make any comment.
T

发言人拒绝作任何评论。

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wound /??:nd/: 1. n. injury caused deliberately to part of the body by cutting, shooting, etc. esp. as a result of an attack
e.g.
T

(尤指受攻击造成的)伤,创伤

A nurse cleaned his wound.
护士给他清洁伤口。

He was treated in hospital for head wounds.
T

他因头部受伤而在医院接受治疗。

2. v. give a wound to (sb.); hurt (sb.?s feelings, reputation, etc.) 伤,伤害 e.g. Gunmen killed two people and wounded six others.
T

持枪歹徒打死了两人,打伤了6人。

Six people were seriously wounded in the fire this morning.
T

在今天早晨的火灾中有6人严重受伤。

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go through: pass through 通过 e.g. Many thoughts went through my mind before I made the final decision.
T

在我作出最后决定之前,许多想法在心中掠过。

Tom has just gone through the most difficult time in his life.
T

汤姆刚刚度过了一生中最艰难的时刻。

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robbery /?r?b?rI/: n. the crime of taking someone else?s property 抢劫
e.g. Police are investigating a series of bank robberies.
T

警察正在调查一系列银行抢劫案。

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lock /l?k/: 1. n. device for fastening a door, etc. with a bolt that needs a key to work it 锁 e.g. The front door?s got two locks on it. T 前门上有两把锁。 a bicycle lock
T

自行车锁

2. vt. fasten (a door, etc.) with a lock 锁(门等) e.g. The door is locked.
T

门锁着。

I locked myself out of the house again this morning. It?s really unbelievable.
T

今天早晨我把自己又一次锁在了房子外面。真叫人难以置信。
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Weren?t you scared?
你不怕吗? 英语中一般疑问句的否定结构常用来表示提问人的惊讶、怀疑等口气。 又如:

Don?t you believe me?
T

你不相信我吗?(表示惊讶)

Are you not coming
T

你不来吗?(表示怀疑)

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lose consciousness: fall into a state like sleep so that one cannot think or understand what is happening
失去知觉

consciousness /?k?n??snIs/: n. state of being conscious 知觉,感


e.g.
T

lose (one?s) consciousness
失去知觉

When will she regain/recover consciousness?
T

她什么时候能恢复知觉?

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Language Points
conscious / ?k?n??s/: a. knowing what is going on around one because one is able to use bodily senses and mental powers; awake e.g.
T

感觉到的;意识到的;清醒的

I was conscious that he had changed his attitude.
我感觉到他改变了态度。

The patient was conscious during the operation.
T

那位病人在手术期间是清醒的。

PREV.

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8) How did Jerry feel when he was rushed into the emergency room of the hospital? He was scared because from the expressions on the faces of the doctors and nurses, he knew he would die. 9) What did Jerry decide to do when he learned about his own critical situation? He decided to take action so that he could stay alive.
10) What did the big nurse ask Jerry when he was on the operating table? The nurse asked Jerry if he was allergic to anything. 11) Why did the doctors and nurses all laugh when they heard Jerry?s answer? Because Jerry told them that he was allergic to bullets. 12) What did Jerry tell the doctors and nurses to do after his joke about being allergic to bullets? He told them to operate on him as if he was alive, not dead. 13) What did the writer learn from Jerry?s story? The writer learned that every day we have the choice to live fully. Attitude is everything.

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Chinese Version
杰里继续说:“救护人员真棒。他们不停地告诉我会好起来的。在当他们把我
推进急救室时,我看到了医生和护士脸上的表情,我真的害怕了。在他们的眼神里, 我看到的是‘他死定了’。我知道我需要采取行动了。” “你做了什么?”我问。 “喔,有个高大的护士大声问我问题,”杰里说道。“她问我是否对什么东西 过敏。‘是的,’ 我回答说。医生和护士们都停下来等着我的回答。我深深吸了口气,

喊道:‘子弹!’在他们的笑声中,我告诉他们:‘我要选择活下去。给我动手术

吧,把我当活人而不是死人。’ ”
杰里活了下来,不仅是因为医生们医术高明,也是因为他令人惊讶的心态。从 他身上我懂得每一天我们都能选择过充实的生活。心态毕竟是最重要的。

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Language Points
wheel /?i:l, h?i:l/: 1. n. 轮,轮;方 向盘 e.g. spare wheel T 备用轮胎? steering wheel
T

方向盘

2. vt push or pull (a vehicle with wheels); carry (sb./sth.) in a vehicle with wheels
推(或拉)(车);用车运载(人或物)

e.g.
Kate wheeled her bike into the garage.
T

凯特把自行车推进了车库。

The nurse wheeled him down to the X-ray room.
T

护士将他推向X光检查室。
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Language Points
feel like: have the feeling of being; have a wish for, want
有?的感觉;想要

e.g. When my best friend left me alone in the street, I feel like a hurt animal.
T

当我最好的朋友把我一个人抛在街上的时候,我感觉自己像一只受伤的动物。

Do you feel like another drink?
T

你想再要一杯饮料吗?

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Language Points
all right: good enough, satisfactory but not very good; in good health or spirits; well
令人满意的;不错的;健康良好的;健康的

e.g. “What?s the food like in this restaurant?” “It?s all right.”
T

“这家餐馆的食品怎样?”“还不错。”

Kate looks really unhappy. You?d better make sure she?s all right.
T

凯特看上去很不高兴。你应该保证她一切安好。

Are you feeling all right now?
T

你现在感觉好些了吗?
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Language Points
airline / ?e?l?In/: n. business that runs a regular service for carrying passengers and goods by air 航空公司 e.g. Eleven of Europe?s fifteen busiest routes are controlled by only two national airlines.
T

欧洲最繁忙的15条航线中有11条是由两家国营航空公司控制的。

What airline did you fly?
T

你乘坐哪家航空公司的飞机?

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Language Points
in the end: at last; finally
最终;结果

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Language Points
California /?k?lI?f?:nj?/
名) 加利福尼亚州(美国州

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Language Points
emergency /I???:??nsI/: n. sudden serious event or situation requiring e.g. emergency treatment
T

immediate action 紧急事件;紧急情况

急诊

state of emergency
T

紧急状态

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Language Points
take action: do sth. in response to what has happened
采取行动

e.g. All of us have to take action to protect our living environment.
T

我们大家都必须采取行动来保护我们的生活环境。

The school will take firm action against any students using illegal drugs.
T

学校将采取果断行动不让学生使用非法药品。

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Language Points
allergic /??l?:?Ik/: a. having an allergy or caused by an allergy
过敏的;过敏引起的

e.g. I'm allergic to penicillin.
T

我对青霉素过敏。

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Language Points
breath /bre?/: n. air taken into and sent out of the lungs; single act of e.g. breathing air in and out 气息;呼吸 The policemen could smell the wine on the driver?s breath.
T

警察能够闻到驾驶员的酒气。

I?m going outside for a breath of fresh air.
T

我要到外面去透透气。

As soon as the train started, I drew a long breath of relief.
T

火车一开动,我便长长地舒了一口气。

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Language Points
Jerry lived thanks to the skill of his doctors, but also because of his amazing attitude.
杰里活了下来,不仅是因为医生们医术高明,也是因为他令人惊讶的心态。 在许多场合,thanks to和because of意思相同,如在本段课文中都表示“由于,因为” 的意思。但是thanks to有时可以用于反讽的口气, 如:

Everyone knows about it now, thanks to you!
T

因为你,现在所有的人都知道这件事了。

Thanks to you the whole thing was a complete disaster.
T

整个事情因为你而全砸了。

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Text A Exercises
Reading Aloud Understanding the Text Reading Analysis

Vocabulary
Structure Cloze Translation

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Structure
Rewrite the following sentences according to the model given below.
Use “instead of” and the words or expressions given in the brackets to complete the following sentences. Change the forms where necessary.

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Vocabulary
Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the forms where necessary. Fill in the blanks with the expressions given below. Change the forms where necessary.

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Understanding the Text
Answer the following questions Topics for Discussion.

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Reading Aloud
Read the following paragraph until you have learned them by heart. Seeing this style really made me curious. So one day I went up to Jerry and asked him, “I don?t get it! You can?t be a positive person all the time. How do you do it?” Jerry replied, “Each morning I wake up and say to myself, ?Jerry, you have two choices today. You can choose to be in a good mood or you can choose to be in a bad mood.? I choose to be in a good mood. Each time something bad happens, I can choose to be a victim or I can choose to learn from it. I choose to learn from it. Every time someone comes to me complaining, I can choose to accept their complaining or I can point out the positive side of life. I choose the positive side of life.” “Hey, it?s not that easy,” I protested. “Yes it is,” Jerry said. “Life is all about choices. When you cut away all the junk, every situation is a choice. You choose how you react to situations. You choose how people will affect your mood. You choose to be in a good or bad mood. The bottom line: it?s your choice how you live life.”
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Understanding the Text
Answer the following questions
1. How would you describe Jerry according to the text? 2. Why did some waiters follow Jerry around from restaurant to restaurant? 3. What was Jerry?s answer to the writer?s question about how he managed to keep a positive attitude all the time? 4. How did Jerry sum up his attitude about life? 5. What made the writer still think of Jerry even after he had left the restaurant industry? 6. What happened to Jerry when he left the back door open one morning? 7. What did Jerry tell the writer about his reaction at the time of the robbery?

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8. How did Jerry feel when he was rushed into the emergency room of the hospital? 9. What did Jerry decide to do when he learned about his own critical situation? 10. What did the big nurse ask Jerry when he was on the operating table? 11. Why did the doctors and nurses all laugh when they heard Jerry?s answer? 12. What did Jerry tell the doctors and nurses to do after his joke about being allergic to bullets? 13. What did the writer learn from Jerry?s story?

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Topics for Discussion. 1. What do you think of the writer?s attitude towards life? 2. What do you believe is a good attitude to take while studying at college?

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Reading Analysis
Read Text A again and complete the following table.

Part


Topic
Jerry as a guy that you love to hate.

Paragraph(s)
1 2

Main Idea
Jerry always held a positive attitude. Jerry?s employees liked to work for him because of his _______________ positive attitude .

3-6

Jerry talked about his view on a its relationship positive attitude and ____________ _____ to life.
____________ The writer was influenced by Jerry?s attitude in later days.
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Part


Topic
the robbery that tested Jerry?s ______ attitude _______

Paragraph(s)
8 9-14

Main Idea
was seriously hurt in a robbery. Jerry ___________ managed Jerry told the writer how he __________ ______ to stay alive after the robbery.

15

_________ is Jerry?s story tells us that attitude _________ . everything

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Vocabulary
Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the forms where necessary. mood affect unique relatively curious surgery complain emergency protest lock react consciousness

1. The more Tom tried to avoid talking about his past, the more ______ curious Jane became about it. 2. It is our attitude at the beginning of a difficult task that, more than anything else, _____ the result. affects 3. The government has declared a state of _________ emergency because of the tsunami (海啸) resulting from the earthquake. locked it, as was his habit. 4. He closed the door behind him and ______ 5. ________ Relatively speaking, Spain is a poor European country. 6. Can?t you do something positive to help improve the situation instead of complaining __________ so much?
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mood affect

unique relatively

curious surgery

complain emergency

protest lock

react consciousness

________ when her 7. “I don?t see why I should take the blame for this!” Mary protested boss shouted at her about the broken window. 8. It?s not what happens to you but how you react ____ to it that matters. 9. Simple pleasures, such as a walk on a sunny day, can have a good effect on our _____ mood . ______ because they have the capacity(能力) to choose what 10. Humans are unique they do. 11. Without air, the victim stopped breathing, lost ______________ consciousness , and soon died. ______ if he wanted to play 12. Doctors said that Johnston definitely needed surgery football again.
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Fill in the blanks with the expressions given below. Change the forms where necessary.

follow around lose touch

look on go through

wake up take action

the bottom line thanks to

reflect on after all

the 1. Most people want to work in a place where they feel valued. That?s ___ bottom line . _________ _______ to the extra help my Dad gave me. 2. I passed my driving test, thanks reflect on the many achievements 3. The start of a new year is a good time to ________ of the past one. had lost touch with Jane since college and was eager to see her again. 4. He ____________ went through Tom?s mind I can?t imagine, but he did manage to smile and 5. What ___________ leave without any complaint. followed him ______ around everywhere, even into the 6. Mr. Pommeroy had a dog that _______ kitchen at four o?clock every morning.
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follow around lose touch

look on go through

wake up take action

the bottom line thanks to

reflect on after all

looking on the bright side of things and always presenting ourselves 7. By _________ in a positive light, we might well be able to do our work much better than we could ever imagine. woke up in the middle of the night and could hear two people talking 8. I _______ outside my window. take action , the Earth?s atmosphere will continue 9. Unless governments _________ to heat up. 10. I don?t know why you?re so concerned — after ______ all , it isn?t your problem.

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Structure
Rewrite the following sentences according to the model given below. Model: Something bad happens. I can choose to be a victim or I can choose to learn from it. →Each time / Every time something bad happens, I can choose to be a victim or I can choose to learn from it. 1. I look at the photographs I took in the countryside. I think of the friends that I made there. Each time I look at the photographs I took in the countryside, I think of ________________________________________________________ the friends that I made there. ________________________________________________________ 2. An experiment was performed. He would check and recheck the results obtained. ___________________________________________________________ Each time an experiment was performed, he would check and recheck the ___________________________________________________________ results obtained.
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3. I meet him on weekends. He is in high spirits and joins in all kinds of activities whenever he can. __________________________________________________________ Each time I meet him on weekends, he is in high spirits and joins in all kinds of activities whenever he can. __________________________________________________________ 4. She travels by plane. She feels nervous and worried about her own safety. Every time she travels by plane, she feels nervous and worried about her __________________________________________________________ own safety. __________________________________________________________ 5. I lose heart. He always tells me to take a positive attitude and look for the best result from anything that seems bad. __________________________________________________________ Every time I lose heart, he always tells me to take a positive attitude and look for the best result from anything that seems bad. __________________________________________________________ 6. You feel like smoking. Remind yourself how much healthier you are without smoking. __________________________________________________________ Every time you feel like smoking, remind yourself how much healthier you are without smoking. __________________________________________________________
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Use “instead of” and the words or expressions given in the brackets to complete the following sentences. Change the forms where necessary. Model: We lost touch, but I often thought about him when I made a choice about life instead of just reacting to it. (made a choice, it, just react to, about life) improve the situation instead 1. When you have a problem, think about how you can _______________________ of looking on the negative aspects . ____________________________ (the situation, improve, the negative aspects, look on) _______________________________ of going to work in a bad mood , try to be positive and you?ll feel much 2. Instead happier. (go to, in a bad mood, work)
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3. ____________________________ If you had an axe instead of a knife , you could cut the wood much more easily. (knife, axe, have) 4. I can?t understand why ________________________ they chose him instead of you — you?re much better qualified for the job. (you, him, they, choose)

under a tree instead of in the library . 5. In warm weather he often reads_____________________________ (the library, in, a tree, under)
6. Taking exercise every day makes him ________________________ look younger instead of older . (look, older, younger)

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Cloze
Fill in each of the following blanks with an appropriate word. The longer I live, the more I realize the impact(影响) of attitude on life. Attitude, It is more important than money, than to me, is more important than facts. (2)__ (1) __ __ do. It is more _____ or success, than what other people think or say (4) or (3) failure ____ or break a company, a important than appearance, talent or skill. It will (5) make church or a home. The remarkable(值得注意的) thing is we have a (6) choice _____ every day regarding the attitude we hold for that day. We cannot change our past. We cannot change the fact (7) that ___ people will act in a certain way. We cannot change the inevitable(不可避免的). The only (8) thing we can do is play the one ______ . I believe that life is 10% what happens card we have, and that is our (9) attitude ____ to it, and so it is with you. We are in (11) charge ______of to me and 90% how I (10) react our attitude. I believe the single most significant decision I can make on a day-to-day (12) ____ is my choice of attitude. When my attitude is right, there is no barrier(障碍) basis too high, no valley(山谷) too deep, no dream too extreme, no challenge too great for me.
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Translation
Translate the following sentences into English. 1.每当我的兄弟抱怨他工作中的困难时,我总要求他看到光明的一面。

Each time my brother complained about the difficulty of his work, I asked __________________________________________________________ him to look on the bright side. __________________________________________________________
2. 当有报告说附近大楼里两个孩子被人持枪劫持时,警察立刻作出了反应。 The police reacted immediately when report came that two kids had been __________________________________________________________ held up at gunpoint in a nearby building. __________________________________________________________ 3.当我指出玛丽的计算错误时,她没有尽快地改正它们,却申明那不是她的错。 When I pointed out the mistakes in her calculation, instead of correcting __________________________________________________________ them as soon as possible, Mary protested that it was not her fault. __________________________________________________________

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4. 汤姆对我跟同事们说的笑话感到好奇,但他没有听懂。 __________________________________________________________ Tom was curious about the joke I told my colleagues, but he didn’t get it. 5. 由于杰克的积极心态,在急诊室里他在失去知觉前采取了行动并且挽救了自己
的生命。

__________________________________________________________ Thanks to his positive attitude, Jack took action and saved his own life __________________________________________________________ before he lost consciousness in the emergency room. 6.当我细想我在过去所取得的成绩时,我不得不说,成功来自艰苦的工作。那是关键。 __________________________________________________________ When I reflect on what I have achieved in the past, I have to say that __________________________________________________________ success comes from hard work. That’s the bottom line.

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Grammar Review
虚拟语气(Subjunctive Mood) (2)
我们在第二册第七单元中复习了非真实性条件句中虚拟语气的使用,本单元复习虚拟语 气的其他一些用法。 用 法 例 句

1. 用在表示提议、要求或命令等意 义的动词后跟的that从句中。从句中 的谓语动词常要求用should加动词原 形,或用动词原形。这一类动词有ask,

So I told Billy I could not do that right now, but I suggested that he and I color a picture. (Unit 6 A, Book 2)
因此我告诉比利我此刻不能抱他,但提议和 他一起给一幅画着色。

suggest, demand, order, propose, recommend, require, advise等。

He ordered that the house (should) be sold.
他吩咐这房子要卖掉。

The situation required that he (should) be present. 形势要求他到场。
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2. 用在 “It is + adj.+ that…”句型中。从句中的 谓语动词常要求用should 加动词原形,或用动词原 形。这一类形容词有

It is desirable that interest rates (should) be reduced.
利率下降是可取的。

important, necessary, essential, advisable, urgent, vital, desirable
等。这一句型也包括由表 示提议、要求或命令等意 义的动词转变成的V-ed, 如:demanded,

It is important that she (should) understand what her decision means.
重要的是她要明白自己作出的决定意味着什么。

It is requested that all members (should) be present.
要求所有的成员都出席。

ordered, requested。
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例 但愿我今天不必去上班。



I wish I didn?t have to go to work today.
3. 用在动词wish 后的从句中,表示 不能实现或与现实 相悖的愿望。

I wish that I could afford a new car.
但愿我能买得起一辆新车。

I wish I hadn?t eaten so much.
但愿我没吃那么多。

It?s time she told the truth about what she knows.
4. 用在“It is 是她该说出她所了解的真相的时候了。

(about/high) time It?s about time you cleaned your room! 差不多该是你打扫房间的时候了! (that)…”的句型中。 It is high time that you made up your mind.
现在是你下定决心的时候了。

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Rewrite the following sentences.

1. We?d recommend you to book your flight early. I recommend that you ________________________ (should) book your flight early . 2. She asked to be informed of the developments. She asked that she _____________________________________ (should) be kept informed of the developments . 3. Regulations require students to attend at least 90% of the lectures. Regulations require that students (should) __________________________________ attend at least 90% of the lectures . 4. It is important for you to understand the truth that every situation is a choice. It is important that you ________________________________________________ (should) understand the truth that every situation is a choice . 5. It is necessary for them to go with a guide. It is necessary that they (should) go with a guide . ___________________

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6. All staff are required to be at work by 8:30. be at work by 8:30 . ______________________ It is required that all staff (should) 7. I?m not lying on a beautiful sunny beach and that?s a pity. were/was lying on a beautiful sunny beach . I wish I __________________________________ 8. I didn?t bring my camera with me. I would like to take some photographs. I wish I__________________________ had brought my camera with me. 9. Tom should write to his parents. He hasn?t written to them for ages.

wrote to his parents . It?s time Tom _________________
10. It?s nearly dinner-time now. We should start getting the dinner ready. _________________________ getting the dinner ready . It?s high time we started
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Practical Writing Résumés
Your first impression is your last impression, you don?t have a second chance — invest time in your résumé to write it well. Your résumé can make you stand above the crowd if written well and organized properly. Your résumé should represent your best abilities truthfully. Employers do not have the luxury to spend more than a minute of their time reading your résumé, which must be eye-catching, short and brief. The purpose of your résumé is to get you in the door; your interview gets you further ahead in getting the job you desire. Your résumé should reflect what your capabilities are and what you can do. Résumés may be written in different ways. The type you write depends on what you want. If you are not applying for a specific job, you need to send a detailed résumé. You want to know if there are any jobs that match your abilities.
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If you apply for a specific job, your résumé should stress those skills that relate to that job. From time to time, you should update your résumé. Even a brief résuméshould include: ● name, address and contact information (telephone number and/or email address). ● date and place of birth ● nationality ● married or single ● dates and places of education ● examination passed, especially if internationally recognized ● knowledge of English and of other languages ● previous employment and work experience ● outside interest, hobbies, etc.

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(Some people believe it is no longer usual to include information on your age or marital status.) Very often you make a strong statement of what your goals are, but make sure they match the position that you are applying for. When you give your work history, start the list with your most recent job and finish with the earliest one. If you have had many jobs, include only your relevant work experience. But do not leave large unexplained gaps in your work history. Start with your most recent degree or diploma and work backward. If you have a college degree, it is not necessary to mention your secondary education. Do not include details of your primary education. References (the people that the employer can contact to get information about you) can be listed either at the end of the résumé or included in a separate letter.
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Read the following two résumé and answer the questions that follow. Name Li Xiaoming Address 1203 Sichuan Road (N), Shanghai, 200080 Date of Birth 8th November, 1981 Place of Birth Tianjin Nationality Chinese Marital Status Single Education 1999-2002 Shanghai Technology Career Institute 1996-1999 Tianjin No. 1 Senior High School Examinations passed: 2002 College English Test, Band 4, Excellent 2001 Practical English Test for Colleges (Level A), Excellent Languages Chinese Fluent English Previous Experience 2001 and 2002 Summer job working at a local supermarket Interests Swimming, music, travel PREV.

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XU GUANGPING 436 SHANGHAI ROAD NANJING, 210043 Tel: (025) 16322163 E-mail: gpxu@163.com Objective To obtain a management position in which I will be able to use my organizational skills and my knowledge of marketing and English. Skills Fluent English Familiar with Microsoft Word and Excel Good problem-solver Confident communicator Self-motivated Able to cope under pressure Work experience 2001-Present Marketing Assistant, Powell Inc., Nanjing Duties include planning and implementing all advertising and promotion, responding to enquiries, monitoring student performance
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1998-2000 August 1999 Education 2001 1999

Part-time editor with Nanjing Evening Newspaper One month internship in the sales department of ABC Publishing, Nanjing College English Test, Band 6 Practical English Test for Colleges (Level A), Excellent Nanjing Finance College

1998-2001 Interests Football, sailing, reading, traveling References Available on request

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1. What is Li Xiaoming?s marital status? Single. 2. What experience does he have? He had a summer job working at a local supermarket in 2001 and in 2002. 3. What is his educational background? He studied in Tianjin No.1 Senior High School during the years between 1996 and 1999 and studied in Shanghai Career Institute during the years between 1999 and 2002. 4. Why does Xu Guangping want to obtain a management position? Because in that position he will be able to use his organizational skills and his knowledge of marketing and English. 5. Where is Xu working now? He is now working as a Marketing Assistant in Powell Inc., Nanjing. 6. From which college did Xu graduate? Nanjing Finance College.
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Write a résuméusing the information provided below.
姓名 : 王大雷;住址 : 南京市甘肃路 103 号 802 室;出生年月 : 1983 年 12 月 7 日;出生 地点 : 南京;婚姻状况 : 单身;接受教育情况 : 南京朝阳高级中学 (1998—2001) , 南京技术学院 (2001—2004) ;语言 : 汉语,英语流利,懂一点日语;工作经历 : 暑 假在社区当义工;兴趣爱好:阅读,钓鱼,音乐。

Suggested Answer:

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Name Wang Dalei Address Rm 803 No 103 Gansu Road, Nanjing, 210050 Date of Birth 7th December 1983 Place of Birth Nanjing Nationality Chinese Marital Status Single Education 2001-2004 Nanjing Technical College 1998-2001 Nanjing Chaoyang High School Examinations passed: 2002 College English Test, Band 4, Excellent 2001 Practical English Test for Colleges (Level A), Excellent Languages Chinese Fluent English Some Japanese Previous Experience 2001 and 2002 Summer job working as a volunteer in a local community Interests Reading, fishing, music References Available on request BACK

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Write a résuméof your own based on the models given in Exercise 12.

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Text B
CH

What Makes a Good Attitude?
Lowell Lamberton, Leslie Minor

1 N Happiness is an attitude, the one attitude that most people strive for. Recent studies have shown that we can choose to have a happy attitude. Whether or not we are happy has little to do with the traditional factors we have usually connected with happiness. Happiness doesn?t seem to have much to do with amount of money, age, gender, or occupation. In a ten-year study at the National Institute on Aging, researchers found that regardless of the changes in occupation, marital status, or location, people who were happy at the beginning of the study were also happy at the end, ten years later.
?
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Text B
CH

2 What makes a positive, happy attitude? Psychologist Dr. David Myers lists four characteristics that all happy people seem to have in common: 3 1. Healthy Self-esteem. Love yourself, and you will be happy.
N

Sounds simple, doesn?t it?

N

The point is that whatever works to increase

your self-esteem will be the same strategies that will improve your overall attitude of happiness.

?
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Text B
CH

4 2. Optimism. Happy people are hope-filled. Several studies have shown that optimistic people are both happier and physically healthier than less optimistic people. In contrast, Harvard graduates who were the most pessimistic when they were interviewed in 1946 were also the least healthy of those interviewed 34 years later, in 1980. 5 3. Extroversion. Happy people are outgoing. An extrovert is a person whose behavior is directed outward towards others, or as Carl Jung says, to objects in the external world. N Notice, though, that this factor is also very directly related to the level of self-esteem. People who feel comfortable in new situations and who feel certain that others will accept them are usually people with relatively high self-esteem.
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6 4. Personal Control. Happy people control their own destinies. They control their own futures. They plan, and they manage their time well. N When someone else controls your choices, either large or small, happiness is diminished. Studies with prison inmates have shown that when even small freedoms were given, such as allowing them to arrange their own furniture, attitudes were much more positive.
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N

7 N These characteristics of happy, positive people are helpful to know, but there are specific actions you can take to achieve a more positive attitude. Dr. Myers says that by acting happy, you can actually help yourself become happy. Does that sound too simple? N An important truth to remember is that when things happen to us, as they do every day — things over which we have little control — we choose how we are going to react. Many of us are quick to blame the other person, the situation, or own physical condition. But we make the choice. Myers is simply suggesting that making the choice to act happy, and doing so N on a regular basis, will go a long way to improve our overall attitude. (437 words)
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Lowell Lamberton /
?兰伯顿

?l???l

?l??b?tn/: 洛厄尔

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Leslie Minor / ?lezli:???In?/:
莱斯利?迈纳

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Happiness is an attitude: the one attitude that most people strive for.
快乐是一种心态:是大多数人所努力追求的那种心态。 本句中的one为形容词,意为“特定的,唯一的”。the one attitude that most people strive for可以看作是对上文an attitude所作的解释。 又如:

Claire is the one person I can trust.
T

克莱尔是我唯一能信任的人。

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strive /str?I?/ : (strove /str???/, striven /?strI?n/) v. try very hard (to obtain or e.g. achieve sth.) (为获得或实现某事物)努力,奋斗 She strove to read the names on the rocks.
T

她费劲地去读岩石上的名字。

When I was 30, I was still striving to be successful.
T

我30岁时还在为成功而奋斗。 为获得(某物)或为达到(某目标)而努力;力争,力求

strive for: try very hard to obtain or achieve (sth.) e.g.
T

We must continue to strive for greater efficiency.
我们必须继续努力争取更高的效率。

This region must now strive for economic development.
T

这一地区现在必须为经济发展而努力。
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recent /?ri:snt/ : a. having happened or appeared a short time ago
最近的,新近的

e.g. John?s most recent book
T

约翰最新的书

The situation has improved in recent years.
T

情况近年来已经改善。

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1) What have recent studies found about people?s attitude? Recent studies have found that people can choose to have a happy attitude. 2) According to the writer, what factors does happiness have little to do with? Traditional factors, such as amount of money, age, gender or occupation. 3) What did the National Institute on Aging find through a study on happiness? The institute found that happy people tend to be happy all the time.

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Chinese Version

什么造就好心态?
洛厄尔·兰伯顿,莱斯利·迈纳
快乐是一种心态: 是大多数人所努力追求的那种心态。最新研究表明我们能够选择具 有一种快乐的心态。我们是否快乐与我们通常跟快乐相联系的传统因素关系甚微。快乐似 乎跟钱的多少、年龄、性别或职业没有多大关系。在国家老龄化研究所的一项为期10年的 研究中,研究人员发现,不管职业、婚姻状况或住所怎么改变,研究开始时就快乐的那些 人10年后依旧快乐。

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have little/much to do with: have little/much connection or relationship with
与…没有什么 / 有很大关系

e.g.

It was a fine day and so the accident has little to do with the weather.
T

那天天气很好,所以事故与天气没有什么关系。

Success or failure has much to do with one?s attitude.
T

成功与否跟人的态度有很大的关系。

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tradition /tr??dI??n/: n. passing of beliefs or customs from one generation to the next; belief or custom passed on in this way e.g. 传统;传统的思想(或信念、习俗) He plans to continue the family tradition and seek a career in politics.
T

他计划继承家族传统,在政界谋一个职位。

We must have respect for tradition.
T

我们必须尊重传统。

traditional / tr??dI??nl/: a. of or according to tradition 传统的,按照 传统的 e.g. The dancers were wearing traditional Chinese dress.
T

跳舞的人都穿着传统的中国服装。

traditional way of life
T

传统的生活方式
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gender /??end?/: n. the sexual division into male and female
性别

e.g. people of the same gender
T

同一性别的人

gender differences
T

性别差异

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occupation /?kj???eI?n/ : n. job; employment 工作;职业 e.g. Uneducated people often work in low-paid occupations.
T

没有受过教育的人往往干低收入的工作。

What?s his occupation?
T

他的职业是什么?

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national /?n???nl/: a. of or for the whole of one country; owned or controlled by the central government of a country; typical of the people of a nation
国家的;国有的;全国的;民族的;国民的

e.g.

the national flag
a national park

T T

国旗 国家公园
T T

a national newspaper the national economy

全国性的报纸 国民经济

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research /rI?s?:t?/: 1. n. careful study or investigation, esp. in order to discover new facts or information e.g. 研究;调查 scientific research
T

科学研究

He is doing research in modern history.
T

他在从事近代史的研究。

research / ?rI:s?:t?/ : 2. v. do research on 研 e.g. 究;调查 They?re researching into ways of improving people?s diet.
T

他们正在研究改善人们饮食的方法。

research a problem
T

研究一个问题
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institute/?InstItj?:t/: n. (building that contains a) society or organization for a special (usu. social, professional or educational) purpose e.g. 学会;协会;学院;研究院 an institute of radio engineers
T

无线电工程师学会

institute of economic affairs
T

经济事物研究所

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regardless of: without worrying about or taking account of, paying no attention to 不顾;不管;不理会 e.g. Regardless of whether he is right or wrong, we have to take his orders.
T

不管他是对还是错,我们必须服从他的命令。

He does what he wants, regardless of what I say.
T

他想做什么就做什么,而不理会我所说的话。

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4) How many characteristics does Dr. David Myers list about happy people? What are they?

Four. They are healthy self-esteem, optimism, extroversion and personal control
5) What is the suggestion the writer gives while talking about the first characteristic about happiness? He suggests that one should love oneself so as to become a happy person.

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Chinese Version

是什么造就积极、快乐的心态呢?心理学家戴维?迈尔斯博士列出了似乎所有快乐 的人们所共有的四个特征:

1. 健康的自尊。爱你自己,你就会快乐。这听上去很简单,对不对? 关键是任何行之
有效的增强自尊的方法都会同样成为增进你总体快乐心态的策略。

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marital /???rIt?l/: a. of marriage
e.g. marital relationship
T

婚姻的

婚姻关系

marital problems
T

婚姻问题

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status /?steIt?s/: n. Person?s social, legal or professional position or rank in relation to others e.g. social status
T

地位,身份

社会地位

Now that he was a bank manager, he wanted a car that would reflect his status.
T

他既然是银行经理,他就想要一辆跟他身份相符的车。

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location /l???keI?n/: n. place or position
方,位置


e.g.
His apartment is in a really good location
T

他的公寓位于一个确实不错的地段。

The map shows the location of the air crash.
T

这张地图显示了空难发生的位置。

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characteristic /k?r?kt??rIstIk/: n. All great leaders share certain characteristics. e.g. Mark dived off the bridge into the river.
T

特点,特性,特征

所有伟大的领导人都有某些共同的特点。

Can you describe the robber ?s physical characteristics?
T

你能描述一下抢劫者的身体特征吗?

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David Myers / ?deI?Id ??i?z /: 戴维·迈尔斯

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have sth. in common: share interests, characteristics, etc. 有共同之处,
有共同的兴趣、特点等

e.g.
I found I had a lot in common with these people.
T

我发现我跟这些人有许多共同之处。

These two musical instruments have certain features in common.
T

这两种乐器有一些共同的特点。

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self-esteem /selfI?sti:?/: n. good opinion of one?s own character and abilities e.g. 自尊(心);自负 Students? sense of self-esteem
T

学生的自尊心

Losing the job was a real blow to his self-esteem.
T

丢掉工作对他的自尊心确实是个打击。

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Sounds simple, doesn?t it?
这听上去很简单,对不对?
本句中的主语it被省略了。这种情况在口语中较常见。

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6) What is the basis of the writer ?s opinion about optimism?

The writer ’s opinion is based on the fact that optimistic people are both happier and physically healthier than less optimistic people.
7) What kind of person is an extrovert according to the writer? An extrovert is a person whose behavior is directed outward towards others or to objects in the external world.

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Chinese Version
2. 乐观主义。快乐的人是充满希望的。几项研究表明乐观的人比不太乐观的人更快乐而

且身体更健康。与之形成对照的是,1946年接受采访时最悲观的哈佛大学毕业生亦是34年后, 即1980年,接受采访时健康状况最差的人。 3. 外向。快乐的人喜欢与人交往。性格外向者是将自己的行为向外导向别人的人,或者 像卡尔?荣格所说,导向外在世界对象的人。不过请注意,这一因素跟自尊的程度也有非常直接 的联系。在新的环境中感到轻松自在并且确信别人会接受他们的人通常都是自尊心相对较强 的人。

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whatever /??t?e??/: pron . anything that; regardless of what
任何…的事物,凡是…的东西;不管什么,无论什么

e.g. Help yourself to whatever you want.
T

想吃什么请自便。

Whatever I suggest, he always disagrees.
T

无论我提什么建议,他总是不同意。

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The point is that whatever works to increase your self-esteem will be the same strategies that will improve your overall attitude of happiness.
关键是任何行之有效的增强自尊的方法都会同样成为增进你总体快乐心态的策略。

whatever一词可以用作连接代词,在句中作主语、宾语等,也可以用作起连接作用的 形容词,

如: Whatever requests you make will be granted.
T

无论你提出什么请求都会答应你。

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optimism /???tI?Iz??/: n. tendency to expect the best in all things; confiden in success; belief that the future will be good and that things will end well 乐观(主义) e.g. unrealistic optimism
T

不切实际的乐观主义

We can now face the future with optimism.
T

现在我们可以乐观地面对未来。

optimistic /???tI??IstIk/: a. expecting the best; confident
的;有信心的
T

乐观

e.g. In spite of all her problems she manages to remain optimistic.
尽管有各种问题,她都能保持乐观。

I?m optimistic about our chances of winning the game today.
T

我对我们赢得今天的比赛很有信心。
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in contrast: when a contrast is made 对比之下 e.g. Their economy has expanded enormously, while ours, by/in contrast, has declined.
T

他们的经济有了很大的增长,相比之下,我们的则已经衰退。

In clear contrast to the hot days, the nights are bitterly cold.
T

和炎热的白天形成鲜明对比的是,夜晚冷得刺骨。

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Harvard /?hB:??d/ :(美国)哈佛大学

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pessimistic /??esI??IstIk/: a.

悲观的;悲观主义的

e.g.
Don?t be too pessimistic — we may still win the game.
T

不要太悲观——我们依然可能赢得比赛。

He?s quite pessimistic about his chances of getting another job.
T

他对自己找到另一份工作的可能性非常悲观。

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interview /?Int??j?:/: 1. n. meeting at which sb. (esp. sb. applying for a job) is asked questions to find out if he/she is suitable; meeting at which a reporter, etc., asks sb. questions in order to find out his/her views
e.g. I always get nervous before interviews
T

面试;面谈;(记者等的) 采访,访谈

面试前我总是很紧张。

In his latest TV interview the pop singer talks about his drug problem.
T

在最近的一次电视采访中,那位流行歌手谈了他的吸毒问题。

2. v. 对(某人,尤指求职者)进行面试;(记者等)采访(某人) e.g. We interviewed ten people for the job.
T

我们面试了10个申请此项工作的人。

The Prime Minister declined to be interviewed.
T

首相拒绝接受采访。
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at least: not less than; if nothing else is true; at any rate 至少;反正;无论如何 e.g. At least seven students were injured in the accident.
T

我大多数题目都答对了。

Make sure you get people?s names right when you?re sending out the invitations.
T

我不知道他在哪里,但是至少我知道他还活着。

At least you should listen to his explanation.
T

你至少应该听听他的解释。

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extroversion /?ekstr????:?n/: n. 性格外向 e.g. Extroversion is important for a salesperson.
T

性格外向对销售员而言是重要的。

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outgoing /???tg??I?/: a. friendly and sociable
爽直的
友好的;喜好交往的;

e.g. Tess is a friendly, outgoing woman.
T

泰丝是一个友善而又爽直的女人。

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extrovert /?ekstr???:t/: n. person more interested in what is happening around him than in his own thoughts and emotions e.g.
性格外向的人

He?s a total extrovert who will talk to any stranger.
T

他完全是一个跟任何陌生人都会讲话的性格外向的人。

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direct /dI?rekt, d?i?rekt/: vt. turn or aim (sth.) in a particular direction

e.g.
T

使(某物)向某一方向转动;把(某物)对准某一目标

I?d like to direct your attention to Paragraph Four.
我想让你注意看第四段。

He directed his flashlight at the roof.
T

他将手电筒对准了房顶。

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8) What is the main content of personal control which forms the fourth characteristic of happiness? This includes being able to control one’s own destiny, plan and manage one’s time well.

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9) Besides some knowledge about the four characteristics mentioned above, what must one do in order to achieve a more positive attitude? One must take specific actions. 10) What can we do when faced with something over which we have little control?

We can choose how we are going to react.

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Chinese Version
4. 自我控制。快乐的人控制自己的命运。他们控制自己的未来。他们制订计划, 而且把时间处理得很好。当别的人控制你的选择时,不管是大的还是小的选择, 快乐就 会减少。对监狱犯人所作的研究表明,即使给予他们很小的自由,比如允许他们安排自 己的家具,他们的心态就会积极得多。

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了解快乐达观者的这些特征是有帮助的,但是你还可以采取一些具体的行动来获得更 加积极的心态。迈尔斯博士说,开开心心地做事确实能够帮助你自己变得快乐。这听起来 是不是太简单了?应当记住的一个重要事实是,当事情——我们几乎无法控制的一些事 情——发生在我们身上时,就像每天都会发生的那样,我们就要选择如何作出反应。我们 很多人会急于责备别人、环境或自己的身体状况。但我们可以作出选择。迈尔斯清楚地建 议说,开开心心地做事,并且经常这么做,就会有助于改善我们的总体心态。

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be related to: 与…有关的 e.g. Education levels are strongly related to income.
T

教育程度跟收入有很大的关系。

Much of the crime in this area is related to drug abuse.
T

这一地区的许多犯罪行为都跟滥用毒品有关。

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external /Ik?st?:nl/: a. outside 外部的,外面的 e.g. the external appearance of the building
T

建筑物的外观

external debt
T

外债

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Notice, though, that this factor is also very directly related to the level of self-esteem.
注意,这一因素跟自尊的程度也有非常直接的联系。 此句中的though为副词,意为“可是,不过,然而”,一般用在句末。 又如:

I think she?s Chinese. I?m not sure, though.
T

我想她是中国人。但是我不能肯定。

Gardening is quite hard work. I enjoy it, though.
T

园艺工作很辛苦,可是我乐意干。

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outward /???t??d/: ad. towards the outside 向外 e.g. Porches extended outward from the house.
T

门廊从房子向外延伸出去。

The ship is bound outward.
T

船驶出港口。

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Carl Jung /kB:l ?j??/: 卡尔·荣格(1875—1961,瑞士心理学家,精神病学
家,首创分 析心理学)

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destiny /?destInI/: n. power believed to control events; fate 命运

e.g.
Susan wondered whether it was her destiny to marry George and live in England.
T

苏珊心想是否她命中注定要嫁给乔治并在英格兰生活。

I want to control my destiny.
T

我想控制自己的命运。

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When someone else controls your choices, either large or small, happiness is diminished.
当别的人控制你的选择时,不管是大的还是小的选择, 快乐就会减少。 英语中把成对的形容词用连接词组合起来作定语时,常后置,如本句中的either large or small。 又如:

It was April, sunny and warm.
T

那是阳光明媚、温暖和煦的四月。

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diminish /dI??InI?/: v. (cause to) become less
少,变小 减少,减小;变

e.g. The world?s resources are rapidly diminishing
T

世界上的资源正在快速减少。

The long walk diminished his energy.
T

长途行走减弱了他的体力。

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prison /??rIzn/: n. place where people are kept locked up as a punishment for crimes they have committed or while awaiting trial
监狱;看守所

e.g.

Conditions in the prison were shocking.
T

监狱里的情况骇人听闻。

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inmate /?In?eIt/: n. one of a number of people living together, esp. in a hospital, prison or some other institution
(监狱等的)被收容者;(医院里的)住院者

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These characteristics of happy, positive people are helpful to know,…
了解快乐达观者的这些特征是有帮助的…… 有些形容词后可接不定式,它跟主语可以是动宾关系(如本句),也可以是主谓关系, 如:

Some ball games are very interesting to watch.
T

有些球类运动看起来很有趣。(动宾关系)

He is sure to come.
T

他肯定会来。(主谓关系)

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Dr. Myers says that by acting happy, you can actually help yourself become happy.
迈尔斯博士说,开开心心地做事其实能够帮助你自己变得快乐。

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An important truth to remember is that when things happen to us, as they do every day — things over which we have little control — we choose how we are going to react.
应当记住的一个重要事实是,当事情——我们几乎无法控制的一些事情 ——发生在我们 身上时,就像每天都会发生的那样,我们就要选择如何作出反应。 连接词 as 引导的是一个表示方式的状语从句,表示事情以何种方式发生; things over which we have little control进一步说明上文things的特点;over which we have little control为定语从句。英语中have little control over意为“对…几乎控制不了”。

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condition /k?n?dI?n/: n. 状态;处境;现状,状况

e.g.
economic conditions
T

经济状况

weather conditions
T

天气情况

working conditions
T

工作条件

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regular /?regj?l?/: a. repeated, with the same amount of time or space between one thing and the next; planned for the same time every day, week or month 有规律的,规则的;定时 e.g. a regular visitor
T

的,定期的

常客

a regular job
T

固定工作

His heartbeat is not very regular.
T

他的心跳不太稳定(心律不齐)。
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Language Points
on a regular basis: regularly 按时地;定期地;经常

e.g. The group meets on a regular basis, usually weekly or biweekly.
T

这个小组定期碰面,通常每星期或两星期一次。

We hear from him on a regular basis.
T

我们经常收到他的信。

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go a long way: help greatly 大有帮助

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on pins and needles: worried; nervous 如坐针毡的;坐立不安的;急得要死的

e.g. I was on pins and needles until I found out I?d won.
T

在我弄清楚自己赢了之前,我一直如坐针毡。

We?re on pins and needles waiting to hear whether she got the job.
T

我们一直坐立不安地等着听她是否得到那份工作的消息。

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Language Points
or something: or a thing like that 诸如此类的什么

e.g. Did she have an accident or something on her way back home yesterday?
T

昨天她回家时是否遇上车祸或此类似的事了?

Maybe we can go to the movies or something.
T

也许我们可以去看电影或做一些类似的事情。

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Language Points
have (got) ants in one?s pants: be very restless or excited 坐立不安,非常激动

e.g. She?s got ants in her pants because she?s going to a party tonight.
T

她今晚将去参加一个晚会,所以一直非常激动。

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Language Points
would have sent him out to play: 本来会打发他出去玩的。
句中would have sent是虚拟语气,表示跟事实相反的含义。

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figure / ?fIg?/: vt. think (sth.); calculate 认为,想;估


e.g. From the way he talked, I figured that he was drunk.
T

从他讲话的样子看,我想他是喝醉了。

I need some time to figure my expenses in the coming week.
T

我需要一些时间估计一下下周的花费。

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Language Points
break the ice: do or say sth. to remove or reduce awkwardness or tension, esp. at a first meeting or at the start of a party, etc.
(为难办的事)开个头;打破沉默,使气氛活跃

e.g. Let?s break the ice by having everyone give their names.
T

让我们以自报姓名开始吧。

Sam?s arrival broke the ice and people began to talk and laugh.
T

萨姆的到来使得气氛活跃起来,人们开始交谈、欢笑了。

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clean as a whistle: very tidy or clean 干干净净;洁白无瑕 e.g. I want you to get those plates as clean as a whistle.
T

我要你把那些盘子彻底洗干净。

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Language Points
dawn /dC:n/: 1. vi. begin to grow light; gradually become clear (to sb. s mind); become evident (to sb.) 破晓;被理解;被想到 e.g. The morning dawned clear and sunny.
T

破晓时天空如洗、阳光明媚。

Gradually the truth about him dawned.
T

他的真相渐渐地清楚了。

2. n. time of day when light first appears; daybreak 黎明;拂晓 e.g. We got up at dawn and started our 15 day journey.
T

我们黎明即起,开始了我们15天的旅程。

They seem to work from dawn till dusk.
T

他们好像从黎明一直工作到黄昏。
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dawn on sb. : become clear to sb. 某人突然明白,某人恍然大悟

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catch/get one?s second wind: feel strong again after getting very tired
恢复精力,恢复元气

e.g. It dawned on the poor woman that she had made a terrible mistake.
T

那可怜的女人突然明白她犯了一个可怕的错误。

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11) What is the biggest mystery the writer has found about the English language? The biggest mystery is that anyone can learn it.

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Language Points
at all: 完全,根本(常用于否定句中) e.g. I don?t know him at all.
T

我根本就不认识他。

She cannot see or hear anything at all.
T

她根本就看不见也听不见。

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think of: produce or put forward (an idea, etc.) 想出,想到 e.g. Can you think of a good place for the holidays?
T

你能想出一个度假的好地方吗?

I can?t think of any reason why he would do that.
T

我想不出任何他会干那事的理由。

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Text B Exercises
Answer the following questions. Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the forms where necessary. Fill in the blanks with the expressions given below. Change the form where necessary.

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Exercises
Answer the following questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. What have recent studies found about people?s attitude? According to the writer, what factors does happiness have little to do with? What did the National Institute on Aging find through a study on happiness? How many characteristics does Dr. David Myers list about happy people? What are they? What is the suggestion the writer gives while talking about the first characteristic about happiness? What is the basis of the writer?s opinion about optimism? What kind of person is an extrovert according to the writer? What is the main content of personal control which forms the fourth characteristic of happiness? Besides some knowledge about the four characteristics mentioned above, what must one do in order to achieve a more positive attitude? What can we do when faced with something over which we have little control?
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Fill in the blanks with the words given below. Change the forms where necessary. recent external traditional condition occupation characteristic regular optimistic whatever pessimistic interview institute

1. Anything that happened after World War II is too ______ recent to be considered “history.” 2. All great leaders share certain characteristics ____________ which were key to their success. 3. There is no fate that plans men?s lives. Whatever ________ comes to us, good or bad, is usually the result of our own action or lack of action. 4. Before he wrote his book about people of old age, Stephen interviewed __________a lot of old people. _______ . 5. For a man of sixty-six, Jim?s in pretty good condition ______ habits — he always does the same things on the same 6. Tom is a man of regular days. PREV. NEXT

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recent external

traditional condition

occupation characteristic regular optimistic

whatever pessimistic

interview institute

7. Many of these people, who live in less developed mountain areas, retain their traditional way of life. ________ _________ . 8. Social status in this country is largely determined by one?s occupation 9. To every separate person a thing is what he thinks it is. No two people see the _______ external world in exactly the same way. 10. She is optimistic _______ about her chances of winning a gold medal. pessimistic and expect the worst, your attitude is often negative. 11. When you are _________ 12. Mary is continuing her educational research in retirement and has recently ______ . accepted a part-time job with a national research institute

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Fill in the blanks with the expressions given below. Change the form where necessary. strive for go a long way on a regular basis have little/much to do with have… in common be related to regardless of in contrast

1. We like the same things and the same people. I think we _____ _________ . have a lot in common 2. She knew it was dangerous to visit the wounded soldier except at night, but she regardless of the risk. set out ___________ 3. My grandfather was a deeply religious man who had read the Bible to his ______________ a regular basis children on . 4. Our economy has expanded enormously in the past ten years, while theirs, _________ in contrast , has declined. 5. Don?t waste your time _________ striving for perfection; instead, strive for excellence doing your best.
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strive for go a long way on a regular basis

have little/much to do with have… in common be related to

regardless of in contrast

have little to do with technique 6. Accidents involving experienced drivers __________________ ____________________ but much to do with attitude . go a long way to improve our learning environment. 7. These measures will ___________ are related to his working environment. 8. Obviously his mental problems ____________

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Text C
CH

Attitude — One of Life’s Choices
Bob Harris

A happy person is not a person in a certain set of circumstances, but rather a person with a certain set of attitudes.
— Hugh Downs 1 My wife, Tere, and I bought a new car in December. Even though we had tickets to fly from California to Houston to visit her family for Christmas, we decided to drive to Texas to break in (试开以磨合) the new car. We packed the car and took off for a wonderful week with Grandma. 2 We had a wonderful time and stayed to the last possible minute visiting with Grandma. On the return trip we needed to get home in a hurry, so we drove straight through — one person driving while the other one slept. After driving in a hard rain for several hours, we arrived home late at night. We were tired and ready for a hot shower (淋浴) and a soft bed. I had the feeling that no matter how tired we were, we should unpack the car that night, but all Tere wanted was the hot shower and the soft bed, so we decided to wait and unload the car in the morning. BACK NEXT

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Text C

心态——人生的选择之一
鲍勃?哈里斯
快乐的人并不是处于某种环境中的人, 而是具有某种心态的人。 ——休?唐斯

我和妻子特里在12月买了一辆新车。尽管我们有机票可以从加州飞到休斯敦和她 的家人一起过圣诞节,但我们还是决定开车去得州以磨合新车。我们把东西装进汽车, 离家去和外婆一起度过美妙的一周。 我们过得很愉快,在外婆家一直待到最后一分钟。回来时,我们需要赶快到家, 所以,我们便一路不停地行驶——一个人开车,另一个人睡觉。在大雨中行驶了几个 小时后,我们在深夜时到了家。我们累坏了,只想冲个热水澡就爬上柔软的床去睡觉。 我感觉到无论我们有多累 , 我们都应该当晚把车上的东西卸下来,但特里只想赶快洗 个澡就上床睡觉,所以我们决定等到早晨再卸车。

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3 At seven o?clock in the morning, we got up refreshed and ready to unpack the car. When we opened the front door, there was no car in the driveway(私用 车道)! Tere and I looked at each other, looked back at the driveway, and looked at each other again. Then Tere asked this wonderful question, “Well, where did you park the car?” 4 Laughing, I answered, “Right in the driveway.” Now we knew where we had parked the car, but we still walked outside, hoping that maybe the car had miraculously ( 奇 迹 般 地 ) backed out the driveway and parked itself by the curb(路缘), but it hadn?t.
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Text C
早晨 7 点钟的时候,我们恢复了精力,起床后准备卸车。当我们打开前门时,私

家车道上的车却不见了!特里和我面面相觑,回头再看车道,又彼此对视。然后,特里
问了一个奇妙的问题:“哟,你把车停哪儿啦?” 我笑着回答:“就停在车道上。”这时我们虽然知道我们停车的地方了,但我们 还是走到外边,希望那辆车也许奇迹般地倒出了车道,停在了路缘边,但它没有。

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5 Stunned( 震 惊 ), we called the police and filed( 提 交 ) a report that supposedly(据推测) activated(启动) our high-tech tracking(追踪) system. To be on the safe side, I also called the tracking system company. They assured me they had a 98 percent recovery rate within two hours. In two hours, I called again and asked, “Where?s my car?” 6 “We haven?t found it yet, Mr. Harris, but we have a 94 percent recovery rate within four hours.” 7 Two more hours passed. I called again and asked, “Where?s my car?” 8 Again they answered, “We haven?t found it yet, but we have a 90 percent recovery rate of finding it within eight hours.” 9 At that point I told them, “Your percentage rate means nothing to me when I?m in the small percentage, so call me when you find it.”

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Text C
震惊之余,我们报了警并提交了一份据说会启动我们的高科技追踪系统的报告。
为了保险起见,我又给追踪系统公司打了电话。他们保证说在两小时内他们有 98% 的 概率找回汽车。两小时后,我又打电话问:“我的汽车在哪里?”“我们还没有找到, 哈利斯先生,但是在4小时内我们有94%的找回率。”

又过去了两个小时。我再次打电话问:“我的汽车在哪里?”
他们再次回答说:“我们还没有找到,但在8小时内我们有90%的找回率。” 这时我告诉他们:“当我处于极小概率时,你的这些百分比对我毫无意义,所以 在你们找到车时给我打电话吧。”

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Text C
我看了看她,说道:“亲爱的,我们可以被人偷走了车而万分烦恼,我们也可 以被人偷走车却依然快乐。不管怎么样,我们的车总归是被偷了。我确实相信, 我们的心态和心情是我们的选择,而此时此刻,我选择快乐。” 5 天之后我们的车被送了回来,但我们所有的东西都没了踪影 , 车损费用也超 过了 3000 美元。我把它送到汽车商那里去修理,听他们说一周内可以修好还给我 们,我感到很高兴。 那一周结束时,我开回了我们的车。拿回自己的车让我既激动又宽慰。不幸 的是,这种感觉转瞬即逝。回家的路上,就在高速公路出口的坡道上我的车与前 车追尾了。被我撞上的车倒未受损,但我们的车却撞坏了——又是一笔 3000 美元 的损失,又要办一次保险理赔。我总算把车开进了我们的私家车道,但当我下车 查看车的损坏情况时,前左轮胎已经瘪了。

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Text C
正当我站在车道上看着自己的汽车,责怪自己撞了那辆车时,特里到家了。她向我走来, 看了看汽车,又看了看我。她见我烦恼的样子,就用手臂搂住我说:“亲爱的,我们可以撞 坏了车而烦恼不已,我们也可以撞坏了车却依然快乐。不管怎么样,我们的车总归已被撞坏 了,所以还是让我们选择快乐吧。” 我纵声大笑着顺从了她,继而我们一起度过了一个美妙的夜晚。

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Text C
CH

10 Later that day, a commercial( 商 业 广 告 ) aired on television with the automaker(汽车制造商 ) asking, “Wouldn?t you like to have this car in your driveway?” 11 I responded, “Sure I would! I had one yesterday.” 12 As the day unfolded( 展开 ), Tere became increasingly upset as she remembered more and more of what had been in the car — our wedding album, irreplaceable family photos from past generations, clothes, all of our camera(照相机) equipment, my wallet and our check-books(支票簿), just to name a few. These were items of little importance to our survival, yet they seemed of major importance at that moment. 13 Anxious and frustrated(沮丧), Tere asked me, “How can you joke about this when all of these things and our brand new car are missing?”

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Text C
CH

14 I looked at her and said, “Honey, we can have a stolen car and be all upset, or we can have a stolen car and be happy. Either way, we have a stolen car. I truly believe our attitudes and moods are our choice and right now I choose to be happy.” 15 Five days later our car was returned without a trace(痕迹) of any of our belongings, and with over $3,000 worth of damage to the car. I took it to the dealer(汽车商) for repair and was happy to hear they would have it back to us within a week. 16 At the end of that week, I picked up our car. I was excited and relieved to have our own car back. Unfortunately, these feelings were short-lived. On the way home, I rear-ended( 撞上 … 的车尾 ) another car right at our freeway exit ramp(坡道). It didn?t hurt the car I ran into, but it sure hurt ours — another $3,000 worth of damage and another insurance claim(索赔). I managed to drive the car into our driveway, but when I got out to survey the damage, the left front tire(轮胎) went flat.
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Text C
CH

17 As I was standing in the driveway looking at the car, kicking myself(责备自己) for hitting the other car, Tere arrived home. She walked up to me, looked at the car, and then at me. Seeing I was upset, she put her arm around me and said, “Honey, we can have a wrecked(撞坏的) car and be all upset, or we can have a wrecked car and be happy. Either way, we have a wrecked car, so let?s choose to be happy.” 18 I surrendered(让步,投降) with a hearty laugh and we went on to have a wonderful evening together. (798 words)

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Text C
那天晚些时候,电视里播放了一条商业广告,一个汽车制造商在问:“你难道不 想在你的车道上中有这样一辆车吗?”我回应道:“当然想!我昨天就有一辆。” 随着一天的时间慢慢流逝,特里变得越来越烦躁不安,因为她越来越多地想起放 在车上的东西——我们的结婚照相簿、无法补偿的前几代人的家庭照、衣服、全套照 相设备、我的钱包和我们的支票簿,这些还仅仅是列举的几项而已。这些东西对我们 的生存关系不大,然而在当时它们却似乎非常重要。 特里既焦虑又沮丧 , 她问我:“我们这些东西和崭新的汽车都没有了,你怎么还 能开这种玩笑?”

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Comprehension of the Text
Choose the best answer for each of the following multiple choice questions.

1. The writer and his wife drove instead of flying to Houston because__________.
KEY

A) they lost their air tickets B) Tere did not like to fly C) they wanted to get used to their new car D) they wanted to show Tere?s mother their new car

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2. Back from Houston, the writer and his wife did not unload their car immediately because ____________.
KEY

A) the writer forgot to do it
B) it was raining C) Tere was too tired D) it was too late

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3. When the writer and his wife found their car missing, they walked out in order to _________________.

KEY

A) see if their car had slipped down the driveway B) check if they had parked their car outside on the curb

C) refresh themselves in the morning air
D) see each other more clearly

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4. Judging from its context, a tracking system company is one that ________________. A) calculates the recovery percentage of different cars
B) manufactures spare parts for cars C) lays traffic tracks across the country D) helps owners find their stolen car

KEY

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5. The writer?s response to the TV commercial about cars shows that he ____________.

KEY

A) hated the commercial B) found it funny at the moment C) felt extremely helpless D) was angry with the tracking system company

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6. Faced with the upsetting situation, the writer believes that_________.

KEY

A) the most important thing is to have a positive attitude B) it doesn?t matter whether the car can be found or not C) the family photos are worth much more than anything else D) there is no need to talk about the missing car in the family

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7. After the writer got back his own car and had it repaired, he______________.
KEY

A) drove it home and felt satisfied

B) had a traffic accident
C) lost $3,000 on his way home D) had his car hit by another car

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8. From the last two paragraphs, we know that______________.

KEY

A) the writer and his wife live a happier life without their car B) the wife helped her husband to heal his wound C) the writer kicked himself and got hurt D) the wife learnt to take a positive attitude when something bad happens

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Basic Reading Skills
Scanning
有时我们阅读有明确的目的,清楚自己要想获得什么信息,并且带着问题去阅读。比如你在 阅读本单元C篇课文时,假定自己在阅读前要想找到下面一些问题的答案:

1. When did the writer and his wife buy a new car? 2. What did they do at seven o?clock in the morning? 3. What did they discover in the driveway when they opened the front door?
回答第一个问题,你要在文章中寻找与“买车时间”相关的信息,你在第一段就能很快找到 答案。回答第二个问题,你先要找到文章中的“at seven o?clock in the morning”,你在第三 段就能很快找到答案。回答第三个问题,你要在文章中去寻找“they opened the front door”, 在 “in the driveway when they opened the front door”前后就能很快找到答案。再比如, 你在词典中查找一个词的意义,你翻到某一页就直接找到那个词,一般不会把那一页从头到尾读 一遍。这种阅读方法称为查读( Scanning)或寻读。查读是一种快速阅读方法,是带着问题到 阅读材料中去寻找某一特定的信息,如数目、地名、人名、某一细节等。快速是查读最重要的特 征。
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A. Answer the following questions as quickly as possible, using the text below. Use your watch to time yourself. It should take you only 1 minute. Questions: 1. When was Margaret Walker born? She was born in the summer of 1915. 2. How old was Margaret Walker when she completed her B.A. in English? Nineteen. 3. In which year did Margaret Walker receive her master writing? s degree in creative

1942. 4. What book enabled her to win the Yale Younger Poets Competition? Her book of poetry For My People.
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Margaret Walker was born in the summer of 1915 in Birmingham, Alabama. As the daughter of a minister and a teacher, Walker was encouraged to excel. In 1934, at the age of nineteen, she completed her B.A. in English at Northwestern University in Chicago, Illinois, and one year later, she joined the Federal Writers Project. Walker worked on this project with such prominent writers as Richard Wright and Gwendolyn Brooks. As a result of her friendship with Richard Wright, in 1988 she published Richard Wright, Daemonic Genius: A Portrait of the Man, a Critical Look at His Work. In 1942 she received her master?s degree in creative writing from the University of Iowa where she also received her Ph.D. in English in 1965. She won the Yale Younger Poets Competition for her book of poetry For My People in 1942. Following her marriage to Firnist Alexander in 1943, she began teaching English at Jackson State University in Jackson, Mississippi, where she taught from 1946 to 1979. She lived in Jackson until her death in December, 1998. Although best known for her poetry, Margaret Walker has also written an array of essays, interviews, speeches, biographies, and the novel Jubilee, which commemorates her great grandmother, who survived slavery.
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B. Before you answer the following questions, decide what kind of answer, or which words from the questions, you are looking for. Then answer the questions. You have only 2 minutes. Questions: 1. How many children worldwide have never been in school or have dropped out without learning to read or write? Some 275 million children. 2. How much money is needed each year to fulfill the plan that every child on earth has a basic level of literacy by 2015? About $8 billion. 3. When was that plan originally made? In 1990. 4. Which country is cited as an example of what can be done to improve education? Uganda. 5. What is a key factor in the improvement of education? The abolition of high fees parents had to pay.
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A recent study reports that some 275 million children worldwide have never been in school or have dropped out without learning to read or write. The study being released today says about $8 billion each year is needed in spending for education in the world?s poorest countries to fulfill a plan by 155 nations that every child on earth has a basic level of literacy by 2015. That plan was originally made in 1990 and had the millennium?s end as the goal, but the date later was pushed back. Across the globe, the report found that 125 million children, two-thirds of them girls, have never been in a classroom. An additional 150 million had started school but left without minimal literacy. “Everyone agrees with the targets, but the promises have been broken,” said Justin Forsyth, director of a U.S. charity organization. If current trends continue, sub-Saharan Africa, which accounts for one-third of out-of-school children, will have three-fourths of the total in 15 years, according to Oxfam. The organization is beginning a campaign to get wealthy nations and private donors to increase aid and grant debt relief to nations with high illiteracy rates.
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The report cites one of the world?s poorest countries, Uganda, as an example of what can be done to improve education. With outside help and new government policies, Uganda spends 17 times as much on primary education as it did in 1990. Enrollment has doubled over the past two years and now is estimated at close to 90 percent. A key factor in the improvement was the abolition of high fees parents had to pay so their children could attend school.

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Time for Fun

Beautiful Sunday by Daniel Boone
Sunday morning, up with the lark, I think I?ll take a walk in the park. Hey, hey, hey, It?s a beautiful day.

I?ve got someone waiting for me, And when I see her I know that she?ll say,

“Hey, hey, hey,
It?s a beautiful day.”
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Hi, hi, hi, beautiful Sunday. This is my, my, my beautiful day. When you said, said, said, said that you loved me,

Oh my, my, my, it?s a beautiful day.

Birds are singing you by my side Let?s take a car and go for a ride. Hey, hey, hey, It?s a beautiful day.

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We?ll drive on and follow the sun. Makin? Sunday go on and on. Hey, hey, hey, It?s a beautiful day.

Hi, hi, hi, beautiful Sunday.
This is my, my, my beautiful day. When you said, said, said, said that you loved me, Oh my, my, my, it?s a beautiful day.

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