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36“记” 话题 / 基础 / 技巧) ( 36“记”之社会生活★★★★★

Ⅰ.根据短文内容,从下框的 A~F 选项中选出能概括每一段主题的最佳选 项。选项中有一项为多余项。 A.Drug overuse and its consequence B.The problem of drug overuse in America C.Benefits of medicine and its wise use D.Female drug overuse with reference to that of males E.Misuse of medicine among the young generation F.Improper use of medicine among senior citizens 1. Nowadays,millions of people misuse and even overuse pain medications and other drugs.Research by the American National Institute on Drug Abuse(NIDA,1999) shows that around 2% of the population over age 12 were using drugs nonmedically. 2. NIDA views medications as a powerful force for good in the contemporary world.They reduce and remove pain for millions of people suffering from illness and disease.They make it possible for doctors to perform complicated surgery to save lives.Many people afflicted by serious medical conditions are able to control their symptoms and become active,contributing citizens.NIDA points out that most individuals who take these drugs use them in a responsible manner. 3. Nevertheless,overuse of drugs such as opioids,central nervous system(CNS) depressants and stimulants does lead to harmful reliance in some people and is therefore becoming a serious public health concern.Although this abuse affects many people worldwide,particular trends of concern to the medical profession in the US

appear among older adults,teenagers and women. 4. Though it may be a surprise to many, misuse of medications may be the most the common form of drug abuse among the elderly.Dr Kenneth Schmader of Duke University,North Carolina states that although the elderly represent about 13% of the US population, those aged 65 and over account for the consumption of one third of all drugs.People in this age group use medications roughly three times more than the general population and have poorer compliance with instruction for use.In another study of elderly patients admitted to treatment programs,70% were women who had overused medicines. 5. Unfortunately,this trend among women does not only affect those aged over 65.In general,among women and men who are using either an antianxiety drug or a sedative,women are twice as likely to become addicted.In addition,statistics compiled for 12~17 year olds show that teenage girls are more likely than teenage boys to begin overusing psychotherapeutic medication such as painkillers , tranquillisers,stimulants and sedatives. 【语篇解读】 如今,上百万人错误使用或者过度使用止疼药物或麻醉药, 其中 12 岁以上的人使用麻醉药并非出于治病目的占 2%。 1.B [第一段总括美国人错误使用或者过度使用止疼药物的情况,所以应 选择 B。] 2.C [第二段说明止疼药物的积极作用和正确使用止疼药物的做法,所以

应选择 C。] 3.A [第三段主要说明过度使用止疼药物引起的一系列不良后果,所以应 选择 A。] 4.F [第四段主要说明 65 岁以上的老年人使用止疼药物的不当情况,所以 应选择 F。] 5.D [第五段说明止疼药物在妇女中的不当使用情况,所以应选择 D。] Ⅱ.根据短文内容,从下框的 A~F 选项中选出能概括每一段主题的最佳选 项。选项中有一项为多余项。

A.Be wellorganised

B.Close with a Q& A

C.Don't be contradictory D.Bring it to a specific end E.Speak slowly and pause F.Drop unnecessary words Speaking to a group can be difficult,but listening to a bad speech is truly a tiresome task—especially when the speaker is confusing.Don't want to confuse your audience?Follow these suggestions: 1. When it comes to understanding new information,the human brain needs a little time.First,we hear the words;then,we compare the new information to what we already know.If the two are different,we need to pause and think.But a breathless speaker never stops to let us think about what he or she is saying and risks confusing us.Slow it down.And breathe. 2. Sometimes we all start a sentence one way and then switch directions,which is very difficult to follow.When you confuse your listeners with opposing information, you leave the audience wondering what part of the information is right and what part they should remember.Instead of relying on keeping correcting yourself,work to get the facts clear and straight. 3. Jumping from point to point as it comes to your mind puts the onus(责任) on your listeners to make up for your lack of organisation.And it's confusing for them to listen,reorganise,and figure out what you're saying all at once.But going smoothly from one point to the next helps them understand information more easily.You can arrange things from beginning to end,small to large,top to bottom or by some other order.Just be sure to organise. 4. Repeated use of um, ah, like, know and some other useless noises can drive you an audience crazy.It makes the speaker sound uncertain and unprepared,and it can leave listeners so annoyed that they can't pay attention.Recently I attended a speech that was marked by so many ums that audience members were rolling their eyes.Was

anybody grasping the intended message?Um,probably not. 5. Many speakers finish up their speeches with question- answer (Q & A) andsessions,but some let the Q & A go on without a clear end.The audience is often left confused about whether the meeting is over and when they can get up and leave.Do your listeners a favour by setting a time limit on questions, close your speech with and a specific signal—even if it's something simple like,“If you have any more questions,you know where to reach me.” Or even more to the point,conclude your speech with“Thanks for your time.” 【语篇解读】 本文是一篇建议性文章。就演讲向读者提出中肯的建议。 1.E [作者以听众需要时间理解信息为由,建议演讲时语速要适当慢些, 要有停顿。关键词是 pause,slow。] 2.C 键词。] 3.A [演讲要点没有条理会使听众困惑不解,而要点有条理的演讲会使听 众更容易理解。因此要组织好演讲稿。“Just be sure to organise.”是关键信息句。] 4.F [作者以自身感受说明,um,ah,like 以及 you know 等无意义的词使 听众很恼火以至于不能集中注意力,所以演讲切忌使用无用语言。] 5.D [本段以若没有明确的结束语听众不知何时该起身离开为由,建议演 讲要有明确的结束语。 “...close your speech with a specific signal...”是关键信息句。 ] Ⅲ.根据短文内容,从下框的 A~F 选项中选出能概括每一段主题的最佳选 项。选项中有一项为多余项。 A.A sense of humour is not an inborn ability B.A sense of humour can be developed in our life C.A sense of humour helps us from several aspects D.A sense of humour means more than telling jokes E.A sense of humour can be expressed in many ways F.A sense of humour helps people to better enjoy life 1. As awareness of the benefits of humour increases,most of us want to get all the laughs we can.It seems that almost every day there is another new discovery about the [本段内容建议演讲者言辞不要前后矛盾,opposing information 是关

power of humour to help us physically,mentally,emotionally,and spiritually.Every system of the body responds to laughter in some important or positive way. 2. Many people mistakenly believe that we are born with a sense of humour.They think that when it comes to a sense of humour, “either you've got it or you don't.”This is false!What is true,however,is that the ability to laugh and smile is actually something we are born with.For example,we laugh when we are tickled under the arm,even without thinking about how to react. 3. The parts of the brain and central nervous system that control laughing and smiling are mature at birth in human infants, that is not the same thing as having a but sense of humour.(After all,when a baby laughs in his small bed we don't rush over and say,“That kid has a great sense of humour!”) Your sense of humour is something you can develop over a lifetime.Don't be nervous before others and try to laugh at yourself—then you will make them laugh too. 4. Humour includes a lot more than laughing and joke telling.Many people worry needlessly that they do not have a good sense of humour because they are not good joke tellers.More than jokes,a sense of humour requires being willing and able to see the funny side of life's situations as they happen.In fact,one of the best definitions(定 义) of a sense of humour is “the ability to see the nonserious element in a situation”. 5. There may be a thousand different ways to express your sense of humour,but joke telling is only one of those ways.As more is discovered about how humour benefits our life,more people will be able to see and enjoy the humour when they are in a difficult situation.Life depends on air, food and water, it is made easier to live but with a good sense of humour. 【语篇解读】 幽默使我们的生活轻松美好,但幽默感不是天生就具备的, 它来源于生活,让我们从身心、精神及情感上享受生活的美好。 1.C [根据文中“...about the power of humour to help us physically,

mentally,emotionally,and spiritually”可知,C 项正确。] 2.A [根据文中“Many people mistakenly believe that we are born with a sense of humour...This is false!”可知,A 项正确。] 3.B [根据文中“Your sense of humour is something you can develop over a lifetime”可知,B 项正确。] 4. [根据第一句“Humour includes a lot more than laughing and joke telling.” D 可知,D 项正确。] 5. [本段先讲幽默感可用不同的方式来表达, F 但根据“...but it is made easier to live with a good sense of humour”可知,F 项正确。] Ⅳ.根据短文内容,从下框的 A~F 选项中选出能概括每一段主题的最佳选 项。选项中有一项为多余项。 A.Gift giving proven to be valuable B.Memories from gift giving C.Moments and events for gift giving D.Various functions of gift giving E.Gift giving as a wasteful practice F.Gift giving as a two- social activity way Gift Giving 1. There are many occasions(场合) for giving gifts in modern industrialized societies:birthdays,naming ceremonies,weddings,anniversaries,New Year.It is common to give gifts on many of these celebrations in western cultures.In addition, special events,such as one's first day of school or graduation from university,often require gift giving. 2. What is happening when we give gifts?Most important,we are exchanging gifts.If someone gives me a gift for my birthday.I know that I am usually expected to give one on his or her next birthday.A gift builds up or confirms a social obligation(义 务). 3. Gifts tighten personal relationships and provide a means of communication

between loved ones.People say that a gift lets the recipient(接受者) know we are thinking of them,and that we want to make the person“feel special.”We want people to feel wanted,to feel part of our social or family group.We give presents to say “I'm sorry.”Sometimes it is difficult for us to find a present that someone will like.Sometimes we give things that we like or would feel comfortable with.In all these cases,the gifts are sending out messages—often very expressive ones. 4. People tend to talk about presents in a fairly loving way.A woman whose mother had died years ago described the many gifts around her house.These were gifts that her mother had given her over the years:“I appreciate these,and they mean something to me,”the woman said,“because I remember the occasions they were given on,and that they were from my mother,and the relationship we've had.”The gifts remain and keep the relationship alive in mind.This woman felt the same way about the gifts she gave to others.She hoped that the recipients would look at her gifts in years to come and remember her. 5. Emotions(情感) like these suggest that a positive spirit still lies behind gift giving.They prove that the anthropologist Claude LeviStrauss was wrong to say that modern western gift giving is highly wasteful.Studies in Canada and elsewhere have also shown that this is not the case.Each gift is unique even if so many are given.The emotional benefit for those who exchange gifts is the very reason for the tradition to continue. 1.C 适中。] 2.F [参照本段“exchanging gifts”可知选 F。本题难度适中。] 3.D [参照本段“tighten personal relationships and provides a means of [参照本段“occasions,special events”可知 C 项最恰当。本题难度

communication”可知应选 D。本题难度适中。] 4.B [参照本段“tend to talk about presents,I remember the occasions”可 知 B 项为最佳选项。本题难度适中。] 5.A [参照本段“They prove that...highly wasteful”可知 A 项符合本段内容。




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