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高中英语常用语法


常用语法 一:时态:所谓的"时态",就是时间+状态。谓语动词的时态见下表: 1.主动形式 过去 现在 将来 过去将来 一般 did do will/shall do should/would do 进行 was/were doing am/is/are doing will/shall be doing / 完成 had done have/has done

will/shall have done should/would have done 用于虚拟 语气 完成进行 had been doing have/has been doing / / 2.被动形式 过去 现在 将来 过去将来 一般 was/were given am/is/are given will/shall be given should/would be given 进行 was/were being given am/is/are being given / / 完成 had been given have/has been given will/shall have been given should/would have been given 完成进行 / / /

一.非谓语动词 一.不定式: 一)不定式的常考形式: 1) 一般形式:He decided to work harder in order to catch up with the others. 被动形式: He preferred to be assigned some heavier work to do. 语法功能: 表示与谓语动词同步发生 2) 完成形式:He pretended not to have seen me. 被动形式:The book is said to have been translated into many languages. 语法功能:表示发生在谓语动词之前 二)不定式常考的考点: 1)不定式做定语----将要发生 2)不定式做状语----目的 3)不定式充当名词功能---To see is to believe. 三)不定式的省略 1)感官动词 see, watch, observe, notice, look at, hear, listen to, smell, taste, feel + do 表示动作的完整性,真实性; + doing 表示动作的连续性,进行性 I saw him work in the garden yesterday. 昨天我看见他在花园里干活了。(强调"我看见了"这个事实) I saw him working in the garden yesterday. 昨天我见他正在花园里干活。(强调"我见他正干活"这个动作) ? 感官动词后面接形容词而不是副词:The cake tastes good; It feels comfortable. 2) 使役动词 have bid make let 等词后不定式要省略但同 1)一样被动以后要还原 to I ?d like to have John do it. I have my package weighed.
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Paul doesn‘t have to be made to learn. 3) help help sb do help sb to do help do help to do 四)有些动词后只跟不定式如: want,wish,hope,manage,promise,refuse,pretend,plan, offer,decide,agree, expect allow sb to do, cause sb to do , permit sb to do, enable sb to do force sb to do. be more likely to do love to do warn sb to do be able to do be ambitious to do. begin to do . start to do 五) 有的时候 to 后面要接-ing 形式 accustom (oneself) to; be accustomed to; face up to; in addition to; look forward t o; object to; be reduced to; resign oneself to; be resigned to; resort to; sink to; b e used to; be alternative to; be close/closeness to; be dedication/dedicated to; be o pposition/opposed to; be similarity/similar to. 三、need/want 后的-ing 形式具有被动的意思。其中,want 不太常用。 He needs (a lot of) encouraging. 二. 动名词: 具有动作性特征的名词 1)是名词 seeing is believing 2)具有动词性特征可以带宾语 starving troops is necessary. 一)动名词的形式: 一般形式:I don't like you smoking. 完成形式:I regret not having taken your advice. 被动形式:This question is far from being settled. 二) 动名词常考的点 1)动名词做主语谓语动词为单数 2)在动名词和不定式中,做为介词的宾语是动名词 3)动名词的否定直接在其前加否定词,通过代词的宾格或所有格形式给出逻辑主语. I would appreciate_______ back this afternoon. A. you to call B. you call C.you calling D. you're calling(Key: C your calling 也对) I regret not having taken your advice. 4)有些词后只能接动名词 admit; appreciate; avoid; celebrate; consider; contemplate; defer; delay; deny; detes t; discontinue; dislike; dispute; enjoy; it entails; escape; excuse; explain; fancy; feel like; finish; forgive; can't help; hinder; imagine; it involves; keep; it means; mentio n; mind; miss; it necessitates; pardon; postpone; practice; prevent; recall; report; re sent; resist; risk; suggest; understand... 另外还有一些接-ing 形式的常用说法: it's no good; it's no/little/hardly any/ use; it's not/hardly/scarcely use; it's worthwhile; spend money/time; there's no; there's no point in; there's nothing worse than; wh at's the use/point... 5 有些词后加不定式和动名词均可 remember, forget, try, stop, go on, cease, mean 后面用不定式和-ing 形式, 意义截然不 容。
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I remembered to post the letters. (指未来/过去未来的动作) I remembered posting/having posting the letters (我记得这个动作) forgot 与 remember 的用法类似。 I regret to inform you that… 我很遗憾地通知你… I regretted having left the firm after twenty years. 为了"二十年前的离开"而遗憾。 try to 努力 You really must try to overcome your shyness. try –ing 试验 Try practicing five hours a day. I mean to go, but my father would not allow me to. [打算、想]我想去,但我父亲不 让我去。 To raise wage means increasing purchasing power. [意味着]赠加工资意味着增加购买 力。 prefer 的用法: 我宁愿在这里等。 I prefer to wait here. (所以啊,你不介意的话,我就等下去。) I prefer waiting here.(我正在这里等,我就喜欢这么做。) I prefer swimming to cycling. (这个句子里面就不能用不定式了。) 3 分词: 现在分词主动进行,过去分词被动状态 现在分词的形式: 1)一般式: Do you see the man talking to the dean(主任)? (与谓语动词同步发生) 2)完成形式:Not having made adequate preparations, they failed. (发生谓语动词之前) 3)完成被动形式: Having been adapted, the script seems perfect.( 发生谓语动词之前且 表示被动) 过去分词 1) 过去分词表示被动:Fight no battle unprepared. 2)过去分词的进行形式:You'll find the topic being discussed everywhere. (强调正在被 做) 这三种非谓语动词, 都可以构成复合结构, 非谓语动词所修饰的成分是这些非谓语动词的逻 辑主语。他们之间的一致关系——主动还是被动,往往就是考点。独立主格结构中,要注意 的是分词与他前面的逻辑主语之间的主动被动的关系。 二:虚拟三:虚拟语气 情态动词所表达的可能性程度:must/can't ? should/shouldn't ? might/may (not) 另外两个"类情态词的形式:"need/needn't; have to/don't have to ? 最自然的虚拟状态:由 should/would+原型时态(不含时间只含状态) 本质上是过去将来时: 即, 时间固定在过去将来, 状态不同: 一般、 进行、 完成、 完成进行。 这时"虚拟语气"的产生往往是因为我们要表达"本来应该……"(而现在却还没有……) (本来可以……,本来能……) I should go! (… but I'm still here!) (一般) I should be working now! (进行) I should have practiced more (than I did)! (完成) 我应该多多练习!(言下之意,现在我练习得不多。)
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I shouldn't dream away my time too much! (完成的否定) (actually I did dream away my time too much!) It shouldn't have been leaking for such a long time! (完成进行) I may/might/could have finished! (完成) 一些常见的句型中,就会出现这种虚拟语气,而处于从句之中,should 常常被省略掉 o suggest, advise, propose, recommend, plan; o demand, order, direct, arrange, command, decide; o require, request; o think, expect, believe, insist, suspect. 由于他们的含义中包含"建议,假设,应该"这类的含义,所以,由他们引起的从句中,就会 包含有 should+原型时态构成的虚拟语气。 这些动词(以及他们的名次形式,分词形式)引起的从句还有其他的变形: 主语从句,表语从句,同位语从句 It's suggested that… My suggestion is that… The only suggestion that... The only suggestion I can give you now is that… 一些形容词引起的表语从句中,也会有同样的情况 important; necessary; essential It's natural ; strange; incredible that a pity; a shame; no wonder ? 由 lest, for fear that, in case 引起的从句中多使用 should ? 表达与事实相反 1. 与现在相反:使用[过去时]: I wish I were not here! (一般现在?一般过去) Suppose we were not here. He loved me as if I were his own son. (一般现在?一般过去) Hope I weren't always losing things! (现在进行?过去进行) If only/If I hadn't been there! (现在完成?过去完成) What if I hadn't been waiting right here! (现在完成进行?过去完成进行) 常考句型:It's (high) time (that)…; would rather (that)… 这两个从句,只能表达对现在的看法,所以,从句中只有一般过去时。 2. 与过去相反:过去完成时; How nice it is if I had past the test! How nice it is if I had slept a little more this morning! 3. 与将来相反?将来的事情没有发生,所以只能推测。 If it rains tomorrow, we'll have to stay one day more. 不过,由于可以用 be to 表示将来;所以,虚拟语气中经常出现 were to;也是 CET-4 的常 考语法点。 ? 虚拟条件句 o if 部分,做一个与事实相反的假设(所以只有一般过去和过去完成); o 主句部分,这是表示基于这个假设的推测,一般使用情态动词 would,少数情况下使用 c ould/might/may。 o 注意:两个部分之间,是有逻辑关系,而在两部分的谓语动词时态上,没有必然的联系。
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? 注意,虚拟条件句中的 if 可以省略,造成 were/had 提前,产生倒装。 ? 隐含的非真实条件 What would you do with 50 thousand dollar? How could I be happy without you? 除了条件状语从句之外,原因状语从句也会出现虚拟语气。 o 由 in order that, so that 引起的从句,肯定的时候可以使用 may/might; can/could; 否 定的时候,多用 shouldn't; o whoever, whatever, no matter what 引起的从句中,多用 may+ 情态动词的基本用法及其区别 一、用―情态动词+have +done‖结构表示对过去动作的推测 常见的结构有: must have done: 表示对过去动作的肯定推测,常译作―一定做了……‖,只能用于肯定句中。其否定形式为 ca n‘t/couldn‘t have done? 疑问式为 Can/Could...have done﹖。 could /might have done: 表示对过去发生的动作的可能性推测, 常译作―可能做了……‖。 如: 1) My sister met him at the Grand Theater yesterday afternoon, so he _____ your lecture. ? A. couldn‘t have attended B. needn‘t have attended C. mustn‘t have attended D. shouldn‘t have attended 本题选 A。 2) Jack ____ yet, otherwise he would have telephoned me. A. mustn‘t have arrived B. shouldn‘t have arrived C. can‘t have arrived D. need not have arrived (C) 2.当前后句在动作和意义上构成转折关系时,常借助―but, however, instead‖等词来表示 过去的动作与客观事实不符,这种结构常见的有: should have done / ought to have done:表示过去本应该做某事而实际上没有做。 should not have done / ought not to have done:表示过去本不应该做某事但事实上 却做了。 need have done:表示过去本来有必要去做某事,但事实上没有做。 need not have done:表示过去本来没有必要做某事,但事实上却做了。如: 3) I was really anxious about you. You _____ home without a word. A. mustn‘t leave B. shouldn‘t have left C. couldn‘t have left D. needn‘t leave ―本不应该离家出走却走了‖,故本题选 B。 4) I told Sally how to get here, but perhaps I _____ for her. A. had to write it out B. must have written it out
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C. should have written it out D. ought to write it out 由句中的连词 but 可知前后句之间是对立关系,分析题意可知本题应选 C。 二、情态动词基本用法。 5) —Is John coming by train﹖ —He should, but he ______ not. He likes driving his car. A. must B. can C. need D. may mustn‘t 表示―禁止、不准‖;cannot 表示―不可能‖;need not 表示―不必要‖;may not 表示―可能不‖。分析语境可知本题应选 D。 6) —I hear you‘ve got a set of valuable Australian coins. ______ I have a lo ok﹖ —Yes, certainly. A. Do B. May C. Shall D. Should 分析语境可知这是在征求对方的许可,may 表示―允许、可以‖,语气比较委婉。shall 常用 于第一、三人称作主语的疑问句中,表示征求对方意见和指示,如果此空用 shall,则意为―要 (我)看一下吗?‖,不符合上下文意思。故本题选 B。 7) Mr Bush is on time for everything. How ____ it be that he was late for the opening ceremony﹖ A. can B. should C. may D. must must be 表示肯定的猜测,只能用于肯定句中,由题意可知本题应选 A。 8) —Are you coming to Jeff‘s party﹖ —I‘m not sure. I ____ go to the concert instead. A. must B. would C. should D. might 由题意和下句中的 ―I‘m not sure‖ 可知这段对话中存在一种可能性推测,might 可以用来表示一种比较委婉的可能性判断,故 本题选 D。又如: I should have been there, but I _____ not find the time. A. would B. could C. might D. should 分析题意可知第二个分句表示过去的某种能力; C 项只表示语气上的可能性, 与题意不符。 故本题选 B。 9) Johnny, you ____ play with the knife, you ____ hurt yourself. A. won‘t; can‘t B. mustn‘t; may C. shouldn‘t; must D. can‘t; shouldn‘t mustn‘t 表示―不可以;禁止‖,分析题意可知第二个空表示某种可能性,故本题选 B。 10) —Will you stay for lunch﹖ —Sorry, ______. My brother is coming to see me. A. I mustn‘t B. I can‘t C. I needn‘t D. I won‘t 分析题意可知因为―我弟弟要来看我‖,所以―不能留下‖,因此对别人的邀请或要求应给予礼 貌的拒绝。A 项表示―禁止‖;C 项表示―不必要‖;而 D 项表示―不会‖,均不符合题意。故本 题选 B。又如: —Could I borrow your dictionary﹖ —Yes, of course you _____. A. might B. will C. can D. should (C)
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11)—When can I come for the photos﹖ I need them tomorrow afternoon. —They _____ be ready by 12?00. A. can B. should C. might D. need 该题考查情态动词 should 的基本含义,分析句意可知本题应选 B。又如: 12) The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone ____ get ou t.( A. had to B. would C. could D. was able to 该题考查了 could 和 be able to 的区别,二者都可表示过去时间的能力,但如果表示过去 成功地做了某事只能使用 was / were able to do,故本题选 D。 13) —Shall I tell John about it ﹖ —No, you _____. I‘ve told him already. A. needn‘t B. wouldn‘t C. mustn‘t D. shouldn‘t 情态动词 shall 在试题中表示征询对方意见或请求指示。答句暗示 ―没有必要了‖,故本题选 A 三、一致关系 一)主谓一致 1. 主谓一致(与插入语无关) 1 主谓的分隔原则:主谓之间可以用定语从句或者省略的定语从句分隔。 2 定语从句中的主谓一致: 3 随前一致: n. + together with n2 as well as including along with with / of accompanied with / by 4 就近原则:n1 or n2 +v(就近原则) either n1 or n2 5 可数 n1 and 可数 n2+v(pl) 不可数 n1 and 不可数 n2+v(pl) 例外:war and peace is… war and peace 是一个整体 但是如果主语表示的是同一个概念,同一人,同一事的时候,谓语动词用单数,这种结构的 特征是 and 连接的两个词只有一个冠词。 The iron and steel industry is very important to our country. The head master and mathematical teacher is coming. The head master and the mathematical teacher are coming. 类似的还有:law and order bread and butter black and white To love and to be loved is … A lawyer and a teacher are… A lawyer and teacher is … 6 随后原则:not A but B / not only A but also B+v.(与 B 一致) 7 百分比结构:most , half , rest , some , majority , one+ percent of+n1+v.(由 n1 决定) 8 倒装结构的主谓一致: a)There be +n 由名词决定动词
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b)Among , between 等介词位于句首引起倒装结构: Among / Between …+系动词+n. (由名词决定动词) 9The+adj 的主谓一致: a)当表示―一类人‖, b)当表示某一抽象概念时 The good is always attractive. 10 To do/doing/主从+vs *More than one+n many a +n. a day or two 二)、倒装 1 全部倒装 是只将句子中的谓语动词全部置于主语之前。此结构通常只用与一般现在时和一般过去时。 常见的结构有:Up went the plane = the plane went up. 1) here, there, now, then, thus 等副词置于句首, 谓语动词常用 be, come, go, lie, run。 2) 表示运动方向的副词(back, down, off, up)或地点状语置于句首, 谓语表示运动的动词。 注意:1) 上述全部倒装的句型结构的主语必须是名词,如果主语是人称代词则不能倒装。 Here he comes. Away they went. 2) 谓语动词是 be 的时候,不能倒装。 Here it is. He re you are. 3) 形容词短语/分词短语位于句首,引起倒装 *typical of characteristic of *coinciding with + n 4) 表示地点范围的介词短语位于句首,谓语动词为系动词,一定引起倒装 In…(表语)+系动词+主,主同。 *在倒装句型答案中不能出现 there *常考介词要倒装:among between in at beneath 常考的系动词:be lie exist remain rest 部分倒装 1. 否定 adv 位于句首,引起倒装:not only, not until, hardly, scarcely, seldom, rarely, no sooner…than 1) not until + 时间 + 主谓倒装,not until + 句子+主谓倒装 2) only+状语位于句首 only +ad. eg: recently prep.短短语 eg: in recently years 从句 eg: when clause only 一个词本身不倒装 3) 在比较级结构中,than 后面可以倒装,也可以不倒装。 部分倒装是指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态倒装至主语之前。 如果句中的谓语没有助动词 或情态动词,则需添加助动词 do, does 或 did,并将其置于主语之前。 ? 1) Neither, nor, so 表示前面句子的共同否定或者肯定,产生倒装,一般主动词提前, 谓语动词的其他部分就 4) as / though 引导的让步从句必须将表语或状语提前(形容词, 副词, 分词, 实义动词提
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前)。 as〔让步〕虽然,尽管〔词序倒装。语气比 though 强〕。 Successful as he is, he is not proud. 他虽成功,却不骄傲。 Women as she is, she's every brave. Try hard as he will, he never seems able to do the work satisfactorily. 注意:A) 句首名词不能带任何冠词。B) 句首是实义动词, 其他助动词放在主语后。如果实 义动词有宾语和状语, 随实义动词一起放在主语之前。 5) 其他部分倒装 a) so… that 句型中的 so; such… that 句型中的 such 位于句首时,需倒装。 So frightened was he that he did not dare to move an inch. b) 在某些表示祝愿的句型中:May you all be happy. c) 在虚拟语气条件句中从句谓语动词有 were, had, should 等词,可将 if 省略,把 were, had, should 移到主语之前,采取部分倒装。Were I you, I would try it again. 四、复合句 从句可分为: ? 名词性从句? 主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句 ? 形容词性从句?定语从句 ? 副词性从句?状语从句 ? 常考的关系代词:that; which; who/whom/whose; where; when; what; as。 ? 常见的同位语从句现行词(that 之前的抽象名词):fact, idea, news, hope, conclusion, evidence, opinion, problem, thought, understanding… ? 常用的引导词 o 时间状语从句:while; when; before; whenever; as; after; till; until; since; once; ev er since; as/so long as; as soon as; no sooner… than; hardly… when; scarcely/barel y… when; the moment/minute/instant; on (the point of) doing… o 地点状语从句:where; wherever o 原因状语从句: because; since; as; seeing that; considering that; now that; in that; for fear that; lest; owing to the fact that; because of the fact that; due to the fac t that… o 方式状语从句:as; as if; as though; how; save that… o 比较状语从句:as; than; as… as; not so… as; hardly… than; o 结果状语从句:so that; so… that; such… that; so as to… o 条件状语从句:if; unless; in case; so long as; so far as; provided/providing/that; s upposing; granted/granting that…; giving that…. o 让步状语从句: though; although; even if; even though; whether; as; however; no matter (what, how, when); for all that; in spite of the fact that; granted that; rega rdless of the fact that… o 目的状语从句:that; so that; in order that; lest; for the fear that; in case… 定语从句: which 引导的定语从句结构 1)which 是关系代词,which 后面应该加缺主语或者宾语的句子, 在这个句子中,which 要作成分,作主语或者宾语 2)in which+完整的句子 which 在定语从句中作 in 的宾语,所以不能作后面句子的主语
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3)名词+of which+谓语动词 of which 来修饰名词,名词在定语从句中作主语,所以后面直接跟谓语动词 I have five books three of which are borrowed from Mary. 4)介词+ which +to do 其功能相当于定语从句。 The key with which to open the door is lost. 5)定语从句的省略结构: 1. 如果 that / which 在定从中作 宾语,可以省略. sub+vt+n+(which / that)+sub+vt →s+vt+n+s+v s+vt+n1+n2+vt *当做题时,若发现两个名词在一起,但是似乎连不上,则一定省略 that / which,则动词为 vt,做谓语。 6)定从的特殊省略 the way (in which) + 句子 the reason (why that)+句子 均为完整句 the time (that / when)+句子 I do remember the first time (that 省) I ever heard the sweetest voice in the world. By the time 省 that+句子,句子。 7)定从的主系省略(主+系可同时省) 即:which be , who be , that be 可同时省 状语从句省略结构 这种省略从句主语的方式理论上需要满足以下两个条件: 第一、特定的状语从句引导词:although though even though when while if as 第二、从句主语和主句主语必须保持一致; 第三、从句的谓语必须是 be 动词,主语和 be 动词同进同出

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