The best way you can get
Complex sentence 复合句：
由连词连接两个或多个主谓结构的句子，其中一个主谓结构是句子 的主要部分（主句），另一个或一个以上的主谓结构只在句子中作 某个成分（如主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语、同位语）。 复合句 = 主句 + 定语从句 另一个或一个以上
The students (who do not study hard )will not pass the exam.
主句主语 从句主语 从句谓语结构
在句子中作定语，修饰名词或代词的从句。这种从句由关系代词 或关系副词引导，并作句子成分。定语从句因形容词定语，所以 又称之为形容词性从句。
定 语 从 句 的 引 导 词
who(主语、宾语)，whom(宾语)， that(主语、宾语), whose(定语) that(主语、宾语),which(主语、宾语) whose(定语)
where (地点状语) 关系 副词 when (时间状语)
是先行词在意义上不可缺少的定语， 如果去掉， 主句的意思就不完整或失去意义。这种从 句和主句关系十分密切， 写时不用逗号分开。
和主句关系不很密切，只是对先行词作些附加说 明， 如果去掉，主句的意思仍然清楚。这种从句， 写时往往逗号分开。
I was the only person who was invited. in my office
Jenny, with whom I played table tennis yesterday, lives in my next room.
The man who came here yesterday has come again.
That is Mr. Wang, whose daughter teaches English at a middle school.
1、找出定语从句中是否主语和宾语都齐全。如齐全用关系副词。 用什么关系副词看先行词。 when I I will never forget the days (______ _ stayed with ___ you).
___ Jurassic Park is about a park ______ (a very rich man keeps different where ________ Kinds of dinosaurs). when _______ ___ 1958 was the year ______ (Spielberg made his first real film).
Please give me the reason _____ (you made such a great success). why ___ _____
when ___ Morning is the best time ______ (you practise ______ aloud). reading ________ Do you remember the lake where (you first met your girlfriend.） _____ ___
2、如定语从句中缺宾语，确定定语从句的谓语动词是不是及物 动词，如是，用关系代词，如不是，用关系副词。 where ____ Yesterday we went to visit the house ______ (the great writer used in which to ___ live). which The house ______ (they built in 1987) stayed up in the earthquake. that ___ ___ who / whom I ____ Luckily none of the people _____ ( _ know) were killed in the that earthquake. / when __________________ My father was born in the year ______(the Second World War in which broke out). _______
Kunming is a beautiful place where ( flowers are seen all the ______ year round). October 1st is the day ________ ( new China was founded). when which The window ( ______ was opened this morning) has been broken. that which The meeting ( ______ will be held next week) is very important. that
(1) that指物时一般可以与which互换，但在下列情况 引导词只用that，不用which。 ①当先行词为all, much, little, few, none, something, anything, everything, nothing等不定代词时，如： a. All that can be done has been done. b. I am sure she has something (that) you can borrow. c. There is little (that) the enemy can do besides surrender. ② 先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, few, much修饰时：
I’ve read all the books (that) you gave me.
③先行词是序数词或形容词最高级修饰时。 This is the best book (that) I’ve ever read. This is the first composition (that) he has written in English. ④先行词被the only, the very, the last 修饰时。 That white flower is the only one (that) I really like. This is the very book (that) I want to find. ⑤ 当有两个或两个以上分别表示人和物的先行词时，这个定 语从句要用that而不用who (whom)和which引导。如： He talked about the teachers and schools （that） he had visited.
⑥先行词是疑问词who, which, what 时，定语从句用that 而不用who, (whom)和which引导。
Who is the person that is standing at the gate? Which of us that knows something about physics does not know this? What that is on the table belongs to me? ⑦ 当关系代词在从句中作表语时： Mary is no longer the girl (that) she used to be. China is no longer the country that it used to be.
（2）只用which的情况 Which可以引导非限定性定语从句，可用于介词后，其 先行词可是一个词,也可是整个主句或主句的某一部分。 1 She heard a terrible noise, ______ brought her heart B into her mouth. A. it B. which C. this D. that
B 2. The weather turned out to be good, ___ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. it
1. 先行词为anyone, all, none, nobody, one等指人的不定代词时： One who doesn't work hard will never succeed. 不努力工作的人是永 远不会成功的。 ? 比较：
I’ve read all the books (that) you gave me. （book 为物）
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非限制性定语从句中，先行词指人时： The man, who was murdered in that village ,died the next day. 那个在村中被杀的人第二天就死了。 在被分隔开的定语从句中先行词指人时： I met a boy at the English Corner yesterday who could speak English fluently. 昨天我在英语角；上遇到了一个能讲一口流利 英语的男孩。
在以there be 开头的存在句型中，先行词指人时： There was an old lady who wanted to see you at the gate just now. 刚才大门口有一位老妇人有事找你。
当一个指人的先行词带两个定语从句时，一个从句用 that,另一个用who: The worker that was rewarded at the meeting yesterday is the visitor who invented these machines. 那天在会上受到奖励的那位工人是这些机器的发明者。
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who １. God helps those______ help themselves. 自助者天助． who ２．He _____does not reach the Great Wall is not a true man. 不到长城非好汉 3. He who laughs last laughs best. 谁笑到最后，谁笑得最好． that 4. All is well _____ends well. 结局好，一切都好． 5. All that glitters is not gold. 闪闪发光的不都是金子．
6. Nothing in the world is difficult for one _____sets who his mind to it. 世上无难事，只怕有心人． 7. The hands that push cradles are the hands _________push the world. that 推动摇篮的手，就是推动世界的手． ８．He who knows others is learned, and he who knows himself is wise. 知人者智，自知者明． 9. He who loves others is constantly loved, and he who respects others is constantly respected. 爱人者人恒爱之，敬人者恒敬之．
10. True friendship is like sound health, _______________ the value of which is seldom known until it is lost. ? 真正的友谊犹如健康的身体，失去时方知其可 贵． that ? 11 It’s the first step _____ costs.万事开头难 that ? 13 There is no fox _____ is honest ; there is no that tiger ____ doesn’t eat man.没有不狡猾的狐狸，没 有不吃人的豺狼） ? 14 He who knows nothing but pretends to know everything is indeed a good-for-nothing. ? 不懂装懂，一事无成
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who 15、It is those ______have brought happiness to the people ______will feel the happiness themselves. that 只有给别人幸福的人，他们自己才幸福 who 16、A good book is a best friend________ never turns back upon us.好书如挚友，情谊永不变 who\that 17 The man ____________ suffers much knows much. 磨难多，见识广。 who 18 No one is informed but he____ inquires. 有所问者有所得。 19 He who has health has hope ,he who has hope has everything. 有健康有希望，有希望有一切。 20. Those who make the best of time have none to spare. 善用时者无空闲。
He failed to the exam, as (=which) is natural. She seems a scientist, as (=which) in fact she is.
Grammar is not a dead rule, which (=as) I have said before.
2、如果从句在主句前，这时要用as而不用which引导 定语从句。如： As we all know, his parents were killed in the war. As we all know, the earth is round.
3.用于the same…as…,such…as…， as…as…, so…as…中，一般用as（难点： 还有其他易混淆情况）。
e.g. Such books as you tell me are interesting.
This is the same book as I lent you yesterday. Here is so big a stone as no man can lift.
As 1）________ had been expected, the England team won the match .
2）The result of the experiment is very good , ________ we hadn’t expected . which 3）He failed in the exam, which _________made his parents sad .
as is expected. She married him, as is unexpected. which is unexpected.
1. as的位置灵活,可句首,和句中; 而which 只可 位于句中. 2. as强调一致性, 可译为”正如,就像”,表示” 意料之中”的事;which强调”不一致性”, 表示” 意料之外”的事;或消极的，或一种隐含的因果 关系.
as引导非限制性定语从句常见结构有: as is well known to all
as has been said before
as has been already pointed out
as we all can see
as is expected/ hoped/ supposed,
as is often the case
1.____ is known to everybody, the moon travels round the earth once every month.
[2001 全国 ]
C. That D. What
2.The result of the experiment was very good, ____we hadn’t expected. [2000 京、皖春季高考] A. as B. that C. which D. what
3. _____ is mentioned above, the number of the students in senior high school is increasing. A. Which B. As C. That D. It 4.Carol said the work would be done by October, _____ personally I doubt very much. A. it B. that C. as D. which
5. Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, _____, of course, made the others unhappy. [NMET 2000] A. who B. which C. this D. what
注意：当先行项被the same, such, so修饰时，用as This is the same book as you bought yesterday. (同类不同一本书) 比较: This is the same book that you bought yesterday. (同一本书) Don’t believe in such men as praise you to your face. I never give my students so difficult a question as no one can work out. （定语从句） 比较: This is so difficult a question that no one can work it out. （程度、结果状语从句）
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1. 关系副词=介词+关系代词 where=in/on/at...+which when=in/on/at…+which why=for +which 2. 搭配与逻辑： 3.whose+n =of which/whom+ the +n. = the +n.+ of which/whom 4. 部分： all\some\most\half \both\neither\...of which the…of which
? 关系副词when, where, why可以用适当的介词+which来替代。 如：when=in/on/at…+which, where=in/on/at…+which, why=for+which 介词的位置非常灵活，有时(地点)放在关系代词之前，有时放 在动词之后。 ? eg. 1. I won’t forget the date when( on which) I was born. ? 2. This is the room where (in which) I lived. = This is the room which I lived in. ? 3. I don’t know the reason why (for which) he haven’t come today. ? 4. Tom still remembers the days when (in which) they lived in Tianjin.
at which The painting (__________ I looked) was painted by me. about which The book (______________ I heard) was written twenty years ago. with which The pen (____________ she wrote that book) can now be seen in a museum. during which The film (_____________I fell asleep) was very boring. where/in which Kunming is a beautiful place _____________ ( flowers are seen all the year round). on which/when I will never forgot the day _____________ I first met you on the ship. 结论：只有当介词+关系代词充当地点状语、时间状语或原因状语 时，才能用关系副词代替。
Fill in each blank with a proper preposition if necessary.
1. This is the car _________which I bought last year. / for 2. This is the car _________which I paid 100$. 3. This is the car _________which I spent 100$. on 4. This is the car _________which I go to work every in day. without 5. This is the car _________ which I can’t go to work. by 6. This is the car _________which the old man was knocked down. to/at 7. This is the car _________which a boy threw a stone. 8. This is the car _________ which we talked. about 9. This is the car _________which the window was of broken.
e.g. 1949 was the year in which the P.R.C. was founded. 2. 根据从句中动词或形容词与介词的习惯搭配，如： e.g. Can you explain to me how to use these idioms about which I’m sure.
e.g. Is that the newspaper for which you often write articles?
?The man with whom you shook hands just __________ now is our headmaster.
1. v.+prep:shake hands with…
in which ?The room __________ my family live used to be a garage. 2. prep+n. : in the room ?Did you find the penwith which I wrote just _________ now? 3. 动词与先行词的逻辑关系（on，with） on which ?Did you find the paper ________ I wrote my letter?
which ?Did you find the composition ______ I wrote just now?
2. Prep.+n : on the farm
The farm on which we worked ten years ago isn’t what it used to be. He is the man to whom you can turn for help. 1. v.+prep : turn to sb for help
This is the tree under which used to play games.
The sun gives us heat and light, without which _______________ we can’t live. about whom The student ___________ we were talking just now is the best student in our class. 2. v+prep：talk about on which I’ll never forget the day __________ she said goodbye to me.
1. prep+n：on the day
for which Who can give me the reason ________ he hasn’t turned up yet?
1. prep+n：for the reason
几种易混的情况 when /in which 1.I’ll never forget the days______________ we worked together. 及物动词 which 2.I’ll never forget the days ___________ we spent together. 3.I went to the place where/ in which I worked ten years ago. 及物动词 which 4.I went to the place _____________ I visited ten years ago. why/ for which 5.This is the reason _____________________ he was late. 及物动词 that/which 6.This is the reason _____________________ he gave.
whose+n 的确定—3. 关系代词 whose =of which/whom+ the +n. = the +n.+ of which/whom Best choice: A 1. Father bought me a book, _____ cover was red. 2. Father bought me a book, _____ the cover was red. B 3. Father bought me a book, the cover _____ was red. B A. whose B. of which C. its D. of whom
1. I sat next to a girl, ____ name was Diana. A 2. I sat next to a girl, ____ the name was Diana. D D 3. I sat next to a girl, the name ____ was Diana. A. whose B. her C. of her D. of whom
Which of the following are right?
1. This is the man we talked about. 2. This is the man who/whom/ that we talked about. 3. This is the man about who we talked. 4. This is the man about whom we talked. Best choice: B/C 1. I remember the village_____ we stayed last year. A/E 2. I remember the village _____ we stayed in last year. A 3. I remember the village in _____ we stayed last year. A. which B. in which C. where D. in where E. / F. in that
非限制性定与从句中，要表示先行词的一部分时，可用 “数词/代词 + of + 关系代词”的结构，如： e.g. There are three cats here, the first of which is my favourite. 代词
序数：the first、second…last of which
最高级：the largest of which, the most important of which…
名词/代词+介词+关系代词（which or whom) There are three cats here, the first of which is my favorite. = There are three cats here, of which the first is my favorite. C There are three cats here; the first _____ is my favorite. A. of which B. of whom C. of them D. of skirts
名词/代词+介词+关系代词（which or whom)
They invited some pupils to the meeting, most of whom came from the poor areas. 非限定从
= They invited some pupils to the meeting, of whom most came from the poor areas.
They invited some pupils to the meeting, and most_____ came from the poor areas. C A. of which B. of whom C. of them D. of pupils
Soon they arrived at a farmhouse, in front of which sat a small boy.
on which 1. I will never forget the day ______ we studied together. 2. That was the pen with which he wrote the letter.
3. Do you like the book for which she paid $10?
4. Do you like the book on which she spent $10? 5. This is the hero
we are proud.
6. There are three things about which she is not sure. ________
6. My glasses,without which I can’t see, were lost yesterday.
7 Mary has three sisters, the oldest
Correct the sentences:
1. I’m using the pen which he bought it yesterday. __ (去掉) 2. Is that factory which your father once worked in? ^ the one 3. The man whom I spoke is from Canada. ^ to 4. July 1,1999 is the day when we’ll never forget. ____ which 5. The students and things which you spoke of are known to us. ____ that
5.Einstein is such a great scientist ____ we must learn from. that as
6. The student _____ book I had borrowed didn’t come to who’s school today. whose 7. Who is the worker who took some pictures of the factory. ____ that 8. It is the one of the best films which have been shown ____ recently. that ____ 9.The third place which we are going to visit is Hangzhou that As _____ 10.Which is known to all, many satellite are going around in the sky.
This is the book that you want. He bought me a book, which was very useful. 一般说来，限制性定语从句是整个句子不可缺 少的部分，如果省略会影响全句的主要思想， 这种定语从句前面一般不用逗号； 而非限制性定语从句则只是主句的一种补充说 明，即使去掉，也不会影响全句的主要思想， 这种定语从句前通常有逗号隔开。
区分下列几组句子的不同含义： 1. Her brother who is now a soldier always encourages her to go to college.
她那当兵的哥哥总是鼓励她上大学。 （意含： 她还有其他哥哥。）
2. Her brother, who is now a soldier, always encourages her to go to college.
她哥哥是当兵的，他总是鼓励她上大 学。 （意含： 她可能只有一个哥哥。）
? All the books that have pictures in them are well written. 所有里面带插图的书 都写得很好。
（意含： 不带插图的 书则不一定写得好。）
with no picture good or bad？
with pictures good
? All the books, which have pictures in them, are well written.
（意含： 没有不带插图 的书。）
with pictures good
1）她收到了老板的邀请，这是她意想不 到的。 ，which She received an invitation from her boss, that came as a surprise. 2）他失去工作的主要原因是他喝酒。 The main reason, why he lost his job, was that he drank. The main reason why
关系代词that和关系副词why通常只用于 引导限制性定语从句，不用于引导非限 制性定语从句。 另外，在限制性定语从句中，关系代词 which用作宾语时，如果不是紧跟在介词 之后，通常可以省略； 但在非限制性定语从句中，不管在什么 情况下均不可省略关系代词which。
My house which I bought last year has got a lovely garden. 正：My house, which I bought last year, has got a lovely garden. 当一个名词已由其他词语作了完整明确的表述，这个 名词后则不宜再用限制限制性从句，而应改用非限制 性定语从句。 若要用限制性定语从句，则应将物主代词my改为the， 即说成： The house which I bought last year has got a lovely garden.
The dam，which is the biggest in the world， is 3，830 metres long．大坝长3，830米， 是世界上最大的坝。 The moon，which doesn‘t give out light itself，is only a satellite of the earth．月球 本身不发光，它只是地球的一个卫星。 Football，which is a very interesting game， is played all over the world．足球是一项非 常有趣的运动，全世界都踢足球。
China, which was founded in 1949, is becoming more and more powerful. China is a country which has a long history. 总之：都是明确的事物。“专一”
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非限制性定语从句有时形式上是从句，实质上其功用相当于 一个并列的分句。如： 1) 他说他没有钱，这不是实话。 He said he had no money, which was not true. =He said he had no money, but it was not true. 2) 后来他遇到玛丽，玛丽邀请他去参加晚会。 Then he met Mary, who invited him to a party. Then he met Mary, and she invited him to a party. 3) 我父亲可能需要住院，如果那样他就不去度假了。 My father may have to go into hospital, in which case won’t be going on holiday. My father may have to go into hospital, and in that case won’t be going on holiday.
译法上 关系词 的使用 上
限制性定语从句 不用逗号“，”与主 句隔开。 是先行词不可缺少的 定语，如删除，主句 则失去意义或意思表 达不完整。 译成先行词的定语： “．．．的” A．作宾语时可省略 B．可用that C．可用who 代替 whom
非限制性定语从句 用逗号“，”与主句 隔开。 只是对先行词的补充 说明，如删除，主句 仍能表达完整的意思。 通常译成主句的并列 句。 A．不可省略 B．不用that，why C．不可用who 代替 whom
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一：关系词— 代词： 1.that\which; that\who; as\which 2.区别：从句，并列句中的代词 副词：难点—where(抽象地点) 二：介词的确定 三：限制、非限制性定语从句的使用 四：定语从句和其它句型混淆
where 引导的定语从句先行词大多数情况下是 表示明确的地点的名词，但也有可能是模糊的地点。 A 1. I met her in the factory _____ she works. A. where B. in where C. which D. there C 2.I’ve come to the point ____ I can’t stand him. A. which B. that C. where D. why A 3.He’s got himself into a dangerous situation___ he is likely to lose control over the plane. (2001上海） A. where B. which C. while D. why 4. Can you think of some cases ____ the word is used. A A. where B. which C. while D. why 先行词是the point/situation/ case/ condition/ activity/business/culture… +where+定从（定从缺状语）
1. We will discuss a number of cases __ beginners of English fail to use the language preperly. A.which B.as C.why D.where 2.He was driving so fast as to get himself into a dangerous situation ___he is likely to lose the control over his car. A.which B.as C.why D.where 两道题都选where，但是case, situation都不是地点， 如何理解？
1. Remember that the best relationship is one where your love for each other is greater than your need for each other. 请记住，最深的感情关系表现为彼此间 的爱超过彼此间的需要。
2. Cheating is most likely in situations where the vital interests are high and the chances of getting caught are low. 欺诈行为在这种情况下最有可能发生： 利益重大， 而且欺诈行为被发现的可能 性小。
3. English is a fixed-word-order language where each phrase has a fixed position. 英语是一种“词序固定”的语言，这种 语言的特点就是每个短语都有固定的位 置。
4. At the Academy, Plato taught the students through the use of debates, where two or more people took different ideas of an argument. 在学院里，柏拉图采用的教学方法是组 织辩论?在辩论中，两个或多个学生各 持一方观点。
5. However, being enthusiastic isn't for everyone and no one likes false enthusiasm, where a person pretends to be excited even about small points. 然而，热情并非适合每一个人，而且也 没有人喜欢那种连区区小事都假装兴奋 的假热情。
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which he told me 定语从句 that he told me the secret 同位语从句
is true .
1.Make a mark at the spot in which you have where questions . 定语从句
2.Make a mark where you have questions . 地点状语从句
in which 1. It is this factory _______ I work . (定从) where
2. It is in this factory _____ I work . that (强调句)
比较四:as引导的非限制性定语从句 与it 作形式主语的主语从句 及 what引导的主语从句
As 1._____is known to everybody , the earth is round . 2._____is known to everybody that the It earth is round . What 3._____is known to everybody is that the earth is round .
As 1.________ had been expected, the England team won the match .
2.The result of the experiment is very good , ________ we hadn’t expected . which 3.He failed in the exam, which _________made his parents sad .
as 1. She is such a lovely girl ______ we all like . that 2. She is such a lovely girl ______we all like her . 结果状语从句 3.It is so big a stone_____ no man can lift. as 4.It is so big a stone ______ no man can lift it. that
1.Such stamps ________ you have collected as are very valuable. 2.Don’t talk about such things ______ you as don’t understand.
that 3.He is so humorous a person ________we all like to stay with him. as 4.This book is not such ____ I expect. that 5. This is such a good book_______ they all want to read it .
, and none of ______is a doctor . them
He has 3 boys , none of ______ is a doctor . whom
; none of ______ is a doctor . them
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