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第七讲 句法特定结构及其他语法现象


第七讲 句法、特定结构及其 他语法现象

省略和插入语

Ellipsis (省略)
被省略的部分
主语

例 句
1. (I) Beg your pardon. 2. (It) Sounds like a good idea. 1. (Is there) Anything I can d

o for you? 2. (Is) Anybody here? A: Where has Mr Smith gone? B: Sorry, I don’t know (where he has gone).

谓语或谓语的一部分

宾语

主语和谓语,或主语和谓语 的一部分
不定式 to 后省略动词

1. (Are you) Hungry? 2. (I want) Orange juice, please.
1.A: Would you like to come to the party? B: I’d love to (come to your party.) 2. They do not visit their parents as much as they ought to (visit their parents).

考点

(一)省略 为了使说话和行文简洁,句中某些成分有时可以省略。重点把握: 1.省略作宾语的不定式短语,只保留不定式符号to , 例 如 : He did not give me the chance, though he had promised to (give me the chance)。 但是如果to后是be或“have + V?ed”,那么be或have就不 能省略。例如: (1) —Are you an engineer? —No, but I want to be. (2)—He hasn't finished the task yet. —Well, he ought to have. 2. 关系代词在定语从句中作直接宾语,或作介词的宾语,而介词 又在谓语动词的后面时,关系代词可以省略。 定语从句中的谓语动词是进行时态或被动语态时,可以省略关系 代词和be动词。

3.在时间、地点、条件、方式或让步状语从句中,如果从句 的主语和主句的主语相同,而且从句的谓语部分又包含be动 词,就可以省略从句中的“主语 + be ”部分。

4.主从复合句中省略一个从句或从句的一部分, 用so或not 代替(此时不用it 或that )

(二)插入语
插入语是一种独立成分,在句子中一般起补充解释作用, 去掉以后,句子的意思仍然通顺。 1.熟记下列常见的插入语: 形容词/副词(短语)—— first, second, sure, surely, certainly, honestly, obviously, however, otherwise, namely, happily, luckily, really, besides, naturally, unfortunately, as usual, so far, and so on, no wonder, come along, etc. 介词短语——in fact, in addition, in a word, in other words, in one's opinion, in that case, by the way, of course, as a matter of fact, as a rule, as a result

, as follows, on the contrary, to one's surprise / joy / regret..., for example,for one thing...for another (thing), etc. 主谓句子、从句——I think, I suppose, I believe, I guess, I hope, I wonder, I tell you, you know, you see, it is said, it is suggested, it seems (to me), I'm sure, I'm afraid, do you know, don't you think; if I may say so, if you don't mind, if you like, if you please, if necessary, if any, if convenient, when possible, etc. 2. 含think, believe, imagine, guess, say, suppose, know, expect等动词 后有疑问词引导的宾语从句时,要将疑问词提到句首,从而构成复 杂特殊疑问句,例如:Where do you suppose he has been? 特别注 意复杂特殊疑问句中主谓语序不颠倒。

例题及其练习

【例1】 The boy wanted to ride his bicycle in the street, but his mother told him_____. A. not to B. not to do C. not do it D. do not to 【解析】这句话的意思是:“那男孩想到大街上骑自行车,可是他 妈妈不让他去。” 根据语法规则,省略作宾语的不定式短语,只保 留不定式符号to。答案:A。

【例2】 —Do you think it's going to rain over the week? —. A. I don't believe B. I don't believe it C. I believe not so D. I believe not 【解析】本题考查点就是句子的省略问题。英语中为了避免重复已 表达过的想法,可用so来代替believe, think, hope, expect, suppose, imagine, guess, say, tell, do, hear, be afraid 等动 词后面的宾语从句。

其否定形式有两种变化:a.用动词的 否定形式;b.用not代替so。例如: (1)—The teacher is very strict. —I've heard so.(= I've heard that he is very strict.) (2)I don‘t believe so. = I believe not. 答案:D。
【例3】 When I got back home I saw a message____ to the door reading “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A. pinned B. pinning C. had been pinned D. to pin 【解析】根据语法规则,定语从句中的谓语动词是进行时态或被 动语态时,可以省略关系代词和be动词。saw a message pinned to the door实际上就是 saw a message that had been pinned to the door 的省略形式。另外本题中还有两处省略现象:Sorry to miss you就是I'm sorry to miss you 的省略; will call later就是I will call you later 的省略。答案:A。

①I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have ____. A.it B.those C.them D.one

因为one是泛指,指代不确定、不具体的一只glass,故选D。 ②Few pleasure can equal ____ of a cool drink on a hot day. A.some B.any C.that D.those

此题选C。that相当于the pleasure of cool drink on a hot day。
我们来看看it,one,that的区别。that,one是指同名称的另一样东 西(同类异物);it指同名称的同一个事物(同类同物)。它们的 复数分别是those,ones,them。that替代特指可数或不可数名词, 后常有of短语作修饰。one替代前面句子中重复出现的可数名词。 it,one,that替代句子中重复出现的名词、代词或句子,

Susan has gained promotion recently.____ and ____. A.so she was;so you have B.so she has;so have you C.so has she;so have you D.so has she;so you are

在两个句中,当两个人或两件事情的情况或意思完全相同,第 二个分句常用neither,nor,so,either,too引出,出现省略,其 中neither,nor,so还同时引导倒装,表示“也不……”“也……”。 此题答案为B。

动词不定式结构的省略。动词不定式作宾语或宾语补足语时, 有时可以省略,但省略时“to”却要保留下来,表示省略了动词 不定式及其以后的部分。

①--Alice,why didn't you come yesterday?
--I ____ ,but I had an unexpected visitor. A.had B.would C.was going to D.did 答案为C。但当“to”后不定式的动词是be或助动词have时,to 后应该保留be或have。如:

—Are you a college student?
—No,but I want to be. 除了考查不定式结构的省略,还考查不定式符号“to”的省略。

②Rather than __on a crowded bus,he always prefers ___a bicycle .
A.ride;ride B.riding;ride C.ride;to ride D.to ride;riding

(Key:C)
③ They knew her very well . They had seen her ____ up from childhood. A.grow B.grew C.was growing D.to grow(Key:A)

感官动词或使役动词(如feel,see,hear,notice,let,make, have等)后接不定式作宾语补足语时省略“to”,但在被动语态中 “to”不能省略。

2.状语从句中的省略。 ①The research is so designed that once ____ nothing can be done to change it . A.begins B.having begun

C.Beginning

D.begun

答案为D。连词once后省略了主语the search,从句“once begun”相当于“once there search is begun”。

②If ____ the same treatment again,he's sure to get well.
A.giving B.give C.given D.being given(Key:C)

(1)在状语从句中,如果谓语动词是be,主语又与主句的主语一致或主语是it, 主谓均可省。如:
①时间状语从句:Please come here as soon as(it is)possible. ②条件状语从句:She won't come to the party unless(she is)invited. ③ 地 点 状 语 从 句 : Fill in the blanks with articles where ( it is ) necessary. ④方式状语从句:I wonder why he didn't do as(he was)told to. ⑤比较状语从句:It is much colder today than(it was)yesterday. ⑥让步状语从句:Though(they were)tired,they went on working.

(2)状语从句省略主语时,后边用现在分词表示该动作与被 省略的主语是主动关系,用过去分词表示两者之间是被动关系。 如: Be careful when(you are)crossing the street.

Once(he is)burnt,a child dare not touch the fire again.

3.根据上下文省略,考查疑问句及其省略回答,且看下面一组题。 1)特殊疑问句的省略回答 ①—Susan,go and join your sister cleaning the yard. —Why ____ ?John is sitting there doing nothing. A.him B.he C.I D.me (Key:D) ②—What do you think made Mary so upset? — her bicycles. A.As she lost B.Lost C.Losing D.Because of losing (Key:C) 对这类特殊疑问句的省略回答,关键在于“特殊疑问词”并据此作出合理的分析 判断。

2)含情态动词的一般疑问句的省略回答
①—Could I call you by your first name? —Yes,you ____.

A.will B.could C.may D.might
(Key:C) ②“Will you stay for lunch?”“Sorry,____. My brother is coming to see me.” A.I mustn't C.I needn't B.I can't D.I won't (Key:B)

此类题目考查了回答语的省略,即出现一个助动词或情态动词, 省略了句中重复出现的成分。

1.–Shall I invite Tom to my party? -Yes. It’ll be nice if you ______. A. do B. do invite C. are

(A)

D. invited (D)

2. – Don’t you think Lily’s health has been ruined by smoking?

-Yes, she told me ____ herself.
A. the fact B. this thing C. is D. so (C) 3. –Harry can’t leave until tomorrow. -I know. ____. A. I can’t too B. I can too

C. Neither can I

D. I can’t neither

4. –The Smiths watched TV all the time during the holidays. (B) -____ the Taylors. A. So do like it. B. So did C. Either did D. Also do (D) B. So did I D. So it was with me. 5. –Tom went to the cinema last night, but he didn’t

-____.
A. Neither did I C. I was so too

6. –Would you like to have dinner out with me this evening?

- Yes, I love ____.
A. do B. to C. that D. have

(B)

7. He promised to show me around his school and _( B )_.

A. so did he B. so he did C. such did he D.such he did
8. –This university is one of the top universities of our country. ( C) -____. A. I have been told B. So is it C. I have been told so D. So does it. 9. The girl is not ____ I saw knocked off the bike this morning. (B) A. one B. the one C. who D. which (A) 10. –Have you still kept your old watch? -No, I have sold ____. A. it B. one C. such D. so


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