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高三语法复习专题十 非谓语动词


语法专题十一
考点精析

非谓语动词

在全国各省市的高考英语试卷中,年年必考的一项语法就是非谓语动词。非谓语 动词分为三类:不定式、动名词和分词。其特点是: 1.不定式、动名词和分词可以作很多句子成分,但就是不能单独作谓语,这也 是它们被称为“非谓语动词”的原因。 2.它们具有各种形态:原形、主动语态、被动语态、进行时态和完成时

态。 3.不定式和动名词可以作主语、宾语、表语、补语等。但不管起什么作用,它 们都具有动词的功能, 但无语法上的动词性质,这一点可以通过它们不受主语的 人称和数的限制体现出来。 一、动词不定式 不定式由“to+动词原形”构成,其否定形式是“not to+动词原形”。不定式可以带 宾语或状语构成不定式短语,没有人称和数的变化,但有时态和语态的变化。不 定式可作主语、宾语、状语、表语和定语,但不能单独作谓语。不定式的逻辑主 语有时用“for+名词/代词”构成。 不定式的具体用法现归纳如下: 1.不定式短语作主语,往往放在谓语之后,用 it 作形式主语。 2.不定式短语作宾语时,如果还带有宾语补足语,往往把不定式宾语放在宾语 补足语之后,而用 it 充当形式宾语。 We find it interesting to work with him.(it 作形式宾语,不定式作真正宾语) 3.不定式作宾语补足语 注意:(1)在 feel, hear, listen to, look at, notice, observe, see, watch, have, let 等词后 的补足语中,不定式不带 to,但是这些句子如果变成被动结构时,就必须带 to。 (2)不定式在介词 but, except, besides 后面时,如果这些介词之前有行为动词 do 的各种形式,那么,这些介词后的不定式不带 to,否则要带 to。 Little girls could do nothing but cry.(=Little girls had no choice but to cry.) 4.不定式作定语 注意:(1)作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词 是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后面须有相应的介词。 Please give me a knife to cut with. 但是,不定式所修饰的名词如果是 time, place 或 way,不定式后面的介词习惯上 要省去。如: He had no money and no place to live. (2)当作定语的不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的承受者时,不定式既 可以用主动语态,也可以用被动语态,但其含义有所不同。试比较: Have you anything to send ? 你有东西要寄吗? (不定式 to send 的动作执行者是 you) Have you anything to be sent ? 你有什么要(我或者别人)寄的东西吗? (不定式 to be sent 的动作执行者是已被省略的我或别人 me 或 someone else) 5.不定式作状语,表示目的、原因、结果或条件。 6.两个不定式连用时,常用一个 to,其余则省去。 注意:如果是比较结构,不要省去 to。
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It’s better to give a hand than to stand by and laugh. 7.it 作形式主语的两种句型在作用上的区别: It is + adj. for sb. to do sth. It is + adj. of sb. to do sth. 当表语形容词表示不定式的逻辑主语的特征属性时, 要用 of 而不用 for 引出不定 式的逻辑主语。常用在第二个句型中的形容词有:good, nice, kind, wise, clever, silly, stupid, foolish, right, wrong, rude, impolite, careless 等,此句型可转换成一个 不定式作状语的句子。 二、动名词 动名词既有动词特征, 又有形容词、 副词、 名词的作用。 动名词的主要用法如下: 1.动名词作主语 注意: 动名词和不定式都可以作主语。动名词作主语表示一般或抽象的多次性动 作,不定式作主语往往表示具体的或一次性的动作。 Playing with fire is dangerous.(泛指玩火) To play with fire might be dangerous.(指一具体动作) 2.动名词作表语 3.动名词作宾语 注意:(1)appreciate, avoid, consider, delay, dislike, enjoy, escape, excuse, face, feel like, finish, forgive, give up, imagine, keep, mention, mind, miss, practise, put off, resist, risk, suggest, can’t help, can’t stand(无法忍受)等动词或词组后可以用动名 词作宾语,但不能用不定式。 (2)allow, advise, forbid, permit 等动词后直接跟动词作宾语时,要用动名词形式, 如果后面有名词或代词作宾语, 然后再跟动词作宾语补足语时,其宾语补足语用 带 to 的不定式。 (3)forget, go on, like, mean, regret, remember, stop, try 等动词可带动名词或不定式 作宾语,但意义上有区别。 I remember doing the exercise.我记得做过这个练习。 I must remember to do it.我必须记着做这事。 I tried not to go there.我尽量不去那里。 I tried doing it again.我试着又做了一次。 (4)在短语 devote to, look forward to, stick to, be used to, object to, thank you for, excuse me for, be (kept) busy, be worth, have difficulty/trouble/problem(in), have a good/wonderful/hard time(in), there’s no use/good, get down to 等后面的动词也应 用动名词形式。如: I look forward to hearing from you soon. (5)在 love, hate, prefer 等动词后用动名词或不定式区别不大。但说话人有所指的 时候,通常用不定式。 (6)在 should(would) like/love 等后须用不定式。 (7)start, begin, continue 在书面语中后面多接动名词,在口语中后面多接不定式。 (8)动词 need, require, want 作“需要”解,其后跟动词作它的宾语时,必用动名 词或不定式的被动式。这时,动名词的主动式表示被动意义。如: The window needs(requires, wants) cleaning(to be cleaned). 4.动名词作定语
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5.动名词在复合结构中的应用 在动名词前加物主代词或名词的所有格便构成动名词复合结构。 其中的物主代词 或名词的所有格为动名词的逻辑主语, 这种结构可以在句中作主语、 宾语或表语。 如: Your coming will be of great help. 你来就是极大的帮助。(your coming 在句中作主语) 三、分词 分词在句中的作用相当于形容词和副词,能充当形容词常作的定语、补语和表语 成分以及副词所起的状语作用。 分词有现在分词和过去分词两种形式,有不同的 时态和语态,以及非独立结构和独立结构等不同形式。 1.现在分词与过去分词的区别 (1)语态不同:现在分词表示主动概念,及物动词的过去分词表示被动概念。 (2)时间关系不同:现在分词表示的动作一般是正在进行的动作,而过去分词所 表示的往往是已经完成的动作。 2.分词的逻辑主语判断 在句中用现在分词还是过去分词, 用什么样的时态和语态都和分词的逻辑主语有 着重要关系。因此,在不同的成分中,抓住分词的逻辑主语很重要。 分词作定语,其逻辑主语是其所修饰的先行词 分词作表语,其逻辑主语是句中的主语 分词作宾补,其逻辑主语是前面的宾语 分词作状语,其逻辑主语是句中的主语 3.分词在句子中的作用 (1)分词作定语:相当于被省略的定语从句,其和先行词(即分词的逻辑主语)是主 动关系时用现在分词,被动关系则用过去分词。如: Our teacher told us the exciting news. 注意:单个分词作定语时放在所修饰的名词之前,分词词组(或短语)作定语时一 般则放在所修饰的名词之后。如: The man talking to my teacher is my uncle. (2)分词作表语:表示主语的性质、特征和状态。主语是人时,表语常用过去分 词,表示主语的心理感受、意义或状态情况。主语是物时,表语多用现在分词, 表明主语的性质、特征、意义。而主语是物时,若表状态仍用过去分词。如: The film is very moving.(性质特征) She seemed satisfied.(心理感受) (3)分词作补足语。如: Mother found the cup broken by my brother.(宾语补足语) I saw them dancing in that room.(宾语补足语) She was found lost in the forest.(主语补足语) 注意:英语中可以带过去分词的动词有: (1)see, hear, watch, feel, think 等表示感觉和心理状况的动词。如: I’ve never heard this song sung in Chinese. (2)make, have, get 等表示使役的动词。如: He made it known to everybody that he would go abroad. (3)like, wish, want, order 等表示希望、要求等意义的动词。如: I don’t like eggs boiled hard.
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(4)分词作状语 分词作状语,表示时间、原因、条件、让步状语时常位于句首,而伴随状语则居 后,分别等于被省略的状语从句或并列谓语结构。作状语在句首时,有时可以和 when, unless, once, while, if, though 等连词连用。分词作状语时,其逻辑主语常和 句子主语一致,可根据主动、被动关系以及其时态意义,选择现在分词、过去分 词的其他形式。

考点训练
1.(2009· 江西)______ the right kind of training, these teenage soccer players may one day grow into international stars. A. Giving B. Having given C. To give D. Given 2.(2009·四川)______ many times, he finally understood it. A. Told B. Telling C. Having told D. Having been told 3.(2009·江苏)Schools across China are expected to hire 50,000 college graduates this year as short-term teachers, almost three times the number hired last year, ______ reduce unemployment pressures. A. help B. to have helped C. to help D. having helped 4.(2009·辽宁)______, you need to give all you have and try your best. A. Being a winner B. To be a winner C. Be a winner D. Having been a winner 5.(2009·辽宁)When we visited my old family home, memory came ______ back. A. flooding B. to flood C. flood D. flooded 6. (2009· 天津)______ by the advances in technology, many farmers have set up wind farms on their land. A. Being encouraged B. Encouraging C. Encouraged D. Having encouraged 7.(2009·天津)______ the project in time, the staff were working at weekends. A. Completing B. Having completed C. To have completed D. To complete 8.(2009·福建)In April, 2009, President Hu inspected the warships in Qingdao, ______ the 60th anniversary of the founding of the PLA Navy. A. marking B. marked C. having marked D. being marked 9.(2009·福建)______ not to miss the flight at 15:20, the manager set out for the airport in a hurry. A. Reminding B. Reminded C. To remind D. Having reminded 10. (2009· 重庆)Michael’ new house is like a huge palace, ______ with his old one. s A. comparing B. compares C. to compare D. compared
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11.(2009·湖南)At the age of 29, Dave was a worker, ______ in a small apartment near Boston and ______ what to do about his future. A. living; wondering B. lived; wondering C. lived; wondered D. living; wondered 12.(2009·北京)______ twice, the postman refused to deliver our letters unless we chained our dog. A. Being bitten B. Bitten C. Having bitten D. To be bitten 13.(2009·北京)All of them try to use the power of the workstation ______ information in a more effective way. A. presenting B. presented C. being presented D. to present 14.(2009·全国Ⅰ)The children all turned ______ the famous actress as she entered the classroom. A. looked at B. to look at C. to looking at D. look at 15.(2009·四川)Ladies and gentlemen, please remain ______ until the plane has come to a complete stop. A. seated B. seating C. to seat D. seat 16. (2009· 浙江)There is a great deal of evidence ______ that music activities engage different parts of the brain. A. indicate B. indicating C. to indicate D. to be indicating 17.(2009·全国Ⅱ)They use computers to keep the traffic ______ smoothly. A. being run B. run C. to run D. running 18.(2009·江西)The government plans to bring in new laws ______ parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children. A. forced B. forcing C. to be forced D. having forced 19. (2009· 安徽)The play ______ next month aims mainly to reflect the local culture. A. produced B. being produced C. to be produced D. having been produced 20.(2009·山东)We are invited to a party ______ in our club next Friday. A. to be held B. held C. being held D. holding 21.(2009·重庆)With the world changing fast, we have something new ______ with all by ourselves every day. A. deal B. dealt C. to deal D. dealing 22. (2009· 北京)For breakfast he only drinks juice from fresh fruit ______ on his own farm. A. grown B. being grown
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C. to be grown D. to grow 23. (2009· 全国Ⅰ)Now that we’ discussed our problem, are people happy with the ve decisions ______? A. taking B. take C. taken D. to take 24.(2009·四川)He told us whether ______ a picnic was still under discussion. A. to have B. having C. have D. had 25.(2009·陕西)I still remember ______ to the Famen Temple and what I saw there. A. to take B. to be taken C. taking D. being taken 26.(2009·湖南)Nowadays people sometimes separate their waste to make it easier for it ______. A. reusing B. reused C. reuses D. to be reused 27. (2009· 金丽衢十二校联考)______ by his grandparents in the countryside, he isn’ t accustomed to ______ in the city. A. Having brought up; live B. Grown up; living C. Growing up; live D. Brought up; living 28. (2009· 龙岩毕业班质检)Realizing I would be late, I quickly dressed my son and, ______ my bag, went to work. A. carried B. having carried C. to carry D. carrying 29 . (2009 · 龙 岩 毕 业 班 质 检 )Facing the global financial crisis, the Chinese government has taken many measures ______ people’s life to deal with it. A. related B. related to C. relating D. relating to 30.(2009·龙岩毕业班质检)—How are you getting on with your English? —Oh, great. Things are going as well as ______. A. plans B. planning C. planned D. to plan 31.(2009·江南十校测试)______ around the Water Cube and the Bird’s Nest, the tourists from Taiwan and I wished there ______ a joint team for the London Olympics. A. Having shown; to be B. To be shown; is C. To show; were D. Having been shown; to be 32.(2009·泉州毕业班质检)I really like this song as it is often heard ______ everywhere in China. A. singing B. sung C. having sung D. to sing
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33. (2009· 苏、 锡、 常、 镇四市教学调查)Carbon dioxide ______ from burning fuels is the most common of the so-called greenhouse gases. A. producing B. having been produced C. to be produced D. produced 34.(2009·潍坊教学检测)—May I have some more coffee, please? —I’m sorry, but there doesn’t seem to be ______. A. left any B. any left C. leaving any D. any leaving 35.(2009·南京调研)—What has made him upset recently? —______ alone to face a troublesome milk case. A. Left B. Being left C. Having left D. To leave 36. (2009· 南京调研)______ the working efficiency, the boss allows the employees to have a coffee break. A. Improving B. To improve C. Having improved D. Improved 37.(2009·石家庄毕业班教学质检)The teacher called Tom to his office because he was caught ______ in the exam. A. to cheat B. cheating C. cheated D. cheat 38.(2009·湖南十校联考)I can’t see my old grandparents ______ alone in the country, so I’ll have them ______ with me in the city at present. A. leave; stay B. left; stay C. leaving; to stay D. left; to stay 39.(2009·湖南十校联考)Having got up late this morning, Mike ran as fast as he could ______ to catch the bus. A. hope B. to hope C. hoped D. hoping 40.(2010·湖南浏阳一中期末)Please make my excuse at tomorrow’s meeting—I’ ve got too much work ______. A. to do to come B. doing coming C. to do coming D. doing to come

[答案]
1.D。考查非谓语动词。句意:倘若训练得当,这些青少年足球运动员也许有 一天可以成为国际明星。前半句是过去分词短语作状语,players 与 give 之间是 逻辑上的动宾关系。 2.D。考查现在分词作状语。由语意可知,tell 这一动作发生在 understand 之前, 且与主语 he 之间存在逻辑上的动宾关系,故选 D。 3.C。考查非谓语动词。从句意可知我国的党校预期要雇用 50,000 名大学毕业 生的目的是缓解就业压力。动词不定式短语 to help...在句中充当目的状语。 4.B。考查非谓语动词。B 项的不定式表示目的,即要想成为赢家,你必须竭尽 全力。其他选项不符合语境。 5.A。考查非谓语动词。现在分词作方式状语。
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6.C。考查非谓语动词。所填写的动词与主语 farmers 之间构成逻辑上的动宾关 系,故排除 B、D 两项;而该动词并非表示一个正在进行的动作,故排除 A。 7.D。考查非谓语动词。由后半句“全体工作人员周末都在工作”可知,前半 句表示“为了及时完成那个项目” ,故用动词不定式作目的状语。 8.A。考查非谓语动词。根据句子结构可知,mark 这一动作在此处作状语,其 逻辑主语是前面整个句子,前后为主谓关系,相当于“which marked” 。再者, mark 这一动作显然不是发生在 inspect 之前的, 所以需用 marking, 而不能用 having marked。 9.B。考查非谓语动词。remind 与句子的主语之间存在着动宾关系,即句子的 主语是 remind 的宾语,所以需用被动形式,是 remind sb. to do sth.结构的变形。 D 选项是主动形式,应该为 Having been reminded。 10. 考查非谓语动词。 D。 compare 的逻辑主语是句子的主语 Michael’ new house, s 且二者之间为逻辑上的动宾关系,所以应该用过去分词作状语。 11.A。考查非谓语动词。分析句子结构可知,空白处在句子中作状语,同时, 根据 and 连接的动词跟其逻辑主语的关系可知,应该用动词的-ing 形式。 12.B。考查非谓语动词。句意:由于被咬了两次,邮递员拒绝给我们送信,除 非我们把狗拴起来。前半句是过去分词短语作状语,the postman 与 bite 之间是 动宾关系。假如选择 C 项,中间要加上 been。 13.D。考查句子结构。句意:他们都努力使用工作站的力量以便用一种更有效 的方式提供情报。to present information in a more effective way 是不定式短语作目 的状语。 14.B。考查非谓语动词。句意:当那个著名的女演员进教室时,孩子们都转身 去看她。动词不定式作状语表示目的。 15.A。考查过去分词。remain seated“坐好,坐着不动” ;seated 既是过去分词, 又具有形容词的特征, 在句中作表语。 再如: Please remain seated and keep your seat belts fastened.请坐稳并系好安全带。 16.B。考查非谓语动词。逻辑主语 a great deal of evidence 与 indicate 之间是逻 辑上的主谓关系,应该用 indicate 的现在分词形式 indicating,此处相当于定语从 句“...a great deal of evidence which indicates that...” ,故选 B 项。 17.D。考查非谓语动词。keep sth. doing 表示“使某动作持续发生” 。 18.B。考查非谓语动词。句意:政府计划制定新的法律,迫使父母对孩子的教 育承担更多的责任。forcing parents to take more responsibility for the education of their children 是现在分词短语作后置定语,修饰 laws。 19.C。考查非谓语动词。根据句中时间状语 next month,可知这里表示将要发 生的动作,所以用不定式,动词 produce 与主语 the play 之间构成逻辑上的动宾 关系,所以用不定式的被动形式。 20.A。考查非谓语动词。分析句子结构可知,此处为非谓语动词短语作定语, 修饰 party, hold 与 party 之间为被动关系,且依据 next Friday 可知应选择不定式 来表示将来,故答案为 A。 21.C。考查非谓语动词。不定式在这里作后置定语,修饰 something,表示要做 的事情。其他选项不合题意。 22.A。考查非谓语动词。句意:他早餐只喝由自家农场种植的新鲜水果制成的 果汁。grown on his own farm 是过去分词短语作后置定语,修饰 fruit,表示被动 和完成。B 项表示“正在被种植” 项表示“将要被种植” ,C ,都不符合语意。
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23.C。考查非谓语动词的形式。句意:既然我们已经讨论了我们的问题,那么 人们对于做出的决定满意吗?因表示被动的含义, 空白处应用过去分词作后置定 语。 24. 考查 A。 “疑问词/连词+不定式” 结构。 该结构由疑问代词(what, who, whom, which)/疑问副词(when, where, why)/连接词(whether)后面接带 to 的动词不定式构 成,起名词的作用,在句中可以作主语、表语、动词(或介词)的宾语等。本题中 该结构作主语。 25.D。考查非谓语动词。remember to do sth.“记得要做某事(该事情未发生)” ; remember doing sth.“记得做过某事(该事情已经发生)” 。根据后文的“what I saw there”可知这里说的是记得已经发生的事情;再者 take 的宾语就是句子的主语, 二者间是动宾关系,用被动形式,所以选 being taken。 26.D。根据句意可知,for 并不是连接原因,而是 make it easier 的目的,其中 it 为形式宾语,动词不定式是真正的宾语。故答案选 D。 27.D。考查非谓语动词。句意:因为他是被祖父母在乡下抚养长大,所以不习 惯城市的生活。 bring up 与 he 是动宾关系, 故此处用过去分词表示。 accustomed be to“习惯于” ,to 是介词,后面要用动名词、名词或代词。 28.D。考查非谓语动词。根据句式结构可知,and 连接的是两个并列的谓语动 词 dressed 和 went,而 carrying my bag 在句中作状语。 29.B。考查非谓语动词的用法。related to people’s life 是过去分词短语作定语, 修饰名词 measures,相当于定语从句:that are related to people’s life。 30.C。考查非谓语动词。as well as planned 意思是“如计划的那样” ,相当于 as well as they are planned。 31.D。考查非谓语动词。从句意可以看出,句子的逻辑主语是 the tourists from Taiwan and I,与 show 之间构成逻辑上的被动关系,同时动作发生在谓语动词 wish 之前,所以第一空用 having been shown,而第二空是 there be 的变体结构形 式。 32.B。as 引导的原因状语从句的主语为 it,即歌曲,与 sing 构成被动关系,即 “歌被唱” ,故应用过去分词。 33.D。考查非谓语动词。因为 carbon dioxide 和 produce 之间是动宾关系,所以 用过去分词表示被动。 34.B。该题考查非谓语动词。left 是过去分词作后置定语修饰 any。 35.B。考查非谓语动词。这句话是一个省略句,答语部分其实是句子的主语, 这句话完整的形式是: Being left alone to face a troublesome milk case has made him upset recently. 36.B。考查非谓语动词的用法。根据题意可知,这里应用动词不定式表示目的。 句意:为了提高工作效率,老板允许职工喝杯咖啡休息一下。 37.B。考查非谓语动词。catch somebody doing something 意为“逮住/发现某人 做某事” 。句意:老师让汤姆到他办公室,因为汤姆在考试中被发现作弊。为了 增加试题的难度,题干采用了被动结构 sb. be caught doing something。 38.B。考查非谓语动词。第一空为过去分词作补语;第二空构成 have sb. do sth. 结构,表“让某人做某事” ,该处 have 是使役动词。故答案为 B。 39.D。考查非谓语动词。该处要用现在分词作伴随状语,to catch the bus 才是 真正的目的状语。hoping 这个动作在此与 ran 同时发生,表伴随。 40.A。考查非谓语动词。have got 相当于 have,表“有” ,have sth. to do 表“有
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某事要做”其后用 to come, , 与前面的 too much work 构成 too...to 结构,“太?? 表 而不能” 。

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