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状语从句虚拟语态


时间状语从句
1.由when, while, as引导的时间状语从句。例如: When you think you know nothing, then you begin to know something.当你以为自己一无所知的时候, 你就是在开始知道一些事物了。 Will you watch my clothes while I have a swim. 我 游泳的时候,请你照看一下我的衣服。 You can feel the air moving as your hand pushes through it. 当你的手在空气中挥动的时候,你就能感 觉到空气在流动。 Our headmaster laughed as she spoke.我们的 校长一边谈一边笑。

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As表示“一边……一边”,as引导的动作是延 续性的动作,一般用于主句和从句动作同时发生; as也可以强调“一先一后。例如: ? We always sing as we walk.我们总是边走边唱。 (as表示“一边……一边”) ? As we was going out, it began to snow.当我们 出门时,开始下雪了。(as强调句中两个动作紧 接着先后发生,而不强调开始下雪的特定时间)

? 2.由before和after引导的时间状语从句。 ? 注意before引导的从句不再用否定式 的谓语,并且当before引导的从句位于主 句之后,有时译成“就,才”。还要注意 主句和从句之间的时间关系。当主句用将 来时,从句总是用现在时;如果before引 导的从句谓语用的是过去时,则主句动词 多用过去完成时,这样以便体现动作发生 的先后。。

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It will be four days before they come back. 他们要过四天才能回来。 ? My father had left for Canada just before the letter arrived.我父亲恰好在信到 之前去加拿大了。 ? They had not been married four months before they were divorced. 他们结 婚还不到四个月就离婚了。

? After表示主句动作发生在从句动作之后。 主句和从句的动作的时间关系正好与 before引导的从句相反 ? After you think it over, please let me know what you decide.你仔细考虑过以 后,告诉我你是怎样决定的。 ? After we had finished the work, we went home.完成工作之后,我们回家了。 (从句用过去完成时,主句用一般过去时)

? 3.由till或until引导的时间状语从句。 ? till和until一般情况下两者可以互换, 但是在强调句型中多用until。并且要注意 的是:如果主句中的谓语动词是瞬时动词 时,必须用否定形式;如果主句中的谓语 动词是延续性动词时,用肯定或否定形式 都可以,但表达的意思不同。

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I didn't go to bed until(till) my father came back.直到我父亲回来我才上床睡觉。 It was not until the meeting was over that he began to teach me English.直到散会之后他 才开始教我英语。 I worked until he came back.我工作到他回 来为止。 I didn't work until he came back.他回来我这 才开始工作。 Please wait until I arrived.在我到达之前请等 我。

? 4.由since引导的时间状语从句。 ? since引导的从句的谓语动词可以是延 续性的动词,又可以是瞬时动词。一般情 况下,从句谓语动词用一般过去时,而主 句的谓语动词用现在完成时。但在It is +时 间+since从句的句型中,主句多用一般过 去时。

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I have been in Beijing since you left. 自 从你离开以来,我一直在北京了。 ? Where have you been since I last saw you? 自上次我和你见面以后,你到哪 里去了? ? It is four years since my sister lived in Beijing. 我妹妹不在北京住有四年了。 ? It is five months since our boss was in Beijing.我们老板离开北京有五个月了

? 5.由as soon as, immediately, directly, instantly, the moment, the instant, the minute, 等引导的时间状语从句。这些连词 都表示“一……就”。例如: ? I will go there directly I have finished my breakfast. 吃完早饭,我立即到那里去。 ? The moment I heard the news, I hastened to the spot.我一听到消息,马上 赶到了出事地点。 ? As soon as I reach Canada, I will ring you up. 我一到加拿大,就给你来电话。

? 6.由by the time引导的时间状语从句。 ? 注意时态的变化:在一般情况下,如 果从句的谓语动词用一般过去时,主句的 谓语动词用过去完成时;如果从句的谓语 动词用一般现在时,主句的谓语动词用将 来完成时。例如: ? By the time you came back, I had finished this book.到你回来时,我已经写 完这本书了。 ? By the time you come here tomorrow, I will have finished this work. 你明天来这 儿的时候,我将已经完成此工作了。

? 7.由each time, every time和whenever ? 引导的时间状语从句。例如: ? Each time he came to Harbin, he would call on me. 他每次来哈尔滨,总是 来看我。 ? Whenever that man says“To tell the truth”, I suspect that he's about to tell a lie. 每当那个人说“说实在话”的时候,我猜 想他就要说谎了。 ? You grow younger every time I see you. 每次遇到你,见你更年轻了。

? 8.由as long as引导的时间状语从句。表示 “有多久……就多久”,通常译为“只 要”。例如: ? You can go where you like as long as you get back before dark. 你可以随意到哪 里去,只要在天黑以前回来就行。 ? I will fight against these conditions as long as there is a breath in my body! 只要 我一息尚存,我就要反对这种境况。

地点状语从句
地点状语从句一般由连接副词where, wherever等引导,已经形成了固定的句型, ? 要点: ? 由连词where和复合关系词wherever (=no matter where )引导.

? 句型1:Where+地点从句,(there)+主 句。 ? 此句型通常译成“哪里……哪里就……”; 主句在从句后面时,there可用可不用;如 果主句在从句的前面时,一般都不用there。 例如: ? Where there is no rain, ( there ) farming is difficult or impossible.在没有雨 水的地方,耕作是困难的,或根本不可能 的。

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Where the Communist Party of China goes, (there) the people are liberated. 哪里有了中国共产党,哪里人民得解放。 ? They were good persons. Where they went, there they were warmly welcomed. 他们都是好人。因此他们走到哪里都受到 热烈欢迎。 ? You should have put the book where you found it. 你本来应该把书放回原来的地 方。

? 句型2: ? Anywhere/ wherever+地点从句,+ 主句。 ? 【注意】anywhere本身是个副词,但 是,常可以引导从句,相当于连词,意思 相似于wherever, anywhere引导的从句可 位于主句之前,也可以位于主句之后。 而 wherever本身就是个连词,表示“在何处, 无论何处”。例如: ? Wherever the sea is , you will find seamen.有海就有海员。

? 1.Where there is a will , there is a way. ? 有志者事竟成。(谚语) ? 2.Wherever there is smoke , there is fire. ? 无风不起浪。(谚语) ? 3.Wherever you go , I go too. ? 无论你到什么地方,我都去。 (wherever=no matter where)无论何处,多 用于句首。

条件状语从句
? 要点: 条件状语从句由连词if, unless (=if not) 引导。 ? 1.If it doesn’t rain tomorrow, we will go hiking. ? 如果明天不下雨, 我们就去远足. ? 2.You will get good grades if you study hard. ? 如果你努力学习,就会取得好成绩. ? 3.I will go to the party unless he goes there too. ? 我会去参加聚会的, 除非他也去.(如果他不去,我 就去.) ? 4.You will be late unless you leave immediately. ? 如果你不马上走,你将会迟到的.(=If you don’t leave immediately, you will be late.)

? 用条件状语从句时要注意时态的正确使用, 当主句是将来时的时候,从句要用一般现在 时. ? He will not leave if it isn’t fine tomorrow. ? They are going to have a picnic if it doesn’t rain next week. ? 一般将来时, 一般现在时

原因状语从句
? ? ? ? 要点: 由连词because, since, as引导, 也可由for, now that 等词引导 1.I didn’t go to school yesterday because I was ill. 我昨天没去上学,因为我生病了。 2. Since everybody is here, let’s begin our meeting. 既然大家都来了, 让我们开始开会吧. 3. As you are in poor health, you should not stay up late. 既然你身体不好, 你就不该熬夜. 4.I asked her to stay to tea for I had something to tell her. 我请她留下来喝茶,因为我有事要告诉她.

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because , since , as , for,辨析 1)because语势最强,用来说明人所不知的原因,回 答why提出的问题。当原因是显而易见的或已为人们所知, 就用as或 since。 I didn’t go because I was afraid. Since /As the weather is so bad, we have to delay our journey. 2)由because引导的从句如果放在句末,一般情况下 可以用for来代替。但如果不是说明直接原因,而是多种情况 加以推断,就只能用for。 He is absent today because / for he is ill. He must be ill for he is absent today. 3) as和for的区别: 通常情况下,as引导的从句在主句前,for引导的从句 在主句后。例: As the weather is cold, I stay at home.(同义句) I stay at home for the weather is cold.

目的状语从句
? ? ? 要点: 目的状语从句由连词that, so that, so…that , in order that 引导。 1.so that 以至, 以便 I’ll run slowly so that you can catch up with me. (目的) 我将慢慢跑以至你能赶上我。 I opened the window so that fresh air might come in. (目的) 我把窗户打开以使新鲜空气可以进来。 2.in order that=so that:为了 We shall let you know the details soon in order that you can/may make your arrangements. 不久我们将会让你知道详情,以便你们能够做出 安排。(目的)

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结果状语从句
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要点:结果状语从句由连词( so )that, so…that, such…that, so much/many…that引导。 1.so…that 如此…以至于 The scientist’s report was so instructive that we were all very excited. 科学家的报告很有启发性,我们感到很兴奋。 He always studied so hard that he made great progress. 他总是那么努力,结果他取得了很大的进步。 2. such…that 如此。。。以至 It’s such nice weather that all of us want to go to the park. 天气是如此的好,我们大家都想去公园玩。

? 3.比较:so和 such ? 其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so 是副词,只 能修饰形容词或副词。 so 还可与表示数量的形 容词many, few, much, little(这四个形容词表多或 表少时)连用,形成固定搭配。 ? so foolish such a fool ? so nice a flower such a nice flower ? so many / few flowers such nice flowers ? so much / little money. such rapid progress ? so many people such a lot of people ? ( so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用such搭 配。)

? so…that与such…that之间的转换既为 so 与such之间的转换。 ? The boy is so young that he can’t go to school. ? He is such a young boy that he can’t go to school

让步状语从句
要点: 表示让步的状语从句由连词 though, although引导. 难点: though, although当虽然讲, 都不能和but连用. Although,(though)…but的格式是不对的.但是他们都可以同yet (still) 连用. 所以though (although)…yet(still)的格式是正确的. Wrong: Although he is rich but he is not happy. Right : Although he is rich, yet he is not happy. 虽然他很富有, 然而他并不快乐. Wrong: Although we have grown up, our parents treat us as children. Right : Although we have grown up, our parents still treat us as children. 尽管我们已经长大了,可是我们的父母仍把我们看作小孩.

? although, though 辨析 ? although although不能though 那样用作副 词放在句末,表示强调时要用even though. ? 1.He is looking fit, though. ? 但是,他看上去很健康. 考点 ? 2. Although( Even though) I didn’t understand a word, I kept smiling. ? 尽管我一个字也不懂,我还是一直微笑着。 ? 3.He is quite experienced, he is young, though. ? 尽管他很年轻,他很有经验。

比较状语从句
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要点:比较状语从句主要运用于形容词和副词的 原级,比较级及最高级的句子之中。 原级 1. as…as 和。。。一样 Jack is as tall as Bob. 捷克和汤姆一样高。 2. not so(as)…as …和不一样 She is not so(as)outgoing as her sister. 她不如她姐姐外向。 比较级 more…than (更) This book is more instructive than that one. 这本书比那本书有教育意义。

? no more than只不过 (嫌少的意思) ? 1。I have no more than two pens. ? 我只有两支笔。 ? 2。It’s no more than a mile to the shops. ? 去商店不过一英里。 ? not more than不如 (前者不如后者) ? 1。Jack is not more diligent than John. ? 捷克不如约翰勤奋。 ? 2。one of the + 名词(复数)….之一(用于最高 级) ? Han Mei is one of the best students in our school. ? 韩梅是我们学校最好的学生之一。

方式状语从句
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方式状语从句通常由as, (just) as…so…, as if, as though引导。 1) as, (just) as…so…引导的方式状语从句通常 位于主句后,但在(just) as…so…结构中位于句首,这 时as从句带有比喻的含义,意思是"正如…","就像", 多用于正式文体,例如: 1.As water is to fish, so air is to man. 我们离不开空气,犹如鱼儿离不开水。 2.Just as we sweep our rooms, so we should sweep backward ideas from our minds. 正如打扫房屋一样,我们也要扫除我们头脑中落 后的东西。

? 2) as if, as though ? 两者的意义和用法相同,引出的状语从句谓语多用虚 拟语气,表示与事实相反,有时也用陈述语气,表示所说 情况是事实或实现的可能性较大。汉译常作"仿佛……似 的","好像……似的",例如: ? 1。They completely ignore these facts as if (as though) they never existed. ? 他们完全忽略了这些事实,就仿佛它不存在似的。 (与事实相反,谓语用虚拟语气。) ? 2。He looks as if (as though) he had been hit by lighting. ? 他那样子就像被雷击了似的。(与事实相反,谓语用 虚拟语气。) ? 3。It looks as if the weather may pick up very soon. ? 看来天气很快就会好起来。(实现的可能性较大,谓 语用陈述语气。)

? 说明:as if / as though也可以引导一个分词短语、 不定式短语或无动词短语,例如: ? 1。He stared at me as if seeing me for first time. ? 他目不转睛地看着我,就像第一次看见我似 的。 ? 2。He cleared his throat as if to say something. ? 他清了清嗓子,像要说什么似的。 ? 3。The waves dashed on the rocks as if in anger. ? 波涛冲击着岩石,好像很愤怒。

虚拟语气
? 1、表示与现在事实相反的情况: ? 从句:If 主语+过去时 ? 主句:主语+should/would/could/might+do ? 注意:在虚拟语气的从句中,动词be的过去时态一 律用were,不用was。 ? eg:1.If I were you,I would take an umbrella. ? 如果我是你,我会带把伞。(事实:我不可能是你) ? 2.If I knew his telephone number,I would tell you. ? 如果我知道他的电话号码,我就会告诉你。(事实: 不知道) ? 3.If there were no air or water,there would be no living things on the earth. ? 如果没有水和空气,地球上就不会有生物。(事实: 地球上既有空气也有水)

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4.If I had any money with me,I could lend you some. 如果我带钱了,我就会借给你些。(事实: 没有带钱) 5.If he studied harder,he might pass the exam. 如果他再努力些,就能通过考试了。(事实: 没有努力) 6.she looked at me as if I had been a stranger. 她看我的样子好像我是一个陌生人。(事实: 我并非陌生人)

? 2、表示与过去事实相反的情况 ? 从句:If 主语+had+done ? 主句:主语 +should/would/could/might+have done ? eg: ? 1. If I had got there earlier,I should/could have met her. 如果我早到那儿,我就会见到她。 ? (事实:去晚了) ? 2.If he had taken my advice,he would not have made such a mistake. 如果他听我的劝告 的话,就不会犯这样的错误了。 ? (事实:没有听我的话)

? 3、表示对将来情况的主观推测 ? 从句:①if+主语+were to do 主句: ①主语+should/would/could/might+do ? ②if+主语+did/were ②主语 +should/would/could/might+do ? ③if+主语+should+do ③主语 +should/would/could/might+do

? eg: ? 1.If he should come here tomorrow,I would talk to him. ? 如果他明天来这儿的话,我就跟他谈谈。 (事实:来的可能性很小) ? 2.If there were a heavy snow next Sunday,we would not go skating. ? 如果下周日下大雪,我们就不能去滑冰了。 (事实:下雪可能性很小) ? 3.If she were to be here next Monday,I would tell her about the matter. ? 如果她下周一来这儿的话,我就会告诉她这 件事的始末。(事实:来的可能性很小)

? 4、 当虚拟条件句的谓语动词含有 were,should,had时,if可以省略,这时条件从 句要用倒装语序,即把were,should,had等词置 于句首,这种多用于书面语。eg: ? Should he agree to go there,we would send him there. ? 要是他答应去的话,我们就派他去。 ? Were she here,she would agree with us. ? 如果她在这儿的话,她会同意我们的。 ? Had he learnt about computers,we would have hired him to work here. ? 如果他懂一些电脑知识的话,我们已经聘用 他来这里工作了

? 5、非真实条件句中的条件从句有时不表达出来,只暗含 在副词、介词短语、上下文或其他方式表示出来,这种 句子叫做含蓄条件句,在多数情况下,条件会暗含在短 语中,如without…,but for…otherwise…等 ? eg: ? But for his help,we would be working now. ? 要不是他的帮助,我们还会在工作呢。 ? Without your instruction,I would not have made such great progress. ? 要是没有你的指导,我不会取得如此大的进步。 ? We didn't know his telephone number,otherwise we would have telephoned him. ? 我们不知道他的电话号码,否则我们就会给他打电话。

? 6、 有时,虚拟条件句中,主、从句可以省略其 中的一个,来表示说话人的一种强烈的感情。 ? ①省略从句 ? He would have finished it. 他本该完成了。 ? You could have passed this exam. 你本能 通过这次考试的。 ? ②省略主句 ? If I were at home now. 要是我现在在家里该 多好啊。 ? If only I had got it. 要是只有我得到它了该多 好啊。

? wish 后宾语从句 ? a、表示与现在事实相反的愿望,谓语动词用过去式 ? eg. I wish I had your brains. ? 我希望我有你那样的头脑。(事实:我根本比不上你) ? b、表示与过去事实相反的愿望,谓语动词: had+done ? eg:.I wish I had known the truth of the matter. ? 我希望我那时就知道这件事情的真相。(事实:那时 还不知道) ? c、表示将来难以实现的愿望 ? 谓语动词:should/would(情态动词) + 动词原形 ? eg. I wish I should have a chance again. ? 我希望我还能有一次这样的机会。(事实:很难再有 这样的机会了) ? (注:as if/as though引导的状语从句也有相同用法)


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