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牛津高中英语模块重点词汇讲解


牛津高中英语1—8模块重点词汇讲 解(一)

inform
1.inform(P16, M1): We regret to inform you that our library will be closed next Wednesday, Thursday and Friday for the sports meeting.

> Usage1: inform + obj.+ (that) / wh-

e.g.: (1) I informed him that I would
not be able to attend the

meeting.
我告诉他说我不能参加会议了。

(2) Could you please inform me how to go about contacting a lawyer? 你能告诉我如何联系一位律师吗?

Usage 2: inform +obj + ( of / about ) e.g.: (1) I wasn’t informed of the decision until too late.

等我得到通知时已经太晚了。
(2) Why wasn’t I informed?

为什么没有人告诉我?

扩展:keep + sb. + informed of sth. 让某人了解某事的发展动态 e.g.: They are kept informed of the

development of IT.
他们一直了解信息工业的发展动态。

_________ what is happening in his
own country, he watches TV and reads

newspapers every day.



A.To inform C. To be informed of

B. Informing of

D. Having informed of

扩展:information 【U】 informative adj. 增长见识的,增益 的;有教育性的

e.g.: Children should be encouraged to
watch more informative TV programs.

approve
2. approve ( P18, M1 ): He approved the
idea, and two years later I am the

oldest student member of the
radio club.

Usage 1: vt. , to agree officially to 批准;通过;认可 e.g.: (1) The city council approved the building plans. 市议会批准了这些建筑计划。

(2) The equipment must be bought from a supplier approved by the company.

设备必须从公司认可的供应商那里购买。

Usage 2: vi. ( of ) , 赞成,同意,支持 e.g.: (1) I don’t approve of smoking in bed. 我不赞成在床上吸烟。 (2) You can join the class if your mother approves. 如果你母亲同意的话,你可以加入这个 班级。

扩展: approval【U】 e.g.: (1) I hope that the arrangements

will meet with your approval.
我希望这些安排能够得到你的赞同。 (2) We can’t start building without the council’s approval. 未经委员会批准,我们不能动工。 其反义词: disapproval

require
3. require( P18, M1): When I attended
the first meeting, I was required to

write a poem and I had to read it
out to the group.

Usage 1: require + obj. + to-v. 要求;命令 e.g.: All passengers are required to show their tickets. 所有乘客都被要求出示车票。

Usage 2: require + that… 要求;命令

e.g.: The regulations require that all
students shall attend at least 90%

of the lectures.
规定要求所有学生的听课率至少要达到90%.

Usage 3: require sth. of sb. 要求;命令
e.g.: Silence is required of all examination candidates. 应试者都要保持安静。

Usage 4: require sth. / doing sth. / that … 需要 e.g.: (1) This suggestion will require

careful thought.
这建议需要仔细考虑。

(2) To carry out this plan would require increasing our staff by 50% 执行这计划需要增加50%的人员。

(5) The urgency of the situation requires that we (should ) make an immediate decision.

形势紧急,需要我们立刻做出决定。

常与虚拟语气连用的动词
insist, order, command, suggest,

advise, propose, require, demand,
request, ask 等动词

e.g.: (1) The expert insisted that the dam
(should) not be built over the river. 专家坚持要求这条河道上不能建设堤坝。

(2) Can you suggest how we (should) do it? 该如何做这件事,你能给点建议吗?

(3) It is asked that they ( should ) be allowed to leave. 有人请求准许他们离开。 (4) It is advised that we ( should ) take more vegetables and fruits. 有人建议我们多吃蔬菜和水果。

常与虚拟语气连用的名词
order, command, suggestion,

advice, proposal , idea, requirement
等名词

e.g.: (1) The proposal that the hospital should be closed was rejected

by a large majority.
关闭医院的提议遭到大多数人的拒绝。

(2) My idea is that we should wait
for another hour. 我的想法是我们应该再等一个小时。

特别提醒: suggest 和 insist
e.g.: (1) The latest figures suggest that

business is improving.
最新的数据表明生意正在好转。

(2) He still insists that he was not
there at that time. 他还坚持说当时自己不在场。

requirement
扩展: 其名词 requirement: sth.

that is needed or that is
demanded as necessary

必需品; 要求之物

e.g.: (1) The refugees’ main requirements are food and shelter. 难民们的主要需要是食物和住所。

(2) Can this computer handle the requirements of the wages department?

这台计算机能够处理工资部门的需要吗?

(3) Candidates who fail to meet these requirements will not be admitted to the University.

未能满足要求的应考生不能上
这所大学。

spare
4. spare(P38, M1): Then when I have some spare time and want to be alone, they call me selfish and unloving.

Usage 1: adj., 多余的,剩下的;备用的; 空闲的 e.g.: (1) a spare tyre 备用轮胎

(2) Have you got a spare moment?
I’d like to discuss.

你有空吗?我有事与你商量。

(2) What do you like doing
in your spare time? 你空闲的时候喜欢干什么?

Usage 2: vt.,(把多余不用的人或物)拨 出,腾出,抽出,让给 e.g.:(1) We’re so busy that no one in the office can be spared for any other work. 我们办公室里的人都很忙,腾不出任 何人去干其他任何事。

(2) Can you spare me five minutes? 你能给我五分钟的时间吗? (3) -- Have you got enough? -- Yes; we’ve got enough and to spare.

-- 你们够吗? -- 够了,绰绰有余。

Usage 3: vt., 节约,节省,舍不得,爱惜

(一般用于疑问句和否定句)
e.g.: (1) No trouble was spared to make

sure the guests enjoyed themselves.
为使宾客尽情欢乐而不遗余力。

(2) No expense was spared in providing the food and wine.

为提供酒食而不惜成本。

Usage 4: spare + obj.(i) + obj.(d) 使 某人免受不受欢迎的 事;省掉,免除(某人的 需要或麻烦)

e.g.: (1) It was a horrible accident ——
I’ll spare you the details. 事故很惨,我就不跟你讲细节了。 (2) Use the telephone and spare

yourself a visit.
打电话吧,免得跑一趟。

search
5. search (P2, M2): Police in America have stepped up their search for a 15 year old boy who went missing two days ago in Dover.

Usage 1: noun, 搜查,搜索;寻找 e.g.: (1) They police conducted a long search for the lost child. 警察对那个失踪男孩进行了长久 的搜索。

(2) I went off in search of a garage where I could buy some petrol.

我动身去寻找加油站,希望在那里
可以买到汽油。

Usage 2: vi., search ( through sp. for sth.)

e.g.: (1) He searched through his pockets
for a cigarette. 他翻遍口袋寻找香烟。

(2) Scientists are still searching for a cure to the common cold. 科学家还在寻找治愈普通感冒的良方。
(3) She searched desperately for some reason to stay. 她拼命寻找留下的理由。

Usage 3: vt.,search sp. / sb. ( for sth.)
e.g.: (1) The police searched the suspect but found no weapon on him. 警察搜了嫌疑犯的身,但没有在他身上 找到武器。

(3) They searched the woods for the little boy. 他们搜查了小树林,寻找那个小男孩。
(4) I’ve searched my conscience and I still think I did the right thing. 我扪心自问过了, 还是认为自己 做得是对的。

扩展: searching adj., sharp and thorough; anxious to discover the truth

e.g.: She gave me a searching look, as if doubting what I said.

她锐利地看着我,似乎在怀疑我所说的话。

扩展:searchlight search party

探照灯 搜索队, 救援队 搜查令, 搜查证

search warrant

convincing
6. convincing ( P3, M2): We will not give up until we find convincing evidence.

convincing 令人信服的
e.g.: You’re not a convincing liar. 你的谎言难以让人信服。

convince sb. ( of sth. / that…) 使某人信服 e.g.: (1) I managed to convince them that the story was true. 我设法使他们相信故事是真实的。 (2) We finally convinced them of her guilt. 我们最终使他们相信她是有罪的。

convinced ( of ) 信服的,坚信的

e.g.: (1) We are all convinced of his
innocence. 我们深信他是清白的。

(2) I felt convinced that they were right. 我深信他们是正确的。 (3) Molly agreed, but she didn’t sound very convinced. 莫莉同意了,但好像不太信服。

扩展: amuse, annoy, amaze, bore,
confuse, convince, excite,

embarrass, frighten, puzzle,
surprise, shock, tire … + sb.

( sth. be ) amusing, annoying,

amazing, boring, confusing,
convincing, exciting, embarrassing,

frightening, puzzling , surprising,
shocking, tiring…

(sb. be / get) amused, annoyed,

amazed, bored, confused,
convinced, excited, embarrassed,

frightened, puzzled, surprised,
shocked, tired

charge
7. charge (P22, M2): Listen to me young man – remember the day when we left you in charge?

Usage 1: 【U】, 主管,掌管,责任

e.g.: (1) Student nurses should not be left alone in charge of hospital wards.

实习护士不可被单独留下照顾病房。

(2) She took charge of the family
business when her father died. 她父亲去世后,她接管了家族的企业。

Usage 2:【C; U】(货物或劳务的)

价钱;费用

e.g.: (1) The admission charge is $5.
入场费是五美元。

(2) Is there any charge for having the goods delivered? 送货要收费吗? (3) The faulty part was replaced free of charge. 有瑕疵的零件被免费替换了。

Usage 3: 【C】: 控告;罪名 e.g.: (1) The police brought a charge of murder against him. 警察控告他犯有谋杀罪。 (2) She faces two charges of theft.

她面临着两宗偷窃罪。

Usage 4: vt. / vi. ,要价,(向…)收费;

索取(金额)
e.g.: (1) How much do you charge for a double room? 一间双人房要多少钱?

(2) They tried to charge me£80 for a night! 一个晚上要我80英镑!

(3) They charge a heavy tax on imported wine. 他们对进口酒收取高额税。

Usage 5: vt., charge sb. with = accuse sb. of 控告;指控 e.g.: He was charged with the robbery.

他被控告犯有谋杀罪。

Usage 6: vt. / vi. , (使)充电

e.g.: (1) His mobile phone is being

charged.
他的手机正在充电。

(2) If the red light comes on, it means
that the battery isn’t charging. 如果红灯亮了, 就意味着电池没有充 上电。

reach
8. reach( P38, M2): He described a

beautiful kingdom where three
rivers joined together, snowcapped mountains reached to the sky, and fields of long grass covered the earth.

Usage 1: vt. / vi.(东西或地方)

大得足以及到;伸展,延伸
e.g.: (1) The ladder won’t quite reach

(as far as ) the window.
梯子够不到窗户的高度。 (2) The garden reaches down to the lake. 花园一直延伸到湖边。

Usage 2: vt.,到达,抵达 e.g.: (1) After several changes of plane, we finally reached London on Tuesday. 经过好几次转机之后,我们终于在星期二到 达了伦敦。

(2) Have you reached the end of the book yet? 这本书你有没有看完? (3) The news only reached me then. 我那时才得到消息。 (4) She’s reached the age of 50. 她已50了。

(5) Our sales to Japan have reached record levels. 我们对日本的销售额已达到创纪录水平。 (6) The two sides failed to reach an agreement after several hours of discussion. 经过几个小时的讨论,双方未能达成协议。

Usage 3: vi. / vt,伸出手臂 伸手触及;伸手去取,伸手递给

e.g.: (1) He reached across the table and
picked up the book. 他伸手越过桌子去取那本书。 (2) reach for stars 伸手摘星(比喻难以实现的愿望)

(3) Are you tall enough to reach the apple on the tree? 你够得着树上的苹果吗?

(4) We could see nothing but houses as far as the eye could reach. 放眼望去,除却房屋,什么也看不到。

(5) I reached down the child’s cap from the hook. 我从挂钩上取下了孩子 的帽子。

(6) Could you reach me the book from the top shelf? 可否把顶层架上的那本书取给我?

Usage 4: vt.,与…联络

e.g.: You can usually reach him
on this phone number. 通常打这个电话 可以与他取得联系。

Usage 5: [U] , (手、能力、智力、影响等) 可及之范围 e.g.: The medicine was put out of the

child's reach. 药被放在孩子够不着的地方。

Usage 6: (江、河的)一段流域;地带;
大片地区 [C] e.g.: the upper reaches of the river 河的上游地区

claim
9. claim(P38, M2): In September 1977, the government in Yunnan Province claimed that Zhongdian is where Shangri-la is in Hilton’s story.

Usage 1: (尤指面对反对意见)断言; 声称;主张;认定

e.g.: They claim to have discovered / claim
that they have discovered a cure for the disease, but this has not been proved yet. 他们声称已经发现了一种能够治愈这种疾病的 良方,但这还未得到证实。

Usage 2: vt. / vi. ,(根据权利而)

(对…)提出要求;索取;认
领;声称有…的权利

e.g.: (1)Did you claim on the
insurance after the accident? 事故之后,你有没有向保险公司 索赔?

(2) Old people are entitled to claim a special heating allowance from the government. 老年人有权向政府领取一笔特殊取暖津贴。 (3) If no one claims the lost umbrella, the person who found it can keep it. 如果无人认领这把雨伞,拾到者可保留之。

Usage 3: vt.,夺去生命 e.g.: The flood claims hundreds of lives.

洪水夺去了数百人的生命。

Usage 4: vt.,值得;需要
e.g.: The problem claims our

undivided attention.
这个问题需要我们不断的关注。

pay off
10. Pay off ( P45, M2): All my years of training as an explorer have finally paid off!

Usage 1: vi., to be successful
e.g.: Did your plan pay off ? 你的计划成功了吗?

Usage 2: pay sth. off : 还清欠款 e.g.: I’ve paid off the balance on the dishwasher. 我已经付清了那台洗碗机的余款。

Usage 3: pay sb. off : 付清工资解雇某人

e.g.: Two hundred workers have been
paid off.

Usage 4: pay sb. off: to pay sb. to
keep silent about sth.

illegal or dishonest

pay for
扩展:pay for: to receive punishment or suffering for…

为…而受惩罚,为…而吃亏

e.g.: (1) These people must be made

to pay for their crimes.
这些人必须为他们的罪恶受到惩罚。

(2) He paid dearly for his
unfaithfulness to her.

他因对她不忠而付出了很大的代价。

(3) We are paying for the fine summer with a wet winter. 我们过了一个晴朗的夏天,却换来一个 潮湿的冬天。 (4) I’ll make him pay for ruining my

chances.
他毁了我的好机会,我要他为此吃苦头。

pay back
Usage 1: 偿还欠款 e.g.: (1) I’ll pay you back tomorrow. 我明天还你。 (2) They can’t pay back the loan. 他们还不了贷款。

(3) Have I paid you back the £10
I borrowed?

借你的10磅,我还你了吗?

Usage 2: 向…报复
e.g.: I’ll pay him back for what he

did to me.
他这样对待我,我一定要报复的。


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