1-1 对立法 : 先引出其他人的不同看法 ,然后提出自己的看法或者偏向于某一看法 , 适用于有 争议性的主题. . When asked about....., the vast/overwhelming majority of people say that ....... But I think/view a bit differently.
. When it comes to .... , some people believe that ....... Others argue/claim that the opposite/reverse is true . There is probably some truth in both arguments/statements , but (I tend to the prefer/latter ...) . Now, it is commonly/generally/widely believed/held/acknowledged that .... They claim/believe/argue that ... But I wonder/doubt whether..... 1-2 现象法 引出要剖析的现象或者问题, 然后评论 . . Recently the rise in problem public/popular/wide/worldwide concern. of/(phenomenon of) ... has cause/aroused
. Recently the issue of the problem of/the phenomenon of ... has been brought into focus. ( has been brought to public attention) .Inflation/Corruption/Social inequality ... is yet another of the new and bitter truth we have to learn to face now/constantly. 1-3 观点法 ----开门见山,直接了当地提出自己对要讨论的问题的看法. . Never history has the change of .. been as evident as ... Nowhere in the world/China has the issue/idea of .. been more visible/ popular than...  Now people in growing/significant numbers are beginning/ coming to realize/accept/(be aware) that... . Now there is a growing awareness/recognition of the necessity to...... Now people become increasingly aware/conscious of the importance of ...... . Perhaps it is time to have a fresh look at the attitude/idea that....... 1-4 引用法 ----- 先引出名人名言或者有代表性的看法, 来引出文章要展开论述的观点! . "Knowledge is power." such is the remark made by Bacon. This remark has been shared by more and more people . "Education is not complete with graduation." Such is the opinion of a great American philosopher. Now more and more people share his opinion. ."........." How often we hear such statements/words like theses/this . In our own days we are used to hearing such traditional complains as this "......". 1-5 比较法 ------ 通过对过去,现在 两种不同的倾向,观点的比较 , 引出文章要讨论的观点. . For years, ...had been viewed as ... But people are taking a fresh look now. With the growing ... , people ....... .
. People used to think that ... (In the past, ....) But people now share this new . 1-6 故事法 ---- 先讲一个较短的故事来引发读者的兴趣, 引出文章的主题. . Once in (a newspaper) , I read of/learnt .... The phenomenon of ... has aroused public concern. . I have a friend who ... Should he .... ? Such a dilemma we are often confront with in our daily life. . Once upon a time , there lived a man who ... This story may be (unbelievable) , but it still has a realistic significance now. 1-7 问题法 ----- 先用讨论或解答的设问, 引出自己观点, 适用于有争议性的话题.
Should/What ...... ? Options of ... vary greatly , some ..., others ... But in my opinion , ...... .
<一> 原因结果分析 2-1-1. 基本原因 --- 分析某事物时, 用此句型说明其基本的或者多方面的原因. . Why ... ? For one thing.. For another ... . The answer to this problem involves many factors. another...... Still another ... . A number of factors , both physical and psychological affect .…\ and social contribute to ... For one thing... For
2-1-2 另一原因 --------> 在分析了基本原因之后, 再补充一个次要的或者更重要时用! . Another important factor is .... . ... is also responsible for the change/problem. . Certainly , the ... is not the sole reason for ..... 2-1-3 后果影响 --------- 分析某事物可能造成的后果或者带来的影响 . . It will produce a profound/far-reaching effect/impact on....
. It involves some serious consequence for ........ < 二 > 比较对照句型 2-2-1. 两者比较 ---> 比较两事物, 要说出其一超过另一个, 或肯定一事物的优点, 也肯定其缺 点的时候用 ! . The advantages gained from A are much greater than the advantages we gain from B. . Indeed, A carries much weight when compared with B. . There is no doubt that it has its negative effects as well as positive effects. 2-2-2 . 两者相同/相似 ------> 比较两事物共同都有或者共同都没有的特点时用! . A and B have several things in common. They are similar in that..... . A bears some striking resemblances to B. 在主题句确定之后，需要围绕主题中心扩展成句子。扩展的方式很多，比如，比较和对照， 因果推理，分类和举例。 （一）排列顺序。 排列顺序可以根据有关内容的重要性，时间的先后或位臵的远近来组织。 常用的词语有： First, second, also, finally, one , another, still another, for one thing, for another, to begin with, on one hand, on the other hand. (二)分类（classification） 分类也是段落发展的一种方式。其特点是对所叙述的事情进行分门别类。分类写作时需要按照 某一尺度或标准。 常用的表达方式： 1. Divide A into … 2. Classify A into… 3. group A into… 4. A falls into … 5. There are … kinds (groups, categories, sorts, types, classes, societies, sections) of… (三)比较与对照 在写作中，把两件事情的类似或相同之处进行相比，称为类比；把不同的，甚至相反的方面进 行相比，称为对照。 常见句型 1）there are some (a few, many) differences (similarities) between A and B 2) A differs from B (is different from B) in three aspects. 3) A has something (much) in common with B. 4)A has some advantages over B. 5) We can easily compare A with B, and see the differences and similarities between them. 6) One difference seems to lie in (be) that… 2. 常见的词或词组 on the contrary, in contrast, in comparison, on the other hand, be like(unlike), be the same as, similarly,
likewise, likewise, while, whereas, yet, but, however, differently (四) 因果和推理 这种方法通常用于解释某件事情的原因和结果。 常用词和短语： Because, owing to, due to, as a result, because of, so therefore, thus, consequently, for this reason, since, as, on account of, as a consequence, accordingly, (五)举例 以给出实例说明或证明作者的观点是举例段落发展方式。 在考试中， 我们可以采用举例的方 式使文章内容更加充实，更富有内涵。 常用的词和词组： For example, for instance, for another example, one example is, another example is, there are two examples that, furthermore, moreover, besides, in addition to, also, additionally
3-1 结论性--------- 通过对文章前面的讨论 ,引出或重申文章的中心思想及观点 . . From what has been discussed above, we may safely draw the conclusion that ..... . In summary/In a word , it is more valuable to .......
3-2 后果性------ 揭示所讨论的问题若不解决, 将产生的严重后果. . We must call for an immediate method , because the current phenomenon of ... , if allowed to proceed, will surely lead to the heavy cost of ....... . Obviously , if we ignore/are blind to put in danger . the problem , there is every chance that .. will be
3-3 号召性 -------- 呼吁读者行动起来, 采取行动或提请注意. . It is time that we urged an immediate end to the undesirable tendency of ...... . It is essential that effective measures should be taken to correct the tendency . 3-4 建议性 -------- 对所讨论的问题提出建议性的意见, 包括建议和具体的解决问题的方法. . While it cannot be solved immediately, still there are ways. The most popular is .... Another method is ... Still another one is ..... . Awareness/Recognition of the problem is the first step toward the situation.
3-5 方向性的结尾方式 ---- 其与建议性的唯一差别就是对问题解决提出总的, 大体的方向或者 指明前景. . Many solutions are being offered here , all of them make some sense, but none is adequate enough. The problem should be recognized in a wide way . . There is no quick method to the issue of .., but .. might be helpful/beneficial. . The great challenge today is ...... There is much difficulty, but ........
3--6 意义性的结尾方式 --------> 文章结尾的时候,从更高的更新的角度指出所讨论的问题的重 要性以及其深远的意义! . Following these suggestions may not guarantee the success, but the pay off might be worth the effort . It will not only benefit…., but also benefit ..... . In any case, whether it is positive or negative, one thing is certain that it will undoubtedly ......
投诉信 开头常用的句式和套话： I am writing to complain about / that … I am writing to make a complaint about… I am writing to express my concern/ dissatisfaction/ disappointment about … I am writing to inform you that I am dissatisfied with your …. I feel bad/ sorry to trouble you but I am afraid I have to make a complaint about … I am most reluctant to complain, but …. I am writing to advise you that I find … unsatisfactory. I wish to draw your attention to the problem/ fault of … that I bought … 结尾常用的句式和套话： I trust you will take my complaints seriously and … I will appreciate it very much if you could… I would be perfectly satisfied if you can kindly …. I understand you will give immediate attention to this matter. I would like to have this matter settled by the end of …. I would be grateful if you could ….. I would appreciate it if you could …. 2. 询问信 I am writing for information about … I would like to receive information regarding …
I would like to request materials for …. I would be most grateful if you could send me information regarding/ concerning… I am writing to see if it is possible for you to provide me with information regarding ….
结尾常用的句式和套话： I am expecting your early reply. Your prompt attention to this letter would be highly appreciated. I am looking forward to hearing from you. Thank you for your consideration. I look forward to your immediate response. 3. 请求信 I am writing to formally request to … I would very much like to ask for your permission with this letter so as to allow me …. I am writing to seek for your assistance in …. Would you be kind enough to …..? 结尾常用的句式和套话： I am looking forward to hearing from you. I do appreciate the favorable consideration you have shown to me. I would like to thank you for your generous help in this matter. I shall remain grateful to you for the great help …. 4. 道歉信 I am writing this letter to express my regret….. I am writing to apologize for … I would like to give you my apology for … I am very sorry to say that …. I must apologize about (not) doing sth…. Please accept my sincere apology for … I am writing to say sorry for … 结尾常用的句式和套话： Once again, I am sorry for any inconvenience caused. Please allow me to say sorry again. Hope you can accept my apologies and understand my situation. I sincerely hope that you will be able to think in my position and accept my apologies. I want to let you know how regretful I am feeling now. I am sorry that I can’t …. And trust that you will be able to understand. 5. 感谢信 I am writing to extend my sincere gratitude for … I am writing to express my thanks for … I am writing to show my sincere appreciation for … I would like to convey in this letter my heartfelt thanks to you for … I feel deeply indebted to you and I really don’t know how to thank you enough for your help. 结尾常用的句式和套话: I must thank you again for your generous help. I am most grateful for your selfness donation.
My true gratitude is beyond the word’s description. I feel most obliged to thank you once more. Please accept my gratitude, now and always. 6. 建议信 开头常用的句式和套话： I am writing in reply to … I would like to suggest that … I am writing with my suggestion proposal about … I am writing to express my views concerning.. You have asked me for my advice with regard to … and I will try to make some conductive suggestions. 结尾常用的句式和套话: I hope you will find these suggestions / proposals/ recommendations helpful practical/ useful. I trust you will take my suggestion into account. I would be more than happy to see improvements in this regard. I would be ready to discuss this matter to further details. 7. 求职信 求职信开头常用的句式和套话： I am writing in response to your advertisement in China Daily of June 8 ….. I write this letter to apply for the position that you have advertised in Beijing Youth Thursday … Your advertised position of general manager assistant interests me … I am writing to express my interest in your recently advertised position for a waitress … I am writing this letter to recommend myself as a qualified candidate for the job of senior accountant you have 求职信结尾常用的句式和套话: I have enclosed my resume that outlines in detail my qualifications and experience. Should you grant me a personal interview, I would be most grateful. Any favorable consideration of my application will be highly appreciated. Thank you for considering my application and I am looking forward to meeting you. If you need to know more about me, please contact me at …. 8 推荐信 推荐信开头常用的句式和套话： I am writing to you to recommend …. I would like to present …. for your consideration in your search for a qualified manager. With reference to your requirements, I shall, without reservation, recommend … as an ideal candidate. 推荐信结尾常用的句式和套话: Therefore, I don’t hesitate to recommend …as the right person for your consideration. I would like to lend my support to … for his …. I am willing to stand by Mr./Mrs. …. for …. Any favorable consideration to this letter would be considered a personal favour. I would like to thank you for your attention to this letter and restate my support to Mr….. Before concluding the letter, I would again apply myself to convincing you that … 9. 自我介绍信 自我介绍信开头常用的句式和套话：
My name is … I am honored to have this chance of communication with you through the letter. I am an oversea student from China and I am writing to provide you with necessary information about myself. 自我介绍信结尾常用的句式和套话: Thanks for your attention and hope I can receive your reply. I would be most grateful if you could lend due attention to this letter and contact me at …. In addition, I want to express my sincere thanks for your attention. 10 寻找失物信 寻找失物信开头常用的句式和套话: I am wrioting this letter to report the loss of my … when I … I am writing this letter to request your assistance in finding my … which I have lost during the stay with your hotel. I hope it will not be too much trouble for you to help me finding my suitcase which I have lost due to carelessness. I am writing this letter to see if it is possible for me to have my camera back. 寻找失物信结尾常用的句式和套话: I would e really appreciate ot if you could …. I also suggest that the lost bag be sent to ….. if possible. I am looking forward to your reply. 11 邀请信 邀请信开头常用的句式和套话: I am writing to invite you to ….. I think it would be a good idea if you could participate in … How would you like to join us in …? Would you please drop me a line to let me know if you can come? 邀请信结尾常用的句式和套话: My family and I would feel honored if you could come. We would be looking forward to your participation in the party. I would like to meet you there and please let me know your decision. （六）英语作文常用表达方法 1. 开头 1) Recently, the problem of … has aroused people’s concern / has become the focus of the society. 2) Nowadays, … has become a problem we have to face. 3) …has been playing an increasingly important role in our day-to-day life. It has brought a lot of benefits but has created some serious problems as well. 4) It is commonly believed that… / It is a common belief that… 5) Nowadays there is a growing concern for … 6) Nowadays more and more people are beginning to be aware of the seriousness of … 7) It is only during the last / past few years that man has become generally aware that … 8) Nowadays it is common to hear / see … 9) …has become a common occurrence in our daily life. 10) Many people insist that… 11) With the development of science and technology, more and more people believe that… 12) A lot of people seem to think that… 13) A proverb says, “ You are only young once.”
14) It goes without saying that we cannot be young forever. 15) As everyone knows, … 16) No one can deny that… 17) According to a recent survey, … 18) A recent statistics shows that … 2. 结尾 1) Taking all these factors into consideration, we naturally come to the conclusion that… 2) Taking into account all these factors, we may reasonably come to the conclusion that… 3) From what has been discussed / mentioned above, we may conclude that … 4) Hence / Therefore, we’d better come to the conclusion that… 5) Therefore, it is not difficult to draw / come to the conclusion that … 6) There is no doubt that … has its drawbacks as well as merits. 7) All in all, we cannot live without… But at the same time we must try to find out new ways to cope with the problems that would arise. 8) From all the reasons / consideration above, it is evident / clear / obvious that … 3. 提出建议 1) It is high time that we put an end to the … 2) It is time to take the advice of … and to put special emphasis on the improvement of … 3) There is no doubt that enough concern must be paid to the problem of … 4) Obviously, if we want to…, it is essential that… 5) Only in this way can we… 6) It must be realized that… 7) Given the reasons / consideration I have just outlined / discussed / presented , I strongly recommend that … 8) It is essential that effective measure be taken to … 9) As a result, we should take some effective steps to … 4. 预示后果 1) Obviously, if we don’t control the problem, the chances are that… which will lead us in danger. 2) No doubt, unless we take effective measures, it is very likely that… 3) It is urgent that immediate measures should be taken to stop the situation. 5. 用于比较、阐述不同观点的常用句型 1) Some people like / prefer …, while others are / feel inclined to … 2) People’s views on…vary from person to person. Some hold that…. However, others believe that… 3) People may have different opinions on… 4) Attitudes towards … vary from person to person. 5) Different people hold different attitudes toward… 6) There are different opinions among people as to … Some believe … while others hold … 7) Some people claim that … is superior to … Others, however, disagree with it. 8) Some people believe … Others maintain … Still others claim … 9) Some people suggest … Others, however, hold the opposite opinion. 10) On the one hand, people tend to … On the other hand, they feel … 11) Some people argue that … Others, in contrast, believe that … 12) Although more and more people come to believe … there are still others who insist that … 13) On the contrary, there are people in favor of … 6. 用于陈述个人观点、想法的常用句型 1) My own experience tells me that … 2) In my opinion, we should attach more importance to … 3) As for my own idea about … I believe … 4) As far as I am concerned, I plan to … 5) Personally, I prefer … 6) In my view, both sides are partly right in that … 7) But for me, I would rather …
8) My own point of view is that … 9) In conclusion, I support the statement that … 10) As regards me, I tend to choose … 11) To speak frankly, there is also a more practical reason why… 12) In my opinion, it is more advisable to do … than to do… 13) Personally, I am standing on the side of… 14) From my point of view, it is more reasonable to support the first opinion rather than the second. 15) I cannot entirely agree with the idea that… 7. 给出原因 1) This phenomenon exists for a number of reasons. First, … Second, … Third, … 2) Why did…? For one thing… For another…. Perhaps the primary reason is… 3) I quite agree with the statement that… The reasons are chiefly as follows. 8. 列出解决办法 1) Here are some suggestions for handling… 2) The best way to solve the troubles is… 3) People have figured out many ways to solve this problem. 9. 批判错误观点和做法 1) As far as something is concerned, … 2) It was obvious that… 3) It may be true that…, but it doesn’t mean that… 4) It is natural to believe that…, but we shouldn’t ignore that… 5) There is no evidence to suggest that… 10. 如何连接 1) 强调：still, indeed, apparently, oddly enough, of course, after all, significantly, interestingly, also, above all, surely, certainly, undoubtedly, in any case, anyway, above all, in fact, especially, obviously, clearly. 2) 比较：like, similarly, likewise, in the same way, in the same manner, equally. 3) 对比：by /in contrast, on the contrary, while, whereas, on the other hand, unlike, instead, but, conversely, different from, however, nevertheless, otherwise, yet. 4) 列举：for example, for instance, such as, take …for example, except (for), to illustrate. 5) 时间：later, next, then, finally, at last, eventually, meanwhile, from now on, at the same time, for the time being, in the end, immediately, in the meantime, in the meanwhile, recently, soon, now and then, during, nowadays, since, lately, as soon as, afterwards, temporarily, earlier, now, after a while. 6) 顺序：first, second, third, then, finally, to begin with, first of all, in the first place, last, next, above all, last but not the least, first and most important. 7) 可能：presumably, probably, perhaps. 8) 解释：in other words, in fact, as a matter of fact, that is, namely, in simpler terms. 9) 递进：What is more, in addition, and, besides, also, furthermore, too, moreover, furthermore, as well as, additionally, again. 10) 让步： although, after all, in spite of…, despite, even if, even though, though, admittedly, whatever may happen. 11) 转折：however, rather than, instead of, but, yet, on the other hand, unfortunately, whereas. 12) 原因：for this reason, due to, thanks to, because, because of, as, since, owing to. 13) 结果：as a result, thus, hence, so, therefore, accordingly, consequently, as consequence. 14) 总结：on the whole, in conclusion, in a word, to sum up, in brief, in summary, to conclude, to summarize, in short. 15) 其他： mostly, occasionally, currently, naturally, mainly, exactly, evidently, frankly, commonly, for this purpose, to a large extent, for most of us, in many cases, in this case. 11. 用于书信写作的常用句型 1) Thank you for your letter of …
2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 12. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11)
It is a pleasure for me to … on behalf of … Thanks so much for your letter, which arrived … I am writing to you with reference to … I am writing to you in connection with … I would be grateful if you could / would … I would like to know some information on … It will be appreciated if you can / could … I would also like to know if you can / could … I look forward to hearing from you. 图表作文常用句型 The graph shows / depicts / indicates / reveals that… As can be seen / shown / concluded from the table / picture / figures / graph, … From the chart / cartoon / picture, we know that… All these data clearly prove the fact that… In 1985, the number remained the same. There is (has been) a rapid rise / sharp increase / sudden decrease / steady decline / gradual fall / slow drop… …be on the rise / on the increase / on the decline / on the decrease … amount to / add up to / grow up to / increase to / reach / decreased to… be three times as … as … Compared with that of last year, … this year has increased to a great extent. … has increased / decreased by …%.
一． 不一致（Disagreements） 所谓不一致不光指主谓不一致，它还包括了数的不一致, 时态不一致及代词不一致等． 例１． When one have money ,he can do what he want to . (人一旦有了钱，他就能想干什么就干什么．) 剖析：one 是单数第三人称，因而本句的 have 应改为 has ;同理，want 应改为 wants.本句是典型 的主谓不一致． 改为： Once one has money ,he can do what he wants (to do)
二． 修饰语错位（Misplaced Modifiers） 英语与汉语不同， 同一个修饰语臵于句子不同的位臵， 句子的含义可能引起变化． 对 于这一点中国学生往往没有引起足够的重视，因而造成了不必要的误解． 例１． I believe I can do it well and I will better know the world outside the campus. 剖析：better 位臵不当，应臵于句末． 三． 句子不完整（Sentence Fragments） 在口语中，交际双方可借助手势语气上下文等，不完整的句子完全可以被理解．可 是书面语就不同了，句子结构不完整会令意思表达不清，这种情况常常发生在主句写完以后， 笔者又想加些补充说明时发生． 例１． There are many ways to know the society. For example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on . 剖析： 本句后半部分＂for example by TV ,radio ,newspaper and so on .”不是一个完整的句 子，仅为一些不连贯的词语，不能独立成句． 改为：There are many ways to know society ,for example ,by TV ,radio ,and newspaper.
四． 悬垂修饰语（Dangling Modifiers） 所谓悬垂修饰语是指句首的短语与后面句子的逻辑关系混乱不清． 例 1：At the age of ten, my grandfather died. 改为：When I was ten, my grandfather died. 例 2． To do well in college, good grades are essential. 剖析：句中不定式短语 “to do well in college” 的逻辑主语不清楚． 改为： To do well in college, a student needs good grades. 五． 词性误用(Misuse of Parts of Speech) “词性误用”常表现为：介词当动词用；形容词当副词用；名词当动词用等． 例１． None can negative the importance of money. 剖析：negative 系形容词，误作动词。 改为： None can deny the importance of money. 六． 指代不清(Ambiguous Reference of Pronouns) 指代不清主要讲的是代词与被指代的人或物关系不清， 或者先后所用的代词不一致。 试看下面这一句： Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted her to be her bridesmaid. (玛丽和我姐姐很要好，因为她要她做她的伴娘。) 读完上面这一句话，读者无法明确地判断两位姑娘中谁将结婚，谁将当伴娘。如果 我们把易于引起误解的代词的所指对象加以明确，意思就一目了然了。这个句子可改为： Mary was friendly to my sister because she wanted my sister to be her bridesmaid. 例 1. And we can also know the society by serving it yourself. 剖析：句中人称代词 we 和反身代词 yourself 指代不一致。改为： We can also know society by serving it ourselves. 七． 不间断句子(Run-on Sentences) 什么叫 run-on sentence?请看下面的例句。 例１． There are many ways we get to know the outside world. 剖析： 这个句子包含了两层完整的意思： “There are many ways.” 以及“We get to know the outside world.”。简单地把它们连在一起就不妥当了。 改为： There are many ways for us to learn about the outside world. 或： There are many ways through which we can become acquainted with the outside world 八． 措词毛病(Troubles in Diction) Diction 是指在特定的句子中如何适当地选用词语的问题，囿于教学时间紧迫，教师平 时在这方面花的时间往往极其有限，影响了学生在写作中没有养成良好的推敲，斟酌的习惯。 他们往往随心所欲，拿来就用。所以作文中用词不当的错误比比皆是。 例１． The increasing use of chemical obstacles in agriculture also makes pollution. (农业方面化学物质使用的不断增加也造成了污染。) 剖析：显然，考生把 obstacles“障碍”，“障碍物”误作 substance“物质”了。另外“the increasing use (不断增加的使用)” 应改为“abusive use (滥用)”。
改为： The abusive use of chemical substances in agriculture also causes/leads to pollution. 九． 累赘(Redundancy) 言以简洁为贵。写句子没有一个多余的词；写段落没有一个无必要的句子。能用 单词的不用词组；能用词组的不用从句或句子。如： In spite of the fact that he is lazy, I like him. 本句的“the fact that he is lazy”系同谓语从句，我们按照上述“能用词组的不用从句” 可以改为：In spite of his laziness, I like him. 例１． For the people who are diligent and kind, money is just the thing to be used to buy the thing they need. 剖析：整个句子可以大大简化。 改为： Diligent, caring people use money only to buy what they need. 十． 不连贯(Incoherence) 不连贯是指一个句子前言不对后语，或是结构上不畅通。这也是考生常犯的毛病。 例１． The fresh water, it is the most important things of the earth. 剖析：The fresh water 与逗号后的 it 不连贯。It 与 things 在数方面不一致。 改为： Fresh water is the most important thing in the world. 十一． 综合性语言错误(Comprehensive Misusage) 所谓“综合性语言错误”，是指除了上述十种错误以外，还有诸如时态，语态，标点符 号，大小写等方面的错误。 例 1．Today, Money to everybody is very importance, our’s eat, cloth, live, go etc.
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