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高考英语一轮复习精品课件:2012定语从句专项训练2


定语从句

用一个句子作定语,此句子叫作定语从句。定语从句位于被 它修饰的名词或代词之后。被定语从句修饰的词叫先行词,引导定 语从句的词叫关系词。关系词可分为关系代词(who, whom, whose, which, that)和关系副词(when, where, why) 关系词都充 当从句的某个成分,它所替代的相应成分应省去。在定语从句中, 当who, w

hich, that作主语时,谓语的单复数应与先行词保持一致。 定语从句分为限制性定语从句和非限制性定语从句。非限制 性定语从句与先行词的关系不如限制性定语从句与先行词的关系紧 密,没有它,主句的意思也清楚,因此用逗号隔开。关系词在非限 制性定语从句中的用法与在限制性定语从句中的用法基本一样。

八大关系词用法表
先行词是人时:从句中 缺少主语用who;从句中 who, whose, 缺少宾语用whom;从句 中的主语缺少定语用 whom, whose;that可替换who that 和whom,作从句的主语 或宾语。 The girl who/that became a nurse two years ago is my cousin. (who/that作定语从句的主语) Hawking is the disabled scientist whom/that we saw in Beijing last year. (whom/that作定语 从句中saw的宾语) The boy whose mother is a famous singer is a little actor of 7. (whose作定语从句的主语 mother的定语。)

which that

先行词是物时:从句中 The research which/that was carried on for 缺少主语或宾语用which; years was stopped. (which/that作定语从句的 从句中主语缺少定语用 主语) The topic which/that you were talking whose;that可替换which,about is related to geography.(which/that作定 作从句的主语或宾语。 语从句的宾语) The two countries whose boundary is a river have been keeping a good relationship for fifty years.(whose作定语从句的主语的定语)

where

先行词是地点时:从句中 The company where I am 缺少主语或宾语用 working is a transnational which/that;不缺少主语或 company.(where在定语从句 宾语用where,where在从 中作地点状语) 句中充当地点状语。

when

先行词是时间时:从句中 The years which/that I spent 缺少主语或宾语用 in the countryside are which/that;不缺少主语或 unforgettable.(which/that作 宾语用when,when在从句 定从spent的宾语) 中充当时间状语。 The months when we spent the holidays by the sea were pleasant.(when在定语从句 中作时间状语)

why 先行词是原因时:从句 I don’t believe the reason which/that 中缺少主语或宾语用 was obviously an excuse.(which/that which/that;不缺少主语 作定语从句的主语) 或宾语用why,why充当 This is the excuse which/that she 原因状语。表原因的先 changed her mind for.(which/that作 行词有reason, excuse, 定语从句介词for的宾语) T explanation等。 here must be some reason why he made such an abnormal decision.(定 语从句不缺少主语和宾语)

【考点一】考查关系词的省略 whom/which/that作定语从句的宾语时,可以省略。 The person(whom/that)they are looking for is Mr Wilde. The topic(which/that)you were talking about is related to geography. 【考点二】考查非限制性定语从句 1. 引导非限定性定语从句时,只能用 which(不用that)。除which 外,还可用when,where, who(m)等关系代、副词引导非限定 性定语从句。 Lisa is an amateur actress, who acted an important part in a film. This is a key senior high school, where I spent three years. Finally I decided to stay in Chong qing, where I finished my college study. 2. 引导词which可以指前面整个句子的含义。 Lily stayed up late into the night, which made her mother anxious. 3. 在限定性定语从句中作宾语时,引导词可以省略,但引导非限定

性定语从句的连词不能省。 He was eager to go to the hospital to see his stepmother,whom he loved as his own mother. 4. 置于句首时,非限制性定语从句只能用as引导,而置于句末时as 和which都可以。但是当非限定性定语从句是否定意义时,只能用 which引导。 The elephant is like a snake, as anybody can see. =As anybody can see, the elephant is like a snake. 【即学即练】 单项填空 ①She heard the terrible noise, ______ brought her heart into her mouth. A. it B. which C. this D. that 解析:选B。which指代前面的先行词 noise,引导非限定性定语从 句,并在从句中作主语。 ②Dorothy was always speaking highly of her role in the play, ________,of course ,made the others unhappy. A. who B. which C. this D. what

解析:选B。which指代前面的整个句子,引导非限制性定语从句。 ③_______ is known to all,China will be an and powerful country in 20 or 30 years? time. A. That;advancing B. This;advanced C. As;advanced D. It;advancing 解析:选C。置于句首时,非限制性定语从句只能用as引导。 advanced先进的;advancing年事渐高的。 ④The weather turned out to be very good,______ was more than we could expect. A. what B. which C. that D. if 解析:选B。句中more than的本意为“超过”,“超过了我们的预 料”。which指代前面的整个句子。 【考点三】关系代词that或which指物时,宜用that而不用 which的情况 1. 先行词为all, much, little, none, few, one, something, anything等不 定代词时。 Is there anything (that) I can do for you, Mum?(that作宾语时可省略 )

all;to help you是动词不定式作目的状语) 2. 先行词被形容词最高级、序数词等修饰或被only, any, few, much, little, no, all, one of等修饰时。 Much money that had been donated was sent to the disaster area. This is the most interesting book (that) I have ever read. You are the very kind of person (that) we have been looking for. 3. 先行词是人和物共用时只能用that。 He was looking pleasantly at the children and parcels that filled his bus. The old man and his dog that live near here are strolling in the park. 4. 当主句中含有疑问词which时。 Which are the books that you bought for me? 5. 先行词在主句中作表语,或关系代词在从句中作表语时。 The village is no longer the one that was 5 years ago. China is no longer the country that it used to be. 6. 当主句是there be句型时,修饰其主语的定语从句宜用that指代 物。

There is a seat in the corner that is still free. 7. 在一个句子中有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词用 了which, 另一个定语从句的关系代词用that。 Edison built up a factory which produced things that had never been seen before. 【考点四】考查关系代词宜用which而不用that的情况 1. 在非限制性定语从句中。 Bamboo is hollow, which makes it light. 2. 在关系词前有介词时。 This is the room in which Chairman Mao once lived. 3. 当先行词本身是that时。 The clock is that which can tell us the time. 4. 当关系词离从句较远时。 Here is the English grammar which, as I have told you, will help improve your English. 5. 在一个句子中有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词用 了that, 另一个宜用which。Let me show you the novel that I borrowed from the library which was newly open to us.

【考点五】考查关系代词who与that指人时,也有不同情况分别 用不同的关系词 1. 当主句是there be句型时,关系词用who指代人。 There’s a gentleman who wants to see you. 2. 先行词为anyone, those, someone, everyone, one等词时,关系词用 who。 The person I want to learn from is one who studies hard and works well. 3. 当主句是who作疑问词时,关系词用that。 Who is that girl that is standing by the window? 4. 一个句子中带有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词是 that, 另一个宜用who以避免重复。 The student that was praised at yesterday’s meeting is the monitor who is very modest and works very hard. 【考点六】考查介词提前 1. whom/which作介词的宾语时,介词可提到whom/which之前,此 时whom/which不能省略,也不能用that替换。 The lady to whom you spoke last Wednesday is Paul’s wife.

I have a telescope with which I can observe the stars in space. 2. 如果被提前的是一个介词短语,应把整个介词短语提前,不能拆 开。如果被提前的是一个动词短语,介词不能提前。 I bought a map according to which we can find the destination. The man they referred to just now is a promising person. =The man whom/that they referred to just now is a promising person. Lei Feng,from whom we have once learned a lot,is now an example to the soldiers of West Point Military School(西点军校) of America.关系代词前的介词from,与从句的谓语动词learn构成习 惯表达learn from(向……学习) 【即学即练】 单项填空 ⑤In the office I never seem to have time until after 5:30 pm ________,many people have gone home. A. whose time B. that C. on which D. by which time 解析:选D。by which time即by“after 5:30”“到五点三十分以后”。 介词的选择取决于这个介词与先行词或从句之间的关系。

【考点七】关系副词与关系代词的转换 1. where = in/at + which The Bermuda Triangle (which/that) many ships disappeared in is a mysterious place. =The Bermuda Triangle in which /where many ships disappeared is a mysterious place. 2. when=in/on/at/during + which The time (which/that) the football match begins at is eight o’clock. =The time at which/when the football match begins is eight o’clock. 3. whose=of which/whom+the+物/人=the+物/人+of which/whom of which/whom前还可以加形容词最高级、数词、不定代词等。 Tibet, whose scenery is rather unique, is a summer resort. =Tibet, of which the scenery/the scenery of which is rather unique, is a summer resort.

The tourists, of whom the eldest is 70 /the eldest of whom is 70, are from Singapore. I saw three films this month, two of which were very interesting. 4. why = for which The reason (which/that) he’s absent from the meeting for is not clear. =The reason for which /why he’s absent from the meeting is not clear. 【即学即练】 单项填空 ⑥After living in Paris for 50 years he returned to the small town _______ he grew up as a child. A. which B. where C. that D. when 解析:选B。因为表地点的先行词the small town在从句中作状语; 当表地点的先行词在从句中作主、宾、表语时,则要用that或 which引导定语从句。 ⑦I shall never forget the years I lived in the countryside with the farmers, has a great effect on my life. A. that;which B. when;which C. which;that D. when;who

解析:选B。when在定语从句中作时间状语;which引导非限制性 定语从句。 【考点八】分裂式定语从句 定语从句被一个词、短语等与先行词隔开时,叫分裂式定语从句。 为避免头重脚轻,可把修饰主语的定语从句置于谓语之后。 I bought a house with a garden in front, where I can grow flowers.( 定语从句被介词短语in front与先行词隔开) Do you remember the snowy night ten years ago when I got here?(定 语从句被词组ten years ago与先行词隔开) 【考点九】than/but/as作关系代词的用法 1. 先行词有比较级修饰时用than;先行词有否定词修饰时用but, 表示双重否定,此时的but = who/which/that...not... My mother always gives me more money than is needed.(than作定语 从句主语) This year, the farmers have harvested more grain than was expected. (than作定语从句主语) There is not a student but wants to go to university. =There is not a student who/that doesn’t want to go to

university.(but作定语从句主语) 2. 先行词有下列词修饰时只能用as, 如:as...as;so...as;such...as; the same+ 名词+as。 You can buy as many books as you want in this bookstore. (as作want 的宾语) Such computers as are used in our office are made in South Korea.(as作定语从句的主语) This jewel is the same one as I showed you the other day. (as作 showed的直接宾语) This jewel is the same one that I showed you the other day.(that作 showed的直接宾语) 请注意“the same + 名词 + as”与“the same + 名词 + that”的区别。

定语从句是高中阶段的重点语法项目之一。因此,有必要全面 弄清其用法。定语从句从句型上讲,它与六种句式相似,十分容易 混淆。为了分清定语从句与这六种句型的差异,现将其分类例析如 下。 【难点一】定语从句与并列句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整、正确 ①Mr Li has three daughters,none of _____ is an engineer. ②Mr Li has three daughters,but none of ______ is a dancer. ③Mr Li has three daughters;______ are doctors. 解析:定语从句与并列句的主要区别在于:并列句有像and,but, so等并列连词或两个句子用分号连接,这时就不能再用引导定语从 句的关系词了。从结构上看:①小题是定语从句,故填whom;②小 题有并列连词but,是并列句,故填代词 them;③小题是两个并列 分句,无需连接词,缺少主语,故填none或they。 【难点二】定语从句与地点状语从句

用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整、正确。 ①Rice doesn’t grow well ______ there is not enough water. ②I still remember the farm ______ my parents worked ten years ago. 解析:定语从句与地点状语从句的主要区别在于:定语从句有表 示地点的先行词,而地点状语从句则没有;定语从句的关系词根 据需要可用“介词+which”来代替where,而地点状语从句则通 常只能由 where引导。因此,从结构上看:①小题无表示地点的先 行词,故为表示地点的状语从句,填where;②小题中the farm是 先行词,是定语从句,故填where,此处的 where可用on which替 换。 【难点三】定语从句与强调句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整、正确 ①It is on the morning of May 1st _______I met Liang Wei at the airport. ②It is the factory _______ Mr Wang works. 解析:定语从句与强调句的主要区别在于:强调句的结构为“It is/was+被强调部分+that?从句”。被强调部分可以是除谓语

句型中,一定不能因为被强调部分是表时间或地点的词就用when 或where代 替 that。从结构上看,①小题是强调句,故填 that。此 种情况检测的标准是:先把强调句中的It is/was...that去掉,再把 被强调部分还原,在不增加或减少任何单词的情况下,如句子仍然 成立则为强调句,否则为定语从句。可将第①小题改为:I met Liang Wei on the morning of May 1st at the airport.显然,这句话 是正确的,故为强调句。②小题则是定语从句,用上述方法转换便 知the factory前缺少个介词in,故填 where。 【难点四】定语从句与结果状语从句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整、正确 ①I have the same computer _______ you have. ②She is such a kind and funny girl ______ all of us like to make friends with her. 解析:定语从句与结果状语从句的主要区别在于(这里只讨论the same...as/that和such...as/that两种情况):在这两种情况下,如果 as/that既引导从句,同时又在从句中充当一定的成分,则as/that 引导的是定语从句。在the same...as/that结构中,用as指一样

的,但不是同一个事物;用that指同一物品,故①小题填as;如果 as/that在从句中不作任何成分,只起连接作用,则as/that引导 的是结果状语从句,故②小题填that。 【难点五】定语从句与单句 用一个恰当的词完成下列句子,使之完整、正确 ①The mother told the lazy boy to work,______ didn’t help. ②The mother told the lazy boy to work.______ didn’t help. 解析:含有定语从句的复合句与两个单句的主要区别在于:前者有 主句,有从句,必须有关系词;而后者则是两个单独的句子,不需 要任何关联词。①小题两个句子用逗号连接且没有并列连词,显然 应是主从句关系,因此需用关系词 which,前面整个句子作先行词; ②小题则填It,代替前面的整个句子。解题时,注意标点符号的运 用。

1. As a child, Jack studied in a village school, _____ is named after his grandfather.(2010· 全国I) A. which B. where C. what D. that 解析:选A。定语从句所修饰的先行词是school,它在定语从句中 作主语,因此使用关系代词,选项中的关系代词只有which和that, 由于是非限制性定语从句,不能使用that,因此选择A。 2. I refuse to accept the blame for something _______ was someone else’s fault. (2010·全国Ⅱ) A. who B. that C. as D. what 解析:选B。不定代词something作主语,用that引导。 3. Stephen Hawking believes that the earth is unlikely to be the only planet ______ life has developed gradually. (2010· 福建) A. that B. where C. which D. whose 解析:选B。先行词为planet,表示地点,故用where。

4. I’ve become good friends with several of the students in my school _______I met in the English speech contest last year. (2010· 湖南) A. who B. where C. when D. Which 解析:选A。先行词是前句中的students,在定语从句中是met之后 的宾语,student指人,又作了宾语,所以选who(也可以是that 或者可以省略)。 5. The girl arranged to have piano lessons at the training centre with her sister ______ she would stay for an hour. (2010· 江西) A. where B. who C. which D. what 解析:选A。先行词为centre, she would stay for an hour 不缺少宾 语或主语, 故要填状语, 表地点用where。 6. Children who are not active or _______ diet is high in fat will gain weight quickly. (2010· 北京) A. what B. whose C. which D. that 解析:选B。第二个定语从句中的主语与先行词children之间是所属 关系,故选B。A项中的what不能引导定语从句。 7. That’s the new machine ________ parts are too small to be seen. (2010· 山东)

A. that B. which C. whose D. what 解析:选C。空格处引导定语从句并且在从句中作定语使用,所以 使用whose。 8. The old temple ______ roof was damaged in storm is now under repair. (2010· 陕西) A. where B. which C. its D. whose 解析:选D。先行词是the old temple,关系词在从句中作roof的定 语,用关系代词whose,选D。其余选项与题意不符。 9. After graduating from college,I took some time off to go traveling,______ turned out to be a wise decision. (2010· 四川) A. that B. which C. when D. where 解析:选B。此处应为which引导的非限制性定语从句,which代替 前边整个句子。 10. —Can you believe I had to pay 30 dollars for a haircut? —You should try the barber’s ______ I go. It’s only 15.(2010·天津) A. as B. which C. where D. that 解析:选C。句中the barber’s 是先行词,从句中go 是不及物动词, 所选关系词在从句中作状语,所以要用where。

11. The settlement is home to nearly 1,000 people, many of _____left their village homes for a better life in the city. (2010· 浙江) A. whom B. which C. them D. Those 解析:选A。由many之前的逗号和选项特征,此处是主从句关系, 排除C、D两项。由于先行词是“1,000 people”,表示人,故用 whom。 12. In China, the number of cities is increasing ______ development is recognized across the world. (2010· 重庆) A. where B. which C. whose D. that 解析:选C。development与先行词cities之间是所属关系,所以选 whose。 13. The newly-built café the walls of ______ are painted light green, , is really a peaceful place for us, especially after hard work.(2010· 江苏) A. that B. it C. what D. which 解析:选D。定语从句中的主语表示的是“咖啡屋的墙”。 14. Wind power is an ancient source of energy _______ we may return in the near future. (2010· 上海)

A. on which B. by which C. to which D. from which 解析:选C。此处考查的是介词加关系代词引导定语从句。=Wind power is an ancient source of energy which/ that we may return to in the near future. 15. We have gathered nearly 100,000 quilts, ______ up to half will go to the earthquake-hit areas. (2010· 潍坊市5月高三适应性训练) A. with which B. in which C. for which D. of which 解析:选D。考查介词+which引导的定语从句。这里表示的是范围, 所以应用of which。 16. She said that the building would be finished by October, ______ I doubt very much.(2010· 杭州市第二次教学质量检测) A. that B. this C. when D. which 解析:选D。先行词是that引导的宾语从句,空白处用which代替先 行词在定语从句中作doubt的宾语。 17. I’m told that www.languagepractising.com is a free website _______ learners can not just learn various languages but also chat online.(2010· 福建省厦门市高中毕业班质量检查) A. that B. which C. where D. whose

解析:选C。where引导定语从句,在从句中作状语,说明学习语 言和在线聊天的地点。 18. He expressed his gratitude to his head teacher, without ________ help he wouldn’t have made such great progress in his studies. (2010· 合肥市高三第三次教学质量检测) A. whose B. his C. whom D. which 解析:选A。分析句子成分可知,help与先行词his head teacher之 间构成所属关系,故用关系代词whose。 19. Many youth went to the Shanghai Science and Technology Museum on Nov. 16, 2009, _______ U.S.President Barack Obama delivered a speech during his four-day state visit. (2010· 皖南八校高 三第二次联考) A. which B. in that C. where D. that 解析:选C。关系副词where在定语从句中作地点状语。 20. He managed to achieve his goal in a way _______. (2010· 江西省 抚州一中高三上学期第四次同步测试)

A. what you thought was impossible B. that you thought was impossible C. you thought was impossible D. in which you thought was impossible 解析:选B。定语从句中you thought是插入语,故定语从句中缺 主语,而in which属于介词短语,在英语中介词短语通常是不能用 作主语的;关系代词作主语时不能省略,所以选择B项。


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