Anne’s Best Friend Do you want a friend whom you could tell everything to, like your deepest feelings and thoughts? Or are you afraid that your friend would laugh at you, or would not underst
and what you are going through? Anne Frank wanted the first kind, so she made her diary her best friend. Anne lived in Amsterdam in the Netherlands during World War Ⅱ. Her family was Jewish so nearly twenty-five months before they were discovered. During that time the only true friend was her diary. She said, ”I don’t want to set down a series of facts in a diary as most people do, but I want this diary itself to be my friend, and I shall call my friend Kitty.” Now read how she felt after being in the hiding place since July 1942. Thursday 15th June, 1944 Dear Kitty, I wonder if it’s because I haven’t been able to be outdoors for so long that I’ve grown so crazy about everything to do with nature. I can well remember that there was a time when a deep blue sky, the song of the birds, moonlight and flowers could never have kept me spellbound. That’s changed since I was here. ?For example, one evening when it was so warm, I stayed awake on purpose until half past eleven in order to have a good look at the moon by my self. But as the moon gave far too much light, I didn ’t dare open a window. Another time five months ago, I happened to be upstairs at dusk when the window was open. I didn’t go downstairs until the window bad to be shut. The dark, rainy evening, the wind, the thundering clouds held me entirely in their power; it was the first time in a year and a half that I’d seen the night face to face? ?Sadly ?I am only able to look at nature through dirty curtains hanging before very dusty windows. It’s no pleasure looking through these any longer because nature is one thing that really must be experienced. Yours, Anne
the Road to Modern English At the end of the 16th century, about five to seven million people spoke English. Nearly all of them lived in England. Later in the next century, people from England made voyages to conquer other parts of the world, and because of that, English began to be spoken in many other countries. Today, more people speak English as their first, second or a foreign language than ever before. Native English speakers can understand each other even if they don’t speak the same kind of English. Look at this example: British Betty: Would you like to see my flat? American Amy: Yes. I’d like to come up to you apartment. So why has English changed over time? Actually all languages change and develop when cultures meet and communicate with each other. At fist the English spoken in England between about AD 450 and 1150 was very different from the English spoken today. It was base more on German than the English we speak at present. Then gradually between about AD 500 and 1150, English became less like German because those who ruled England spoke first Danish and later French. These new settlers enriched the English language and especially its vocabulary. So by the 1600 ’s Shakespeare was able to make use of a wider vocabulary than ever before. In 1620 some British settlers moved to America. Later in the 18th century some British people were taken to Australia to. English began to be spoken in both countries. Finally by the 19th century the language was settled. At that time two big changes in English spelling happened: first Samuel Johnson wrote his dictionary and later Noah Webster wrote The American Dictionary of the English language. The latter gave a separate identity to American English spelling. English now is also spoken as a foreign or second language in South Asia. For example, India has a very large number of fluent English speakers because Britain ruled India from 1765 to 1947. During that time English became the language for government and education. English is also spoken in Singapore and Malaysia and countries in Africa such as South Africa. Today the number of people learning English in China is increasing rapidly. In fact, China may have the largest number of English learners. Will Chinese English develop its own identity? Only time will tell.
Journey Down the Mekong My name is Wang Kun. Ever since middle school, my sister Wang Wei and I have dreamed about taking a great bike trip. Two years ago she bought an expensive mountain bike and then she persuaded me to buy one. Last year, she visited our cousins, Dao Wei and Yu Hang at their college if Kunming. They are Dai and grew up in western Yunnan Province near the Lancang River, the Chinese part of the river that is called the Mekong River in other countries. Wang Wei soon got time interested in cycling too. After graduating from college, we finally got the chance to take a bike trip. I asked my sister, “Where are we going?” It was my sister who first had the idea to cycle along the entire Mekong River from where it begins to where it ends. Now she is planning our schedule for the trip. I am fond of my sister but she has one serious shortcoming. She can be really stubborn. Although she didn’t know the best way of getting to places, she insisted that she organize the trip properly. Now I know that the proper way is always her way. I kept asking her, “When are we leaving and when are we coming back?” I asked her whether she had looked at a map yet. Of course she hadn’t; my sister doesn’t care about details. So I told her that the source of the Mekong is in Qinghai Province. She gave me a determined look -- the kind that said she would not change her mind. When I told her that our journey would begin at an altitude of more than 5,000 meters, she seemed to be excited about it. When I told her the air would be hard to breathe and it would be very cold, she said it would be an interesting experience. I know my sister well. Once she has made up her mind, nothing can change it. Finally, I had to give in. Several months before our trip, Wang Wei and I went to the library. We found a large atlas with good maps that showed details of world geography. From the atlas we could see that the Mekong River begins in a glacier to move quickly. It becomes rapids as it passes through deep valleys, traveling across western Yunnan Province. Sometimes the river becomes a water fall and enters wide valleys. We were both surprised to learn that half of the river is in China. After it leaves China and high altitude, the Mekong becomes wide, brown and warm. As it enters Southeast Asia, its pace slows. It makes wide bends or meanders through low valleys to the plains where rice grows. At last, the river delta enters the South China Sea.
A Night the Earth didn’t Sleep Strange things were happening in the countryside of northeast Hebei. For three days the water in the village wells rose and fell, rose and fell. Farmers noticed that the well walls had deep cracks in them. A smelly gas came out of the cracks. In the farmyards, the chickens and even the pigs were too nervous to eat. Mice ran out of the fields looking for places to hide. Fish jumped out of their bowls and ponds. At about 3:00 am on July 28, 1976, some people saw bright lights in the sky. The sound of planes could be heard outside the city of Tangshan even when no planes were in the sky. In the city, the water pipes in some buildings cracked and burst. But the one million people of the city, who thought little of these events, were asleep as usual the night. At 3:42 am everything began to shake. It seemed as if the world was at an end! Eleven kilometers directly below the city the greatest earthquake of the 20th century had begun. It was felt in Beijing, which is more than two hundred kilometers away. One-third of the nation felt it. A huge crack that was eight kilometers long and thirty meters wide cut across houses, roads and canals. Steam burst from holes in the ground. Hard hills of rock became rivers of dirt. In fifteen terrible seconds a large city lay in ruins. The suffering of the people was extreme. Two-thirds of them died or were injured during the earthquake. Thousands of families were killed of injured reached more than 400,000. But how could the survivors believe it was natural? Everywhere they looked nearly every thing was destroyed. All of the city’s hospitals, 75% of its factories and buildings and 90% of its homes were gone. Bricks covered the ground like red autumn leaves. No wind, however, could blow them away. Two dams fell and most of the bridges also fell or were not safe for traveling. The railway tracks were now useless pieces of steel. Tens of thousands of cows would never give milk again. Half a million pigs and millions of chickens were dead. Sand now filled the wells instead of water. People were shocked. Then, later that afternoon, another big quake which was almost as strong as the first one shook Tangshan. Some of the rescue workers and doctors were trapped under the ruins. More buildings fell down. Water, food, and electricity were hard to get. People began to wonder how long the disaster would last. All hope was not lost. Soon after the quakes, the army sent 150,000 soldiers of thousands of people were helped. The army organized teams to dig out those who were trapped and to bury the dead. To the north of the city, most of the 10,000 miners were rescued from the coal mines there. Workers built shelters for survivors whose homes had been destroyed. Fresh water was taken to the city by train, truck and plane. Slowly, the city began to breathe again.
Elias’ Story My name is Elias. I am a poor black worker in South Africa. The time when I first met Nelson Mandela was a very difficult period of my life. I was twelve years old. It was in 1952 and Mandela was the black lawyer to whom I went for advice. He offered guidance to poor black people on their legal problems. He was generous with his time, for which I was grateful. I needed his help because I had very little education. I began school at six. The school where I studied for only two years was three kilometers away. I had to leave because my family could not continue to pay the school fees and the bus fare. I could not read or write well. After trying hard, I got a job in a gold mine. However, this was a time when one had got to have a passbook to live in Johannesburg. Sadly I did not have it because I was not born there, and I worried about whether I would become out of work. The day when Nelson Mandela helped me was one of my happiest. He told me how to get the correct papers so I could stay in Johannesburg. I became more hopeful about my future. I never forgot how kind Mandela was. When he organized the ANC Youth League, I joined it as soon as I could. He said:
“The last thirty years have seen the greatest number of laws stopping out rights and progress, until today we have reached a stage where we have almost no rights at all.”
It was the truth. Black people could not vote or choose their leaders. They could not get the jobs they wanted. The parts of town in which they had to live were decided by white people. The places outside the towns where they were sent to live were the poorest parts of South Africa. No one could grow food there. In fact as Nelson Mandela said:
“?we were put were less important We first broke the allowed?only then
into a position in which we had either to accept we or fight the government. We chose to attack the laws. law in a way which was peaceful; when this was not did we decide to answer violence with violence. ”
As a matter of fact, I do not like violence? but in 1963 I helped him blow up some government buildings. It was very dangerous because if I was caught I could be put in prison. But I was happy to help because I knew it would help us achieve our dream of making black and white people equal.
1.安妮最好的朋友 你是不是想有一位无话不谈能推心置腹的朋友呢？或者你是不是担心你的 朋友会嘲笑你， 会不理解你目前的困境呢？安妮·弗兰克想要的是第一种类型的 朋友，于是她就把日记当成了她最好的朋友。 安妮在第二次世界大战期间住在荷兰的阿姆斯特丹。她一家人都是犹太人， 所以他们不得不躲藏起来， 否则他们就会被德国纳粹抓去。她和她的家人躲藏了 两年之后才被发现。在这段时间里，她唯一的忠实朋友就是她的日记了。她说， “我不愿像大多数人那样在日记中记流水账。我要把这本日记当作我的朋友，我 要把我这个朋友称作基蒂”。安妮自从 1942 年 7 月起就躲藏在那儿了，现在， 来看看她的心情吧。 亲爱的基蒂： 我不知道这是不是因为我长久无法出门的缘故， 我变得对一切与大自然有关 的事物都无比狂热。我记得非常清楚，以前，湛蓝的天空、鸟儿的歌唱、月光和 鲜花，从未令我心迷神往过。自从我来到这里，这一切都变了。 ??比方说，有天晚上天气很暖和，我熬到 11 点半故意不睡觉，为的是独 自好好看看月亮。但是因为月光太亮了，我不敢打开窗户。还有一次，就在五个 月以前的一个晚上，我碰巧在楼上，窗户是开着的。我一直等到非关窗不可的时 候才下楼去。漆黑的夜晚，风吹雨打，雷电交加，我全然被这种力量镇住了。这 是我一年半以来第一次目睹夜晚?? ??令人伤心的是??我只能透过脏兮兮的窗帘观看大自然，窗帘悬挂 在沾满灰尘的窗前， 但观看这些已经不再是乐趣，因为大自然是你必须亲身体验 的。 2.通向现代英语之路 16 世纪末期大约有 5 百万到 7 百万人说英语，几乎所有这些人都生活在英 国。后来，在 17 世纪英国人开始航海征服了世界其它地区。于是，许多别的国 家开始说英语了。 如今说英语的人比以往任何时候都多，他们有的是作为第一语 言来说，有的是作为第二语言或外语。 以英语作为母语的人，即使他们所讲的语言不尽相同，也可以互相交流。请 看以下例子：
英国人贝蒂：“请到我的公寓（flat）里来看看，好吗？” 美国人艾米：“好的。我很乐意到你的公寓（apartment）去。” 那么， 英语在一段时间里为什么会起变化呢？事实上，当不同文化互相交流 渗透时，所有的语言都会有所发展，有所变化。首先，在公元 450 年到 1150 年 间， 人们所说的英语跟今天所说的英语就很不一样。当时的英语更多地是以德语 为基础的，而现代英语不是。然后，渐渐地，大约在公元 800 年到 1150 年期间， 英语不那么像德语了。 因为那时的英国的统治者起初讲丹麦语后来讲法语。这些 新的定居者大大丰富了英语语言，特别是在词汇方面。所以到 17 世纪，莎士比 亚所用的词汇量比以前任何时期都大。在 1620 年，一些英国人搬迁到美洲定居。 后来，到了 19 世纪，有些英国人也被送往澳大利亚，两个国家的人都开始说英 语了。 最后，到 20 世纪，英语才真正定形。那时，英语在拼写上发生了两大变化： 首先，塞缪尔·约翰逊编写了词典，后来，诺厄·韦伯斯特编纂了《美国英语词 典》，后者体现了美国英语拼写的不同特色。 现在，英语在南亚也被当作外语或第二语言来说。比如说，印度拥有众多讲 英语很流利的人，这是因为英国于 1765 年到 1947 年统治过印度。在那期间，英 语成了官方语言和教育用语。在新加坡、马来西亚和非洲其它国家，比如南非， 人们也说英语。目前在中国学习英语的人数正在迅速增长。事实上，中国可能拥 有世界上最多的英语学习者。 中国英语会发展出自己的特色吗？这只能由时间来 回答了。 3.沿湄公河而下的旅程 第一部分梦想与计划 我的名字叫王坤。 从高中起，我姐姐王薇和我就一直梦想作一次伟大的自行 车旅行。两年前，她买了一辆昂贵的山地自行车，然后还说服我买了一辆（山地 车）。去年她去看望了我们的表兄弟——在昆明读大学的刀卫和宇航。他们是傣 族人， 在云南省西部靠近澜沧江的地方长大，湄公河在中国境内的这一段叫澜沧 江，在其他国家（境内）叫湄公河。很快，王薇使表兄弟也对骑车旅游产生了兴 趣。大学毕业以后，我们终于有了机会骑自行车旅行。我问我姐姐：“我们要去
哪儿？” 首先想到要沿湄公河从源头到终点骑车旅游的是我的姐姐。现在她正在 为我们的旅行制定计划。 我很喜欢我姐姐，但是她有一个很严重的缺点。她有时确实很固执。尽管她 对去某些地方的最佳路线并不清楚，她却坚持要自己把这次旅游安排得尽善尽 美。于是，我就知道这个尽善尽美的方式总是她的方式。我不停地问她，“我们 什么时候出发？什么时候回来？”我还问她是否看过地图。当然她并没有看过— —我的姐姐是不会考虑细节的。于是，我告诉她，湄公河的源头在青海省。她给 了我一个坚定的眼神——这种眼神表明她是不会改变主意的。我说，我们的旅行 将从 5, 000 多米的高地出发，这时她似乎显得很兴奋。当我告诉她那里空气稀 薄，呼吸困难，而且天气很冷时，她却说这将是一次有趣的经历。我非常了解我 的姐姐，她一旦下了决心，什么也不能使她改变。最后，我只好让步了。 在我们旅行前的几个月，王薇和我去了图书馆。我们找到一本大型地图册， 里面有一些世界地理的明细图。 我们从图上可以看到，湄公河发源于西藏一座山 上的冰川。起初，江面很小，河水清澈而冷冽，然后它开始快速流动。它穿过深 谷时就变成了急流，流经云南西部。有时，这条江形成瀑布，进入宽阔的峡谷。 我们俩惊奇地发现这条河有一半是在中国境内。当流出中国，流出高地之后，湄 公河就变宽了，变暖了，河水也变成了黄褐色。而当它进入东南亚以后，流速减 缓，河水蜿蜒缓慢地穿过低谷，流向生长稻谷的平原。最后，湄公河三角洲的各 支流流入中国南海。 4.地球的一个不眠之夜 河北省东北部的农村不断有些怪事发生：三天来，村子里的井水升升降降， 起起伏伏。农夫注意到，水井的井壁上有深深的裂缝，裂缝里冒出臭气。农家大 院里的鸡,甚至猪都紧张得不想吃食。老鼠从田地里跑出来找地方藏身。鱼缸和 池塘里的鱼会往外跳。 在 1976 年 7 月 28 日凌晨 3 点左右，有些人看到天上一道 道明亮的光。即使天空没有飞机，在唐山城外也可以听到飞机声。在市内，有些 建筑物里的水管爆裂开来。 但是，唐山市的一百万居民几乎都没有把这些情况当 一回事，当天晚上照常睡着了。 在凌晨 3 点 42 分，一切都开始摇晃起来。世界似乎到了末日！二十世纪最 大的一次地震就在唐山市正下方 11 公里处发生了。100 公里以外的北京市都感
到了地震，全国 1 / 3 的地方都有震感。一条 8 公里长 30 米宽的巨大裂缝横穿 房舍、马路和渠道。地上一些洞穴冒出了蒸气。石头山变成了泥沙河，在可怕的 15 秒钟内，一座大城市就沉沦在一片废墟之中。人们遭受的灾难极为深重。2/3 的人在地震中死去或受伤。成千上万个家庭遇难，许多孩子变成了孤儿。死伤的 人数达到 40 多万。 幸存的人们又怎么能相信这是自然现象呢？人们无论朝哪里看， 哪里的一切 都几乎被毁了。所有的市内医院、75%的工厂和建筑物、90%的家园都消失了。残 砖就像秋天的红叶覆盖着大地，然而它们是不可能被风刮走的。两座大坝垮了， 多数桥梁不是塌了就是无法安全通行了。铁轨如今成了一条条废钢。好几万头牛 再也挤不出奶来。50 万头猪和几百万只鸡全都死了。井里满是沙子，而不是水。 人们惊呆了。接着，在下午晚些时候，又一次和第一次一样的强烈的地震震撼着 唐山。有些医生和救援人员被困在废墟下面。更多的房屋倒塌了。水、电和食物 都很难弄到。人们开始纳闷，这场灾难还会持续多久。 不是所有的希望都破灭了。地震后不久，部队派了 15 万名战士到唐山来协 助救援人员，数十万的人得到了救助。部队人员组成小分队，将受困的人们挖出 来， 将死者掩埋。 在唐山市的北边， 有一个万名矿工的煤矿， 其中多数人得救了。 援救人员为那些家园被毁的幸存者盖起了避难所，用火车、卡车和飞机向市内运 来了水。慢慢地、慢慢地，这座城市又开始出现了生机。 5.伊莱亚斯的故事 我的名字叫伊莱亚斯。我是南非的一个穷苦的黑人工人。第一次见到纳尔 逊·曼德拉的时候，是我一生中非常艰难的时期。（当时）我才 12 岁，那是在 1952 年，曼德拉是我寻求帮助的一位黑人律师。他为那些穷苦黑人提供法律指 导。他十分慷慨地给予我时间，我为此非常感激。 由于我所受的教育很少，所以我需要他的帮助。我六岁开始上学，我仅仅在 那里读了两年的学校有三公里远。我不得不辍学，因为我的家庭无法继续支付学 费和交通费。我既不太会读，也不怎么会写。几经周折，我才在一家金矿找到一 份工作。然而在那个时候，你要想住在约翰内斯堡就非得要有身份证不可。糟糕 的是我没有这个证件，因为我不是在那里出生的，我很担心我是不是会失业。
纳尔逊· 曼德拉给予我帮助的那一天是我一生中最高兴的日子。他告诉我要 想在约翰内斯堡立住脚， 应当如何获取所需证件。 我对自己的未来又充满了希望。 我永远也忘记不了他对我的恩情，当他组织了非国大青年联盟时，我马上就参加 了这个组织。他说：“过去 30 年来所出现的大量法律剥夺我们的权利，阻挡我 们的进步，一直到今天，我们还处在几乎什么权利都没有的阶段。” 他说的是真话。当时黑人没有选举权，他们无权选择他们的领导人。他们不 能做自己想要做的工作。 他们所能住的城区都是由白人决定的。他们被打发去住 的城外地区是南非最贫穷的地区。在那儿，没有人能够种庄稼。事实上，就像拉 尔逊·曼德拉所说的： “??我们被置于这样一个境地：要么我们被迫接受低人一等的现实，要么 跟政府作斗争。我们选择向法律进攻。首先我们用和平的方式来破坏法律，而当 这种方式也得不到允许时， ??只有到这个时候， 我们才决定用暴力反抗暴力。 ” 事实上，我并不喜欢暴力，??但是在 1963 年的时候，我帮助他炸毁了一 些政府大楼。那是很危险的事情，因为如果我被抓住了，可能就会被关进监狱。 但是，我乐于帮忙，因为我知道，这是为了实现我们的黑人和白人平等的梦想。
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