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高中英语非谓语动词讲解


非谓语动词
非谓语动词包括不定式(to do)、动名词(-ing)、现在分词(-ing)与过去分词(-ed)。 它们不受主语人称和数的限制,在句子中不能充当谓语,但可以充当句子的其他成分,并且有时态和语态的变化。 形式 对比项目 动词不定式 (to do) 相当于名词、形 容词、副词 动名词(doing) 现在分词(doing) 过去分词(done)

/>意义

相当于名词

相当于形容词、副词

相当于形容词、副词

充当句子成分 主动一般式 被动式 基本形式 主动完成式 被动完成式 否定式 to do to be done to have done to have been done doing being done having done having been done doing being done having done having been done done

在上述各种非谓语动词形式之前直接加 not

动词不定式
形式 主动形式 一般式 完成式 进行式 完成进行式 to do to have done to be doing to have been doing to be done to have been done 无 无 被动形式

不定式的句法功能: 1、作主语: To finish the work in ten minutes is very hard. 动词不定式短语作主语时,常用 it 作形式主语,真正的主语不定式置于句后,例如上面两句可用如下形式: It is very hard to finish the work in ten minutes. It means failure to lose your heart. 常用句式有:1、It+be+名词+to do。 2、It takes sb.+some time+to do。 3、It+be+形容词+of sb +to do。 4 It+be+形容词+for sb.+to do。 常用 careless,,clever,good,foolish,honest,kind,lazy,nice,right,silly,stupid,wise,等表示赞扬或批评的形容词,不定式前 的 sb.可作其逻辑主语。 2、作表语: Her job is to clean the hall. 3、作宾语:口诀 决心学会想希望,decide/ determine, learn, want, expect/hope/wish 拒绝设法愿假装;refuse, manage, care, pretend 主动答应选计划,offer/order, promise, choose, plan,
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同意请求帮一帮。 agree, ask/beg, help 如果不定式(宾语)后面有宾语补足语,则用 it 作形式宾语,真正的宾语(不定式)后置,放在宾语补足语后面, 例如: Marx found it important to study the situation in Russia. 动词不定式也可充当介词宾语,如: I have no choice but to stay here. He did nothing last Sunday but repair his bike. 动词不定式前有时可与疑问词连用,如: He gave us some advice on how to learn English. 4、 作宾语补足语: 在复合宾语中, 动词不定式可充当宾语补足语, 如下动词常跟这种复合宾语: want, wish, ask, tell, order, beg, permit, help, advise, persuade, allow, prepare, cause, force, call on, wait for, invite. 此外,介词有时也与这种复合宾语连用,如: With a lot of work to do, he didn't go to the cinema. 有些动词如在使役动词 make, have, let 和感官动词 see, watch, notice, observe, feel, hear, listen to, look at 等词后接不 定式作宾补,不定式不带 to,表示做某事的全过程。当他们转换成被动语态时,作为主语补足语的不定式必须带 to (五看三使两听一感觉)但改为被动语态时,不定式要加 to, 如: I saw him cross the road. He was seen to cross the road. 5、 作定语: 动词不定式作定语,放在所修饰的名词或代词后。与所修饰名词有如下关系: ①动宾关系: I have a meeting to attend. 注意:不定式为不及物动词时,所修饰的名词如果是地点、工具等,应有必要的介词,如: He found a good house to live in. The child has nothing to worry about. What did you open it with? 如果不定式修饰 time, place, way,可以省略介词: He has no place to live. This is the best way to work out this problem. 如果不定式所修饰名词是不定式动作承受者,不定式可用主动式也可用被动式: Have you got anything to send? Have you got anything to be sent? ②说明所修饰名词的内容: We have made a plan to finish the work. ③被修饰名词是不定式逻辑主语:当名词被 first, last, second 以及 only 等词修饰时,其后可用不定式作定语。且 充当定语的不定式不含有将来意义或情态意义,却经常含有过去时意义。 She was the first to come. 6、 作状语: ①作目的状语: He worked day and night to get the money. She sold her hair to buy the watch chain. 注意不定式放句首时,逻辑主语与句子主语要一致: wrong:To save money, every means has been tried. right:To save money, he has tried every means. wrong:To learn English well, a dictionary is needed.
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right:To learn English well, he needs a dictionary. ②作结果状语: He arrived late to find the train gone. 常用 only 放在不定式前表示强调: I visited him only to find him out. ③作原因状语: They were very sad to hear the news. ④作程度状语: It's too dark for us to see anything. The question is simple for him to answer. 7、 作独立成分: To tell you the truth, I don't like the way he talked. 8、 不定式的省略:保留 to 省略 do 动词。 If you don’t want to do it,you don’t need to.

动名词
形式 主动形式 一般式 完成式 doing having done being done having been done 被动形式

动名词的句法功能:动名词既具有动词的一些特征,又具有名词的句法功能。 1、 作主语: Reading aloud is very helpful. Collecting stamps is interesting. 当动名词短语作主语时常用 it 作形式主语。 a waste (of…) It is/was no(little) good /use + -ing not/hardly any good/use worthwhile /worth one’s while It's no use quarrelling. 2、 作表语: In the ant city, the queen's job is laying eggs. 3、 作宾语: They haven't finished building the dam. We have to prevent the air from being polluted. We found it no good making fun of others. 要记住如下动词及短语只跟动名词作宾语: 口诀:考虑建议盼原谅,consider, suggest/advise, look forward to, excuse/pardon; 承认推迟没得想;admit/permit, delay/put off, fancy; 避免错过继续练,avoid, miss, keep/keep on, practice; 否认完成就欣赏;deny, finish, enjoy/appreciate; 禁止想象才冒险,forbid, imagine, risk; 不禁介意准逃亡。can’t help/stand, mind, allow/permit, escape 4、 作定语: He can't walk without a walking-stick. Is there a swimming pool in your school? 5、 作同位语: His habit, listening to the news on the radio remains unchanged.

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1) 2) 3)

动名词的复合结构 由形容词性的物主代词/名词所有格+动名词构=动名词的复合结构,在句子中可作主语、宾语、表语等。物主代词 和名词所有格是动名词的逻辑主语。 Do you mind my/me smoking here? I insisted on my husband/husband’s paying the bill. 这种结构不用在句首时,即不充当句子主语时,可用人称代词宾格代替物主代词,用名词普通格代指所有格。 There are many reasons for animals dying out. 如果动名词的复合结构在句首充当句子主语时,就必须用形容词性的物主代词或名词所有格。如: His smoking caused the fire in the forest. there be 的动名词的复合结构为 there being 如: What’s the chance of there being a rain tomorrow? 注意:动名词作 need, want, require, be worth 的宾语时,用主动式代替被动式。 The washing-machine needs repairing.(或用:needs to be repaired)。The point wants referring to. This English novel is worth reading. The situation in Russian required studying.

现在分词
形式 主动形式 一般式 完成式 doing having done being done having been done 被动形式

现在分词的句法功能: 1、 作定语:现在分词作定语,当分词单独做定语时,放在所修饰的名词前;如果是分词短语做定语放在名词之后。 In the following years he worked even harder. The man speaking to the teacher is our monitor's father. 现在分词作定语相当于一个定语从句的句法功能, 如: in the following years 也可用 in the years that followed; the man speaking to the teacher 可改为 the man who is speaking to the teacher. 2、 作表语: The film being shown in the cinema is exciting. 正在这家上演的电影很棒。 The present situation is inspiring. 当前的形势鼓舞人心。 be + doing 既可能表示现在进行时,也可能是现在分词做表语,它们的区别在于 be + doing 表示进行的动作是进行 时,而表示特征时是系动词 be 与现在分词构成系表结构。 3、 作宾语补足语: 如下动词后可跟现在分词作宾语补足语: see, watch, hear, feel, find, get, keep, notice, observe, listen to, look at, leave, catch 等。例如: Can you hear her singing the song in the next room? 你能听见她在隔壁唱歌吗? He kept the car waiting at the gate. 他让小汽车在门口等着。 4、 作状语: 1) 作时间状语: (While) Working in the factory, he was an advanced worker. 2) 作原因状语: Being a League member, he is always helping others. 3) 作方式状语,表示伴随: He stayed at home, cleaning and washing. 4) 作条件状语: (If) Playing all day, you will waste your valuable time. 5) 作结果状语: He dropped the glass, breaking it into pieces. 6) 作让步状语: Though raining heavily, it cleared up very soon. 7) 与逻辑主语构成独立主格: I waiting for the bus, a bird fell on my head. All the tickets having been sold out, they went away disappointedly. Time permitting, we'll do another two exercises.
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有时也可用 with (without) +名词(代词宾格)+分词形式 With the lights burning, he fell asleep. 他点着灯睡着了。 8) 作独立成分: Judging from(by) his appearance, he must be an actor. 英语中有一部分分词短语,它独立存在,没有自己的逻辑主语。这些分词短语已成为固定的习惯用语,常被看做 句子的插入语,常见的有: generally speaking strictly(honestly/frankly/roughly/broadly) speaking considering… judging from/by… talking all/everything into consideration

过去分词
形式:过去分词只有一种形式:规则动词由动词原形加词尾-ed 构成。不规则动词的过去分词没有统一的规则要 求,要一一记住。 过去分词的句法功能: 作定语: Our class went on an organized trip last Monday. Those elected as committee members will attend the meeting. 注意当过去分词是单词时,一般用于名词前,如果是过去分词短语,就放在名词的后面。过去分词做定语相当于 一个被动语态的定语从句。 作表语: The window is broken. They were frightened at the sad sight. 注意:be + 过去分词,如果表示状态是系表结构,如果表示被动的动作是被动语态。 区别: The window is broken.( ) The window was broken by the boy.( ) 有些过去分词是不及物动词构成的,不表示被动,只表示完成。如: boiled water(开水) fallen leaves(落叶) newly arrived goods(新到的货) the risen sun(升起的太阳) the changed world(变了的世界) 这类过去分词有:gone, come, fallen, risen, changed, arrived, returned, passed 等。 作宾语补足语: I heard the song sung several times last week. 有时过去分词做 with 短语中的宾语补足语: With the work done, they went out to play. 作状语: 1) 作时间状语: Once seen, it can never be forgotten. 2) 作原因状语: Praised by the neighbours, he became the pride of his parent. 3) 作方式状语,表示伴随: Filled with hopes and fears, he entered the cave. 4) 作条件状语: Given more time, I'll be able to do it better. 5) 作让步状语: Though told of the danger, he still risked his life to save the boy. 6) 与逻辑主语构成独立主格: All our savings gone, we started looking for jobs. The boy lay on his back, his hands crossed under his head. The job not finished, we couldn’t see the film. Her shirt caught on a nail, she could not move.
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