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雅思阅读最权威技巧


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to

IELTS READING
EMMA

Practice
Makes Perfect

雅思阅读简介:
1,1个小时(包括填答题纸的时间) 2,3篇文章 2说明文+1议论文(3000-3750字数) 3,40道题目:每篇文章一般13题左右 题目一般分3部



IELTS阅读的评分标准
Academic
答对的题数 39-40 37-38 成绩 9 8.5

General
答对的题数 40 39 成绩 9 8.5

35-36
33-34 30-32 27-29 23-26 19-22 15-18

8.0
7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0

38
36-37 34-35 32-33 30-31 27-29 23-26

8.0
7.5 7.0 6.5 6.0 5.5 5.0

搞定雅思阅读需要...
1 Vocabulary

你并



需要所有的单词都认识

搞定雅思阅读需要...
1 Vocabulary

但,要有找到“失散兄妹”的能力

例如:
? 题目: It has been suggested that children hold mistaken views about the “pure” science that they study at school. ? 文章:Many studies have shown that children harbor misconceptions about “pure”, curriculum science.

例如:
? 题目: It has been suggested that children hold mistaken views about the “pure” science that they study at school. ? 文章:Many studies have shown that children harbor misconceptions about “pure”, curriculum science.

例如:
? 题目: It has been suggested that children hold mistaken views about the “pure” science that they study at school. ? 文章:Many studies have shown that children harbor misconceptions about “pure”, curriculum science.

例如:
? 题目: It has been suggested that children hold mistaken views about the “pure” science that they study at school. ? 文章:Many studies have shown that children harbor misconceptions about “pure”, curriculum science.

例如:
? 题目: It has been suggested that children hold mistaken views about the “pure” science that they study at school. ? 文章:Many studies have shown that children harbor misconceptions about “pure”, curriculum science.

例如:
? 题目: Australians have been turning to alternative therapies in increasing numbers over the past 20 years. ? 文章: Disenchantment with orthodox medicine has seen the popularity of alternative therapies in Australia climb steadily during the past 20 years

例如:
? 题目: Australians have been turning to alternative therapies in increasing numbers over the past 20 years. ? 文章: Disenchantment with orthodox medicine has seen the popularity of alternative therapies in Australia climb steadily during the past 20 years

例如:
? 题目: Australians have been turning to alternative therapies in increasing numbers over the past 20 years. ? 文章: Disenchantment with orthodox medicine has seen the popularity of alternative therapies in Australia climb steadily during the past 20 years

例如:
? 题目: Australians have been turning to alternative therapies in increasing numbers over the past 20 years. ? 文章: Disenchantment with orthodox medicine has seen the popularity of alternative therapies in Australia climb steadily during the past 20 years

Vocabulary要求:
同义词组

“同义词组”本

“同义词组”本

搞定雅思阅读还需要...
2. 语法
找“大树”的能力

?句型一:主系表
?句型二:主谓

?句型三:主谓宾
?句型四:主谓宾宾

?句型五:主谓宾补

?句型四:主谓宾宾 He showed the guard his passport. ?句型五:主谓宾补 The advent/coming of technology makes knowledge more important/ crucial.

?There be 句型
?There be +名词 ? ? ?【扩展】: 定语从句 ★ ★ ★ 分词 介词

?There come, emerge, exist, lie, live, occur, stand, has been

例1:
? Anthropology, at its broadest, is the study of humanity – our physical characteristics as animals and our unique non-biological characteristics that we call culture.

例1:
? Anthropology, at its broadest, is the study of humanity – our physical characteristics as animals and our unique non-biological characteristics that we call culture.

例2:
The problem of how health-care resources should be allocated or apportioned, so that they are distributed in both the most just and the most effective way, is not a new one.

例2:
The problem of how health-care resources should be allocated or apportioned, so that they are distributed in both the most just and the most effective way, is not a new one.

例3:
Since the early years of the twentieth century, when the International Athletic Federation began keeping records, there has been a steady improvement in how fast athletes run, how high they jump and how far they are able to hurl massive objects, themselves included, through space. .

例3:
Since the early years of the twentieth century, when the International Athletic Federation began keeping records, there has been a steady improvement in how fast athletes run, how high they jump and how far they are able to hurl massive objects, themselves included, through space. .

例3:
Since the early years of the twentieth century, when the International Athletic Federation began keeping records, there has been a steady improvement in how fast athletes run, how high they jump and how far they are able to hurl massive objects, themselves included, through space. .

2. 语法要求:
每天训练10个长难句 一开始以练习理解为主

后期以速度为主

搞定雅思阅读也需要...
3. 技巧
如何在有限的时间内提高速度 如何在遭遇生词,不懂句子时另辟蹊径

如何在一长篇文章中找出重点

如何在有限的时间内提高速度
解决方案 ? 以题目为导向快速搜索(以特殊词,专有名词做为定位词的时候,通 常第一次出现该词时,出题机率大) ? 读段首的句子,预测该段内容 需要注意的句型: ⒈ 概括性强的句子 e.g. There were several reasons why original science continued to be written in Latin ⒉ 承上启下的句子 e.g. Bats are not only creatures to face this difficulty. ⒊ 问句

e.g. Given the questions of how to maneuver in the dark, what solutions might an engineer consider?
e.g. What is the role of the shinbashira, the central pillar?

如何在有限的时间内提高速度
? 长句囫囵吞枣 e.g. The aim of the present study is to start to provide such information, to help teachers design their educational strategies to build upon correct ideas and to displace misconceptions and to plan programs in environmental studies in their schools.

如何在有限的时间内提高速度
? 对同义改写不熟悉,不敏感 ? 解决方案---分析、总结剑4,剑6,剑7 ? 坚持句子对句子,词对词的做题方法,保证每个题目 的证据定位;精读对照并验证题目和原文的替换和转 化。

如何在有限的时间内提高速度
? 心理因素---舍是一种智慧, 也是一种能力
? 解决方案---严栺按照一篇17-18分钟做题

把能做的题,尽量作对。
没把握的,meng。

Meng的技巧
? 判断题---答案YES , NO 基本相当,NG少,全true 法
? 有only, all, every, must的题,答NO的可能性大

? 有probable, maybe的题,答YES的可能性大
? 涉及金钱的题干不是选项

如何在遭遇生词,不懂句子时另辟蹊径
例:
Americans can not experience reality directly but thrive on the pseudo-events.

如何在遭遇生词,不懂句子时另辟蹊径
例:
Americans can not experience reality directly

but

thrive on the pseudo-events.

如何在遭遇生词,不懂句子时另辟蹊径

?虽然很多人认为那栋大楼是个abomination,

but我喜欢它

如何在遭遇生词,不懂句子时另辟蹊径

?这房子是某大师设计的,but民众心目中it turned out to be a catastrophe.

如何在长句中找出重点
例:
It is not only in technology and commerce that glass has widened its horizons. The use of glass as art, a tradition going back at least to Roman times, is also booming.

例:
It is not only in technology and commerce that glass has widened its horizons. The use of glass as art, a tradition going back at least to Roman times, is also booming.

例:
It is not only in technology and commerce that glass has widened its horizons. The use of glass as art, a tradition going back at least to Roman times, is also booming.

例:
While emissions from new cars are far less harmful than they used to be, city streets and motorways are becoming more crowded than ever, often with older trucks, buses and taxis, which emit excessive levels of smoke and fumes. This concentration of vehicles makes air quality in urban areas unpleasant and sometimes dangerous to breathe

例:
While emissions from new cars are far less harmful than they used to be, city streets and motorways are becoming more crowded than ever, often with older trucks, buses and taxis, which emit excessive levels of smoke and fumes. This concentration of vehicles makes air quality in urban areas unpleasant and sometimes dangerous to breathe

雅思阅读考试2大王道:
1阅读思维改变

阅读思维的改变:
1. 考官“立场” 2. Writer-friendly

2 题型的适应
1. 题目特点 2. 解题步骤

一切只为了把题目做出来

(1) 把题目做出来, 需要先看题目; (2) 把题目做出来,并不 所有的段落都要读;

需要所有的单词都认识和
需要善于利用逻辑分析

(3) 把题目做出来,
?

低层次逻辑: 时间顺序 从属 并列 递进

高层次逻辑: 因果 转折 让步

3. 心理要求:
舍是一种智慧,也是一种能力

常见
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 type 1 type 2 1 2 3

不常见
90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 type3 type4 1 2 3

5大常考题型:
List of headings (标题对应) Matching(配对,数量开始增加) 段落+相关信息的MATCHING True/ False/ Not Given; Yes/No/Not Given (题量最多, 非常重要)

Multiple choice(越来越重要)
Summary(完型填空)

3个小题型:
Sentence completion (完成句子)

Diagram/ Flowchart/ Table completion (图标填空题)
Short answer questions (回答问题)

第一讲 LIST OF HEADINGS
题型特点: 1 唯一的题目在文章前面的题型 2 会有举例 3 没有顺序

LIST OF HEADINGS
解题核心词: 找中心,主旨

解题步骤:
三“看”

1 看题干
哪几段?

三“看”

2 看框框
画出keywords,重复的词

三“看”

3 看段落
看首二 + 末句

解题

步骤
1.

首先将例子中选的heading划掉
(1)找出heading中的Keywords (2)找出主题句中的Keywords (3)对应两组keywords 找高频词/原词/词形变化/同义词

解题
a.特殊词
b.金三角 n.> v.> adj. c. 各段落段对应词

(1)找出heading中的Keywords

步骤

解题
a.标题中有这些的,可能是

开头段落

步骤
的标题:(1~2段)

notion/early view/overview/concept/conception/ definition/introduction/essence/

main idea/initiation/cause …

解题
b.标题中有这些的,可能是

结尾段落

步骤
的标题: (倒数1~2段)

in fact, effect (affect)/influence/impact consequence/prediction/future/prospect/

perspective/outlook/conclusion/
result/summary…

解题
c. 标题中这些词时,该段落是

中间

步骤

段落!!

含有figure/number/amount/statistic (al)/demographics 等词的H 往往对应数字集中的段落

含有rate / ratio / proportion / percentage
等词的H 往往对应%集中的段落 cost/fee/fund/financial/business/income/salary/wage/commercial/dealing/purchase/sell

等词的H

往往对应金钱符号集中的段落

含有time/period等词的H 往往对应时间集中的段落

解题

(2)找出主题句中的Keywords 觃则段落 —— 首二+末句

步骤

非觃则段落 —— 最后排除法做

解题

步骤
1.

(3)对应两组keywords
找高频词/原词/同义词 可以自行设问?

真题举例
? List of Headings ? i Causes of volcanic eruption ii Efforts to predict volcanic eruption iii Volcanoes and the features of our planet iv Different types of volcanic eruption v International relief efforts vi The unpredictability of volcanic eruptions 1. Section A 2. Section B 3. Section C 4. Section D

如果1,2 尾句都没有找到?

看线索词 有线索词的地方就有考点!!
段落中表示1顺承关系: in addition, moreover, furthermore, besides, not only…but also…, instead of 2转折关系: but, however, yet, nevertheless 3总结关系的词所引导的句子: thus, therefore, all of us

2. 看线索词 有线索词的地方就有考点!!
直接解释法 ——下定义句型: That is …/ This

is …/These/Those

间接解释法——例子解释法
注意例子前面的陈述句 LEADING SENTENCE

for example/for instance/such as/like/to illustrate/specifically

2. 看线索词 有线索词的地方就有考点!! 标点符号(:)

代词

e.g: Interrupting a natural process
A The fertile land of the Nile delta is being eroded along Egypt's Medeterranean coast at an alarming rate, in some parts estimated at 100 meters per year. B Up to now, people have blamed this loss of delta land on the two large dams at Aswan in the south of Egypt...

e.g: the impact of wilderness tourism A
The market for tourism...there is no cost. As the 1992 UN conference on Environment and development recognized, these regions are fragile.

解题技巧最后总结:
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 1 首段的标题中心词往往是文章标题中心词 2 第一句和第二句中重复出现2次以上的关键词,是中心词 3 在某一个段落出现了一个新的关键词,而文章的其他段落均没有提到,则 这个词是本段落的中心词——段落的特殊性对标题的特殊性 4本段落无法判断中心时,可根据下一段的开头来判断 5 标题中的关键词如果是出现在段落中的一个主从复合句的一个从句当中 —— 绝对不可能选为标题 6 标题中的核心词必须出现在你阅读的段落中 ——这是你选这个标题为段落标 题的前提条件 7 段落中出现一个新词,且这个新词在该段落中重复出现,该词一定是段落 标题的关键词

如果基础较弱:
? 依次看该段落的1、2和最后一句 ? 找到有可能成为key words的单词和词组(术语、斜体、引 用…其中:

? 反复提到的单词命中率最高!

练习:
? 剑4: ? 剑5: p66 Q14---17; p85 Q1----3 ? 剑6: p26 Q27---32; p40 Q1---5; p67 Q14---18; p85 Q1---7; p93 Q27--309 ? 剑7: p22 Q14---20; p48 Q27---30; p69 Q14---19

第二讲. Matching
解题难点: 乱序

Matching
人 名 - 观 点配对; 地 名 - 描 述配对; 时 间 事件配对; 分 类 题 (Classification) ;

句 子 - 句 子配对(按顺序);
段落配信息 乱序---语言实力

解题
人名+观点

步骤

1. 确定人名(把人名首字母缩写)顺序回原文中定位
2. 细读题干理论,划出其中关键词 3. 回文中人名定位处寻找: 引言 “X” 下列动词引导的宾语从句(选取一则最好理解的理论。分析句子结构,弄清其重

点。)
4. 比较题干理论中关键词与引言或宾语从句中关键词

解题 Argue/claim/deem/believe Discover/refute/conclude

步骤

Note/notice/remark/propose

Announce/point out/perceive

Notice
NB

You may use any letter more than once.
很有可能是有且仅有一个选项重复使用一次 ,个别情况会出现两个选项使用两次

人名在文章中出现的顺序是乱序的 第一题往往对应文章的后几个观点,最后一题往 往对应文中的前几个观点

Notice

答案出处

答案一定在原文作者姓名的附近出现
重点关注词汇 suggest/show/“”

文章作者姓名不只出现一次,往往第二次出现姓/ 名

例题

5 Endangered languages cannot be saved unless people learn to speak more than one language. ?6 Saving languages from extinction is not in itself a satisfactory goal.

?7 The way we think may be determined by our language.
?8 Young people often reject the established way of life in their community.

? 9 A change of language may mean a loss of traditional culture.

例题

A Michael Krauss

B Salikoko Mufwene
C Nicholas Ostler

D Mark Pagel
E Doug Whalen

第四段第三句:Why do people reject the language of their parents? …, says Nicholas Ostler, of Britain's Foundation for Endangered Languages, in Bath. 'People lose faith in their culture,' he says. 'When the next generation reaches their teens, they might not want to be induced into the old traditions.?

例题

Q8: Young people often reject the established way of
life in their community.

例题

第六段第一、二句:Language is also intimately bound up with culture so it may be difficult to preserve one without the other. 'If a person shifts from Navajo to English, they lose something,' Mufwene says.

Q9: A change of language may mean a loss of traditional culture.

例题

第六段第五、六句:‘Your brain and mine are different from the brain of someone who speaks French, for instance,? Pagel says, and this could affect our thoughts and perceptions . ?The patterns and connections we make among various concepts may be structured by the linguistic habits of our community.? Q7: The way we think may be determined by our language.

例题

第七段第三、四句:'The key to fostering diversity is for people to learn their ancestral tongue, as well as the dominant language,' says Doug Whalen, founder and president of the Endangered Language Fund in New Haven, Connecticut. 'Most of these languages will not survive without a large degree of bilingualism,'he says. Q5: Endangered languages cannot be saved unless people learn to speak more than one language.

例题

第七段最后两句:But Mufwene says that preventing a language dying out is not the same as giving it new life by using it every day.?Preserving a language is more like preserving fruits in a jar,? he says. Q6: Saving languages from extinction is not in itself a satisfactory goal.

解题
句子+句子(按顺序) 1. 找出题干Keywords 2. 找出选项Keywords

步骤

3. 比较两组Keywords,尽量缩小选择范围(语法排除以及语义排 除) 4. 根据题干回文中定位处寻找

例题

24 One of the brain?s most difficult task is to

25 Because of the language they have developed, humans
26 Individual responses to humour 27 Peter Derks believes that humour

例题

A.react to their own thoughts.

B.helped create language in humans.
C.respond instantly to whatever is happening. D.may provide valuable information about the operation of the brain. E.cope with difficult situations.

F.relate to a person?s subjective views.
G.led our ancestors to smile and then laugh.

例题

Q27: Peter Derks believes that humour

最后一段第二、三句:As Peter Derks, a psychologist at William and Mary College in Virginia, says: 'I like to think of humour as the distorted mirror of the mind. It's creative, perceptual, analytical and lingual. If we can figure out how the mind processes humour, then we'll have a pretty good handle on how it works in general.'
D. may provide valuable information about the operation of the brain.

例题

Q26: Individual responses to humour 倒数第二段最后一句:Whether a joke gives pleasure or pain depends on a person's outlook. F relate to a person?s subjective views.

例题

25 Because of the language they have developed, humans

倒数第二段第一句:All warm-blooded animals make constant tiny adjustments in arousal in response to external events, but humans, who have developed a much more complicated internal life as a result of language, respond emotionally not only to their surroundings, but to their own thoughts.
A react to their own thoughts.

例题

24 One of the brain?s most difficult task is to

倒数第三段第一句:Making a rapid emotional assessment of the events of the moment is an extremely demanding job for the brain, animal or human.
C respond instantly to whatever is happening.

出题
段落信息配对(乱序) 1. 彻底同义转换 2. 完全乱序 3.部分题目存在重复选项

特点

NB You may use any letter more than once.

出题
段落信息配对(乱序)

特点

4.从题量上来看,存在着以下两种可能: 1) 题量 = 段落 数 +1 (肯定带 NB )

2)

题量 小于段落数两个以上

由于每个选项只能重复使用一次,因此第一种题型就意味着每 个段落都会有至少一个答案,而第二种题型则不能保证每段 都有。 5. 永进是第一个题型 6.有部分题目与其后的题目有关联

解题
1.阅读所有题目,划出关键词

思路

I. 题量 = 段落数 +1 ,且带 NB 的题型(通篇浏览)

2.通读所有段落,依次寻找答案 II. 题量小于段落数两个以上的题型 1.先做其它题目 2. 读题,看是否有对应答案 3. 根据文章结构以及有否 NB ,对余下的段落迚行猜测。

例题1
Reading Passage 1 has six paragraphs, A-F. Which paragraph contains the following information? Write the correct letter, A-F, in boxes 1-7 on your answer sheet.

NB
1 2 3 4 5 6

You may use any letter more than once.
a reference to the exchange of expertise between different sports an explanation of how visual imaging is employed in investigations a reason for narrowing the scope of research activity how some AIS ideas have been reproduced how obstacles to optimum achievement can be investigated an overview of the funded support of athletes

7

how performance requirements are calculated before an event

A 段: ? finances programme of excellence in ? (对应第 6 题 funded support ) B 段: AIS scientists work across a number of sports, applying skills learned in one ? to others (对应第 1 题的 exchange of expertise 和 different sports ) B 段: They all focus on one aim: winning. ‘We can’t waste our time looking at ethereal scientific questions that don’t help the coach work with an athlete?’ (对应第 3 题 narrowing the scope of research ) C 段: It collects images from digital cameras? (对应第 2 题 visual imaging ) D 段: ?to monitor heart rate, sweating, heat production or any other factor that might have an impact on an athlete’s ability to run (对应 第 5 题 obstacles to optimum achievement ) E 段: Well before a championship, sports scientists and coaches start to prepare the athlete by developing a ‘competition model’. (对应第 7 题 )

例题2
Reading Passage 2 has nine paragraphs, A-I.

Which paragraph contains the following information?

Write the correct letter, A-I, in boxes 14-19 on your answer sheet.
14 15 a biological explanation of the teacher- subjects’ behaviour the explanation Milgram gave the teacher-subjects for the experiment

16
17 18

the identity of the pupils
the expected statistical outcome the general aim of sociobiological study

19

the way Milgram persuaded the teacher-subjects to continue

解题
这与 15 题正好是一致的(A 段);

步骤

选择 20 题:The teacher subjects were told that they were testing whether… 问的是实验的目的,

选择 22 题: Before the experiment took place the psychiatrists…underestimated the teacher subjects? willingness to comply with experimental procedure. 实验乊前精神病专家对实验结果

的预估,而这又恰恰对应了第 17 题(D 段);
判断 24 题:Some people may believe that the teacher-subjects? behaviour could be explained as a positive survival mechanism. 正好是对 teacher-subject 的行为迚行的解释,因此马上就能对 应出 14 题的答案在 F 段; 判断 26 题:Milgram?s experiment solves an important question in sociobiology. 关于 sociobiology 的 ,定位到原文的 I 段, 而这正好对应了第 18 的答案。

第三讲. TFNG
解题难点: NG

潜规则
题目遵循顺序原则 只考细节 一个自然段考1-3个

每个题干带回到原文,只能对应1-2句话

解题
定位点

思路
考点

1 . 特殊词 数字,时间,地点,专 有名词,大写字母, 斜 体字,百分比符号,金 钱符号…
2. 相对特殊、相对独 特的词 独特名词>独特动词 >独特的形容词

是非考点
绝对考点 数字考点 比较考点

考点解析
是非考点

特殊词/金三角。
Q: Current thinking on humour has largely ignored Aristotle’s view on the subject. 文:But most modern humour theorists have settled on some version of Aristotle’s belief that? (剑 5 Test 2, Q17 ) (False)

数字数量考点

考点解析

数字数量往往是作者想要强调的重点,因此也常常成为考点。但是有一点要提醒考生注 意的是,数字考点不是单独存在的,往往是要和其修饰的名词合在一起构成考点词的 。 Q: The 1990 survey related to 550,000 consultations with alternative therapies . 文:The 550,000 consultations with alternative therapies … (剑 4 Test 2, Q18 ) (YES) Q: The 1993 Sydney survey involved 289patients who visited alternative therapists for acupuncture treatments . 文:Dr Laver and his colleagues published a survey of 289 Sydney people who attended eight alternative therapies? practices in Sydney. These practices offered a wide range of alternative therapies from 25 therapists. (剑 4 Test 2, Q18 ) (No)不能光看数字考点,还要看一下数字修饰的概念是否一致。在本题中,题目 中 289 人的概念是“参加针灸疗法的病人”,而原文中的是“各种各样的疗法”,因 为可以肯定 289 人不是都参加针灸疗法的,因为即便其中包括针灸, 289 个病人一定 还有参加其它疗法的。

考点解析
绝对考点词 绝对考点词指的是 all, must, every, most 等语气绝对的限定词。这类考点往往因为与原 文中所述事实矛盾而选 FALSE/NO 的答案。 Q:The ISTP study examined public and private systems in every city of the world.

文:The study compared the proportion of wealth poured into transport
by thirty-seven cities around the world. 很显然,这道题目的考点词 every 出错了,因为原文中只讲有 37 个城市。 Q: All cultures have been able to express large numbers clearly. 文: The lack of ability of some cultures to deal with large numbers is not really surprising. (剑 5 Test 2 Q35 ) 题目中所是所有的文化都能表达大的数字, 但是原文中却说一些文化缺乏处理大的 数字。故答案选 FALSE 。

考点解析
也有很多例外:

Q:Only two Japanese pagodas have collapsed in 1400 years.
文: Records show that only two have collapsed during

the past 1400 years. (剑 7 Test 2, Q1 )
这题虽然题目是绝对考点词,但是因为原文中也用了一样的绝 对考点词,故答案选 YES 。

比较考点词

考点解析
A 和 B 有一方在原文中没有出现,答案选 NOT GIVEN 。 A 和 B 都在原文中出现,但并未出现比较,答案选 NOT GIVEN 。

比较考点词指的是在 A is ? than B 或者 A is as ? as B 中用于比较的形容 词 或者副词。这类题型在雅思阅读中比较常见。 a. b. c. d.

A 和 B 都在原文中出现,且出现比较,但比较的内 容不一致,答案 选 NOT GIVEN 。 如果 A 和 B 都在原文中出现,而且比较内容相同,则根据方向来判断 答案选 YES 或者 NO 。

Q: Early peoples found it easier to count by using fingers rather than a group of pebbles. (剑 6 Test 2 Q40 ) 文: ? because it is possible to count by matching the items being counted against a group of pebbles, grains of corn, or the counter’s fingers.

在本例中,题目把 finger 和 pebble 进行了比较,但是原文中者两个词是并列关
系,根本没有进行比较,因此答案选 NOT GIVEN。

Q: Girls are more likely than boys to hold mistaken views about the rainforest?s destruction. 原文 1 : More girls (70%) than boys (60%) raised the idea of rainforest as animal habitats.

考点解析

原文 2 : More girls (13%) than boys (5%) said that rainforests provided human habitats.
在这道题目中,比较考点词是 more likely to hold mistaken views ,原文中 虽然也出现了比较,但是比较的内容与题目完全不同,因此答案选 NOT GIVEN 。

TRUE:题目是原文的同义表达 题目是对原文的合理归纳 FALSE:题目与原文直接相反

判断规则

(通常使用反义词, not 加同义词及反义结构) 原文是多个条件并列,题目只是其中的一个条件 原文与题目使用了表示不同范围,频率,可能性的副词。 原文为人们对于某样事物的理论或感觉,题目则上升为客观的事实或已被证明的理论。即 :由 理论 (theory)到 事实 (fact) 原文中包含条件状语,如 “if” “unless” “if not”, 或使用介词短语来表示条件状 语如 “but for”; “except for”. 而题目中却去掉了这些表示条件状语的成分。即 :由 有条件 到 无条件 NOTGIVEN:原文中没有提及,或找不到证据 题目涉及的范围小于原文涉及的范围 原文是某人的目标,想法,保证等,而题目是事实 题目出现了比较级,而原文中没有比较

True/Yes
1. 第一种情况:题目是原文的同义表达。 通常用同义词或同义结构。 原文:Few are more than five years old. 题目:Most are less than five years old.

True/Yes
原文: Frogs are losing the ecological battle for survival, and biologists are at a loss to explain their demise.

题目:
Biologists are unable to explain why frogs are dying.

True/Yes
2. 题目是根据原文中的几句话做出推断或归纳。不推断不行,但有时有些同 学会走入另一个极端,即自行推理或过度推理。 原文: Compare our admission inclusive fare and see how much you save. Cheapest is

not the best and value for money is guaranteed. If you compare our bargain
Daybreak fares, beaware - most of our competitors do not offer an all inclusive fare. 题目: Daybreak fares are more expensive than most of their competitors.

True/Yes
原文: For example, it has been demonstrated that rapid response leads to a greater likelihood of arrest only if responses are in the order of 1-2 minutes after a call is received by the police. When response times increase to 3-4 minutes - still quite a rapid response - the likelihood of an arrest is substantially reduced.

题目: A response delay of 1-2 minutes may have substantial influence on whether or not a suspected criminal is caught.

False/No
1. 题目与原文直接相反。 通常用反义词、not加同义词及反义结构。 原文: A species becomes extinct when the last individual dies. 题目: A species is said to be extinct when only one individual exists.

False/No
原文: It has been successfully used in the United States to provide input into resource exploitation decisions and assist wildlife managers and there is now enormous potential for using population viability to assist wildlife management in Australia ‘s forests. 题目: PVA has been used in Australia for many years.

False/No
2.原文是多个条件并列,题目是其中一个条件(出现must或only)原文是两个 或多个情形(通常是两种情形)都可以,常有both?and、and、or及also等 词。题目是“必须”或“只有”其中一个情况,常有 must及only等词。 原文: Booking in advance is strongly recommended as all Daybreak tours are subject to demand. Subject to availability, stand by tickets can be purchased from the driver. 题目: Tickets must be bought in advance from an authorized Daybreak agent.

False/No
原文: Since the Winter Games began, 55 out of 56 gold medals in the men‘s Nordic skiing events have been won by competitors from Scandinavia or the former Soviet Union. 题目:

Only Scandinavians have won gold medals in the men's winter
Olympics.

False/No
3.原文为人们对与于某样事物的理论或感觉,题目则强调是客 观 事实或已被证明。原文强调是一种“理论”或“感觉”,常有 、及等 词。题目强调是一种“事实”,常有fact及prove等词。 原文: But generally winter sports were felt to be too specialized. 题目: The Antwerp Games proved that winter sports were too specialized.

False/No
原文: Another theory is that worldwide temperature increases are upsetting the breeding cycles of frogs. 题目: It is a fact that frogs ‘ breeding cycles are upset by worldwide increases in temperature.

False/No
4. 原文和题目中使用了表示不同范围、频率、可能性的词。 原文中常用many(很多)、sometimes(有时)及unlikely(不太可能)等词。题目中 常用all(全部)、usually(通常)、always(总是)、及impossible(完全不可能) 等词 原文: Frogs are sometimes poisonous. 题目: Frogs are usually poisonous.

False/No
原文: Without a qualification from a reputable school or university, it is unlikely to find a good job.

题目:
It is impossible to get a good job without a qualification from a respected institution

False/No
5.原文中包含条件状语,题目中去掉条件成份。 原文中包含条件状语,如if、unless或if not也可能是用介词短语表示条件状语 如in,with,but for 或exept for。题目中去掉了这些表示条件状语的成份。这时,

答案应为False。
原文:

The Internet has often been criticized by the media as a hazardous tool in the hands
of young computer users. 题目:The media has often criticized the Internet because it is dangerous.

NOT GIVEN
1.题目中的某些内容在原文中没有提及。 题目中的某些内容在原文中找不到依据。

NOT GIVEN
原文:Our computer club provides printer. 题目:Our computer club provides color printer.

NOT GIVEN
2.第二种情况:题目中涉及的范围小于原文涉及的范围,也就是更具体。 原文涉及一个较大范围的范筹,而题目是一个具体概念。也就是说,题目 涉及的范围比原文要小。

NOT GIVEN
原文:Tourists in Cyprus come mainly from Europe. 题目:Tourists in Cyprus come mainly from the UK.

NOT GIVEN
3. 原文是某人的目标、目的、想法、愿望、保证、发誓等,题目是事实。 原文中常用aim(目的)、purpose(目的)、promise(保证)、swear(发誓)及vow( 发 誓)等词。题目中用实意动词。 原文:He vowed he would never come back.. 题目:He never came back.

NOT GIVEN
原文:

His aim was to bring together, once every four years, athletes from all
countries on the friendly fields of amateur sport. 题目: Only amateur athletes are allowed to compete in the modern

Olympics

NOT GIVEN
4.题目中有比较级,原文中没有比较。 原文: In Sydney, a vast array of ethnic and local restaurants can be found to suit all palates and pockets. 题目: There is now a greater variety of restaurants to choose from in Sydney than in the past.

NOT GIVEN
1. 一定要依据原文,不能凭皆自己的知识。 原文是判断的唯一根据。所以,无论你对文章内容或背景多么 熟悉,或者你的知识多么丰富,都不能凭借自己的知识来确定 答案。即使题目中说“地球是正方形的”。如果文章中没说, 你只 能答Not Given,不能答False。

纯技巧
TRUE型通常的表述往往模棱两可,似是而非。出现以下表示“宽泛”的词时往往选 TRUE/YES

May; may be; some;can;Possible(ly); probable(ly); not all; Not always; not
necessarily FALSE/NO

出现如下表“绝对”的词汇,往往是NO / FALSE
Impossible; immediate; fully ;Always; never; none; every ;Unique; solely; Mainly;All; only;absolutely, definitely ;certainly NOT GIVEN 比较的内容是金钱、外表、男女时,答案是NOT GIVEN 题目中出现下列词语,可直接选 NOT GIVEN Next; second; in the future;

纯技巧
全TRUE法

第四讲. Multiple Choice

规律
细节选择题目遵循顺序原则, 总括选择题不用再细读文章,所选答案要和文章主题, 方向一致,注意细节措辞. 选择到相关的某一句或者某几句话, 选择答案为同义词或者相关词句的改写(正确答 案一般为原文的改写). 有些直接找出答案,有些要用排除法elimination process. 多项选择一般集中出现,便于考生寻找,如果不是,重点看总分关系引领的结构 . 有绝对词汇(never, only, must, all, always, not at all…) 的选项最后再考虑,可以优先 考虑其他备选项.

Multiple Choice
? ? (一)、细节单选 1、解题方法

?
? ?

(1)、找出题干中的关键词,最好先定位到原文中的一个段落
(如果题目中的关键词难以确定的位置,选项中的关键词也可以作为定位的参考依据 ) (2)、从头到尾快速阅读该段落,根据题干中的其他关键词及选项确定答案。正确选 项常常是原文相关词句的改写

?
? ? ? ? ? ?

(3)、有些题目比较简单,可以直接选择。对于难题,可以用排除法确定正确
(4)、要注意顺序性,即题目的顺序和原文的顺序基本一致 (5)、目前出现的是全文查找的选择题较多 2、注意 ①、如果一个选项合乎题意,还要看其它选项中是否有 both…and ;all of the above 的字 样 ②、注意题干中是否有not, except ③、注意题干中谓语动词的指向性

Multiple Choice
? ? (二)、细节多选 1、题型特点

?
? ? ? ? ? ? ?

①、答案集中
②、选择项之间有较大的同义转换 ③、题目之间存在顺序原则 2、细节多选中干扰选项的特点 ①、选项中所讲的内容在原文中根本不存在,或找不到语言依据 ②、与原文相矛盾的选项。这时要注意题干或原文中是否有 NOT、EXECPT 等词,也 要注意反义词。 ③、含有“绝对意义”的词汇一般为错误选项。 选项中含有“相对意义”的词汇一般为正确

?
? ? ?

④、似是而非,与原句部分相似的选项。这是不太容易排除的
(三)、主旨多选 1、文章的标题 / 文章的引言 2、文章的首段 / 尾段

?

3、其余各段的首句和尾句

细节多选
文章如下: 帕金森症是一种顽症。它是由大脑中缺乏一种叫多 巴胺的化学物质引起的。(后面删减100字)很多名人深受其苦 比如,我们的改革的总设计师、拳王阿里、以故数学家陈景润 等等。(后面删减100字) 题 目是:以下哪三个人得过帕金森症? A. 邓小平 B. 里根 C. 拳王阿里 D. 布什 E. 陈景润 答案:ACE

第五讲. Summary

题型介绍
? ? 题目是原文的概括 有备选项(出现次数少) ? 范围广,涉及原文多数段落,不易寻找 ? 选项常常有改写 ? 词性改变 ? 语态改变 ? 同义词 ? 需归纳总结 ? 无备选项(出现次数多) ? 范围小,一般涉及原文2~3段 ? 填空内容多数为原文原词,少数有词性和语态改变

有备选项

无备选项

解题

步骤

? 看题目要求 ? 先看填空字数限制(仅对无备选项者) ? 划出题目中的关键词和关系词 ? 空格前后的关键词(提示重要内容的字眼) ? 关系词(表示逻辑关系的字眼),如: 表因果的because,表并列 的and,表转折的however,表比较的than等 ? 据关键词在原文中查找

? 发现语言重现,精读,找出答案

技巧和注意事项
? 定位summary的起始位置很重要 ? Summary completion的出题段落,一般不再设其他题目 ? 注意特殊关键词(名称、时间、数字、专业词) ? 注意关键词和空格的关系,如:同义、并列 ? 注意语法正确

无备选项
Summary From the point of view of recycling, paper has two advantages over minerals and oil in that firstly it comes from a resource which is 1……………and secondly it is less threatening to our environment when we throw it away because it is 2……………Although Australia’s record in the re-use of waste paper is good, it is still necessary to use a combination of recycled fibre and 3…………… to make new paper. The paper industry has contributed positively and people have also been encouraged by 4…………… to collect their waste on a regular basis. One major difficulty is the removal of ink from used paper but 5……………… are being made in this area. However, we need to learn to accept paper which is generally of a lower 6…………… than before and to sort our waste paper by removing 7…………… before discarding it for collection.

无备选项
A Paper is different from other waste produce because it comes from a sustainable resource: trees. Unlike the minerals and oil used to make plastics and metals, trees are replaceable. Paper is also biodegradable, so it does not pose as much threat to the environment when it is discarded. While 45 out of every 100 tones of wood fibre used to make paper in Australia comes from waste paper, the rest comes directly from virgin fibre from forests and plantations. By world standards this is a god performance since the world-wide average is 33 percent waste paper. Governments have encouraged waste paper collection and sorting schemes and at the same time, the paper industry has responded by developing new recycling technologies that have paved the way for even greater utilization of used fibre. As a result, industry’s use of recycled fibres is expected to increase at twice the rate of virgin fibre over the coming year.

无备选项
B Already, waste paper constitutes 70% of paper used for packaging and advances in the technology required to remove ink from the paper have allowed a higher recycled content in newsprint and writing paper. To achieve the benefits of recycling, the community must also contribute. We need to accept a change in the quality of paper products; for example stationery may be less white and of a rougher texture. There also needs to be support from the community for waste paper collection programs. Not only do we need to make the paper available to collectors but it also needs to be separated into different types and sorted from contaminants such as staples, paperclips, string and other miscellaneous items.

无备选项
? Answer: ? 1. sustainable ? 2. biodegradable ? 3. virgin fibre ? 4. governments ? 5. advances ? 6. quality ? 7. contaminants

有备选项

有备选项
Answer: 33 pairs, 34 shapes, 35 sighted, 36 sighted 37 deep, 38 blind, 39 similar

第六讲. Sentence Completion Graph Table

Sentence Completion
? 题目都是一个陈述句,在句尾有1个空格(个别的有多个空格) ? 从形式上来看,sentence completion 其实就是“迷你”的summary, 是分解断裂开的summary ? sentence completion 前后两题内容上是独立的,但也多是顺序性的

? 有字数限制的,必须满足要求。少部分的题目要求中没有字数限 制,这时,请注意,答案字数也不会很长,一般不会超过四个字 。
? 考试中,a 类一般是每次必考,考一组,共三题左右。

解题

步骤

? 找出题目中的关键词 ? 定位到原文中的一个段落 ? 扫读,根据关键词找答案,过程同summary completion

注意事项
? 所填答案必须符合语法。 ? 绝大部分的答案来自原文原词。 ? 答案字数不会很长 ? 即使题目要求中没有字数限制,答案字数也不会很长,一般不 会超过四个字。如果发现找到的答案字数很多,应首先怀疑自 己找错答案的位置。 ? 答案绝大部分是名词短语。 ? 所填答案绝大部分是名词短语,对应原文相应句子的宾语。也 有少数题目的答案是形容词短语或副词短语。 ? 要特别注意顺序性。

顺序性提示的

小技巧

? 由于这种题型定位比较难,所以要特别注意顺序性的 运用。一道题若找了很长时间、很多段落也没有找到 答案,可能是因为题目中的关键词和原文中的相应词 对应不明显,答案位置已经过去。可以先做下一道题 。

34

35

36

37

38

39

40

Answer

?

Use one or two words for each answer:

Waste paper collected from: Factories The paper is then (38)_____

Retail stores
(37)_____ Paper converters and printers

Households

and (39)_____ by adding water

The fibers are then (41)_____

Chemicals are added in order to (40)_____

? 例题: CThere are technical limitations to the amount of paper which can be recycled and some paper products cannot be collected for re-use. These include paper in the form of books and permanent records, photographic paper and paper which is badly contaminated. The four most common sources of paper for recycling are factories and retail stores which gather large amounts of packaging material in which goods are delivered, also offices which have unwanted business documents and computer output, paper converters and printers and lastly households which discard newspapers and packaging material. The paper manufacturer pays a price for the paper and may also incur the collection cost.

D Once collected, the paper has to be sorted by hand by people trained to recognize various types of paper. This is necessary because some types of paper can only be made from particular kinds of recycled fibre. The sorted paper then has to be repulped or mixed with water and broken down into its individual fibres. This mixture is called stock and may contain a wide variety of contaminating materials, particularly if it is made from mixed waste paper which has had little sorting. Various machinery is used to remove other materials from the stock. After passing through the repulping process, the fibres from printed waste paper are grey in color because the printing ink has soaked into the individual fibres. This recycled material can only be used in products where the grey color does not matter, such as cardboard boxes, but if the grey color is not acceptable, the fibres must be d-inked. This involves adding chemicals such as caustic soda or other alkalis, soaps and detergents, water-hardening agents such as calcium chloride, frothing agents and bleaching agents. Before the recycled fibres can be made into paper, they must be refined or treated in such a way that they bond together.

? The four most common sources of paper for recycling are factories and retail stores which gather large amounts of packaging material in which goods are delivered, also offices which have unwanted business documents and computer output, paper converters and printers and lastly households which discard newspapers and packaging material.

Waste paper collected from: Factories Retail stores (37)_____ Paper converters and printers Households

? Once collected, the paper has to be sorted by hand by people trained to recognize various types of paper.

The paper is then

(38)_____

? The sorted paper then has to be repulped or mixed with water and broken down into its individual fibres.

and

(39)_____ by adding water

? This recycled material can only be used in products where the grey color does not matter, such as cardboard boxes, but if the grey color is not acceptable, the fibres must be de-inked. This involves adding chemicals such as caustic soda or other alkalis, soaps and detergents, water-hardening agents such as calcium chloride, frothing agents and bleaching agents.

Chemicals are added in order to (40)_____

? Before the recycled fibres can be made into paper, they must be refined or treated in such a way that they bond together.

The fibers are then (41)_____

第七讲. Short Answer Question

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

题型介绍 每个题目都是一个特殊问句,要求根据原文作出回答 绝大部分的题目要求有字数限制,一般有如下几种表达方式: NO MORE THAN TWO/THREE/FOUR WORDS (不超过2/3/4个字); ONE OR TWO WORDS (一个或两个字); Use a maximum of TWO words (最多两个字) 少部分的题目要求中没有字数限制,这时,注意,字数也不会很长,一般不会超过 3个字

? ?

解题方法 找出题目中的关键词,最好先定位到原文中的一个段落。将题目中的关键词与原文各段落的小标题或每 段话的第一句相对照。有些题目能先定位到原文中的一个段落,这必将大大加快解题时间,并提高准确 率。但并不是每个题目都能先定位到原文中的一个段落的 从头到尾快速阅读该段落,根据题目中的其他关键词,确定正确。确定一个段落后,在该段落中的具体 位置是未知的。所以,需要从头到尾快速阅读该段落,确定答案。 要对应题目中的特殊疑问词。 必须要对应题目中的特殊疑问词。绝大部分的是名词或名词短语,也有少部分是动词或形容词短语。 要注意顺序性,即题目的顺序与原文的顺序基本一致。

? ? ?

? ?

注意 所有答案都不用大写,专有名词、句首除外

?
? ? ? ?

绝大部分的来自原文原词,极少一部分需要自己写
涉及数字的,最好写阿拉伯数字,以免发生拼写错误 涉及数字的,一般要有简单的四则运算 涉及钱币的,在数字前一定要有货币符号,在数字后可能会有单位 找到后,要向后看一、两句,看有无重大的改变

?
? ? ? ? ?

满足字数限制的方法。
大多数简单题有字数的限制,找到后,如果超过了字数要求,就需要去掉一些词。基本原则是:保留核心 词,去掉修饰词。可依此去掉 冠词:a /an /the 副词:副词用来修饰动词,保留动词,去掉副词。 形容词或分词:常用来修饰名词,保留名词,去掉形容词或分词 如果有必要,将 A of B改为BA(这里A和B都是名词)


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