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专八改革阅读简答题 summary读写写作


八级阅读简答题+ 八级读写写作题 动态预测与策略解析 2015.8.5
范范_老师@新浪微博

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新题型 重点考核英语专业核心技能: Reading Paraphrase 释义(同义替换) Summarize 概述、概要、梗概

整体感觉
? 阅读加主观简答题肯定增加了难度。

/>? 读写summary题难度还是体现在阅读上。 ? 这两部分改革显然侧重了加大考核学生快 速阅读英文抓重点的能力,进一步减弱背 套句和押写作题的模式。 ? 新题型类似英专考研常用题型。

阅读理解
? 旧:选择题 20题 共计20%

? 新:选择题 14题+ 简答题 8题 预计共2230%

主观简答题基本步骤 蓝色部分同客观选择题步骤
? 1、找出题干key word ? 2、根据题干key word+题目次序和原文次 序一致:定位到原文中的段落 ? 3、快速阅读KW上下文各2-3句 ? 4、答案可能是一个,或多个答案之综述

主观简答题核心要点
? 1、尽量使用原文词汇(+适当连词),原 文没有合适的再用自己的话。 ? 2、不要超过两个句号。适当使用冒号、分 号、破折号加大单句内信息容量。 ? 3、抄用原文单词时切切不要出现拼写、语 法低级失误 ? 4、除非题目很明显你百分百确定答案,否 则:扩大答案范围,宁可多答,不要少答

例1:一个答案
改编自2011-TEXT A
? 客观题干Which of the following best explains the differences in ways of living between the English and the Gibraltarians? ? 主观题干What best explains the differences in ways of living between the English and the Gibraltarians? ? Why does the Englishman have to stay home? ? 关键词:ways of living

? Whenever we could, Joan and I took refuge in the streets of Gibraltar. The Englishman's home is his castle because he has not much choice. There is nowhere to sit in the streets of England, not even, after twilight, in the public gardens. The climate, very often, does not even permit him to walk outside. Naturally, he stays indoors and creates a cocoon of comfort. That was the way we lived in Leeds. ? 下一段开头These southern people, on the other hand, look outwards.

? 答案: ? The climate makes it hard for English people to walk or sit outdoors/outside.

例2:多个答案的综述
?
? ? ? ? ? ? ? 客观题干15. According to the passage people in Gibraltar tend to be well-behaved because of the following EXCEPT _______. A. the entirety of the state structure B. constant pressure from the state C. the small size of the town D. transparency of occurrences 主观题干: What make people in Gibraltar tend to be well-behaved? Why can people in Gibraltar tend to be well-behaved?

? To live in a tiny town with all the organization of a state, with Viceroy (总督), Premier, Parliament, Press and Pentagon, all in miniature, all within arm?s reach, is an intensive course in civics. In such an environment, nothing can be hidden, for better or for worse. One?s successes are seen and recognized; one?s failures are immediately exposed. Social consciousness is at its strongest, with the result that there is a constant and firm pressure towards good social behaviour, towards courtesy and kindness. Gibraltar, with all its faults, is the friendliest and most tolerant of places. // Straight from the cynical anonymity of a big city, we luxuriated in its happy personalism. We look back on it, like all its exiled sons and daughters, with true affection.

答案
? 【直接采用原文词句】They live in a tiny town with all the organization of a state; thus nothing can be hidden in such an environment where strong social consciousness makes a constant and firm social pressure towards good social behavior. ? 【略带个人综述】Because of the small size of the town, the entirety of the state structure, the transparency of occurrences, and thus a constant and firm pressure from social consciousness.

问:Why did the author gain most pleasure in Gibraltar?s happy personalism? ? 原文定位: ? Gibraltar, with all its faults, is the friendliest and most tolerant of places. //Straight from the cynical anonymity of a big city(这半句 和上下句都是对比转折 关系), we luxuriated in its happy personalism.

宁可多答,不要少答
? 少答: Gibraltar, with all its faults, is the friendliest and most tolerant of places. ? 多答:In contrast to (Different from, Far from) the cynical anonymity of a big city, Gibraltar, a tiny town, is the friendliest and most tolerant of places.

八级写作
? ? ? ? 由topic-based task转为reading-writing task 40分钟400字词的命题作文 改为: 材料作文:“阅读两篇短文,写一个30分钟 300词左右的summary,着重学生表达观点 的能力。”

时间有两种可能性
? 1、10分钟阅读抓重点思路+30分钟写作, 共计给40分钟 ? 2、10分钟阅读抓重点思路+20分钟写作, 共计30分钟

阅读找什么
? 文章的main idea ? 文章的主要分论点subtopics ? 文章各段分论点的重要论据example ( example可以不用,也可以只用下major example,即选用) ? 重点内容通常在段落的开头2-3行内+But类 转折词后面2行;注意连词的提示 ? 文章开头、结尾也许不重要,看出题人想 要什么样的难度、选什么样的文章。

What I Have Lived for By Bertrand Russell
? Three passions, simple but overwhelmingly strong, have governed my life: the longing for love, the search for knowledge, and the unbearable pity for the suffering of mankind. These passions, like great winds, have blown me hither and thither, in a wayward course, over a deep ocean of anguish, reaching to the verge of despair.

? I have sought love, first, because it brings ecstasy--ecstasy so great that I would often have sacrificed all the rest of life for a few hours of this joy. I have sought it, next, because it relieves loneliness---that terrible loneliness in which one shivering consciousness looks over the rim of the world into the cold unfathomable lifeless abyss. I have sought it, finally, because in the union of love I have seen, in a mystic miniature, the prefiguring vision of the heaven that saints and poets have imagined. This is what I sought, and though it might seem too good for human life, this is what---at last---I have found.

? With equal passion I have sought knowledge. I have wished to understand the hearts of men. I have wished to know why the stars shine. And I have tried to apprehend the Pythagorean power by which number holds sway above the flux. A little of this, but not much, I have achieved.

? Love and knowledge, so far as they were possible, led upward toward the heavens. But always pity brought me back to earth. Echoes of cries of pain reverberate in my heart. Children in famine, victims tortured by oppressors, helpless old people a hated burden to their sons, and the whole world of loneliness, poverty, and pain make a mockery of what human life should be. I long to alleviate the evil, but I cannot, and I too suffer.

? This has been my life. I have found it worth living, and would gladly live it again if the chance were offered me.

注意对以上红色词句:
? 作文中:三分之一作同义词替换 三分之二抄用原文词句 至少有三分之一句型使用你自己的议论文套 句,运用自己的句型越多,同等条件下得 分越高

你对原文的总结提炼 就是你在陈述观点
? “A summary relates the author?s main point, purpose, intent, and supporting details in your own words.” ? “A summary is also a sort of critique of the original article.”

作文写什么
? 1 两篇加起来预测大约1000-1500词,写300词左 右的概要,给出一个中心问题,围绕问题写概要 。 ? 2 所谓“陈述观点”,其实不需要你贡献自己的 思想,需要你在重新组织原文主要思想观点+主要 论据(major example)的基础上,最后加个貌似 自己评价、感想的conclusion部分 ? 3 两种主体部分的逻辑结构: ? 平行式 ? 比较式

评分看什么?
? ? ? ? 作文是否抓对了语料的主要论点、立场 作文是否覆盖了语料的全部分论点 作文是否覆盖了语料的重要论据 作文是否有自己的逻辑:即在两个语料间 做了平行或比较模式的沟通融合,而不是 将两篇语料各自分开总结 ? 作文是否在结论部分作出自己的评价(? ?) ? 语言总体水平【切记长短句结合】 ?

? 学会用连词和自己的套句把别 人的语料观点论据串联起来 ? 语料的论点论据能用自己的同 义词句替换的就替换,不行就 转换句型抄用。专业术语不用 替换。

语言例段(感性认识)
? 考研题:Summarize the main British national characteristics according to Orwell.
? Britons are considered by Orwell as not artistic or rational; instead, they are quite instinctual in action so that people might call them “hypocritical”, that is, self-contradictory in itself, which typically has been demonstrated by the English amateurism of loving personal hobbies variably and hence the greatness of individual liberty or choice cherished by the multitude. This kind of individualism can defy the conformity to laws, single faith or power-worship. Meanwhile, the so-called “hypocrisy” may best lie in the contrast between the Britain?s position as a superpower in the world and the curious trait for Britons being tender-hearted enough to dislike war and militarism; they particularly abhor the ostentatious type of army. (112 words)

语料语言巧妙转换学生范例
? While officially speaking the British press is “free” from government control and censorship and can print what it likes, there are limits to what will appear in the daily paper. In 1990, the former chairman of the KGB, the Soviet Secret Service, said: “You?ll never find in a British newspaper who meets who. Not like in America—their papers are big-mouthed; we used to find out a lot from their Press. In England, no information could be found from papers. I always taught my people: Do everything like the British.” While there is no particular state censorship, many British laws limit the freedom of the press. Contempt of Court Laws restrain newspapers from printing information about people being tried for various crimes because this can prejudice the judicial system. The media is also affected by the Official Secrets Act, a legal act which stipulates that all government information is kept secret unless the government says it can be released. Sometimes journalists who are investigating government wrongdoing have their stories blocked, are fined or are even sent to prison because they reveal information that the government does not want the public to know about.

? 【学生例段】As far as the freedom of press is concerned, compared with the newspapers in Britain, those in the US have much more freedom. Though officially speaking, the British press is “free” from government control and censorship, it is subject to many laws. For example, in accord with the Official Secrets Act, except that the government says the information can be released, the papers are restrained from printing it. People who break the regulations will suffer serious punishment. On the other hand, as we all know, America is a country putting much more freedom ahead of everything, at least as is what they always say. So it gives much freedom to the press. According to the former chairman of the KGB, the Soviet Union Service, those newspapers in the US are “big-mouthed”. They can publish whatever they like, and people can find a lot from the papers rather than fumbling to find nothing valuable in the British media.

作文主体部分3段 的两种逻辑结构
? 平行式 20% ? 比较式 80% ? 个别题目两种结构均可

【1】平行式outline
? 开头 30词 ? 中间平行3段(确认两个语料都是同一个主 要论点和立场,然后找到各自的分论点, 将这些分论点融合提炼为你的“3个分论 点”,每段约70-80词,尽情借用语料中的 论点论据,用自己的话综述更佳。但不需 要自己增添新的论点论据) 结论 60词 共计330词

示例
? 两篇语料都讨论了一些英国民族的特征, 问你英国民族有何特征(划出各方主要 subtopics,融合为三大特征)。 ? 两篇语料都讨论了城市化发展对人类、环 境、地球所带来的种种弊端,问你城市化 给地球带来什么effects?(划出各方主要 subtopics,融合为三大弊端)。 ? 两篇语料都讨论了出国留学的好处。问你 你愿意出国留学吗?(划出各方主要 subtopics,融合为三大优势)。

? 两篇语料都讨论了语言在文化交流中的重 要性,问你认为语言和文化交流的关系? (划出各方主要subtopics,融合为三大重 要特点)。 ? 两篇语料都讨论了美国科技的历史和发展 的原因,问你认为美国科学为何持续发达? (划出各方主要subtopics,融合为三大发 展动因)。 ? 3段分别从3个角度讨论语言灭绝给世界文 化带来的灾难

【2】比较式
? 开头 ? 中间平行3段(确认两个语料持相反的主要 论点和立场,写3段 ,每段约70-80词,尽 情借用语料中的论点论据,用自己的话综 述更佳。但不需要自己增添新的论点论据) 结论 但比较式有3种写法

比较式3种结构+示例
1. 1段双方的相同点;2段不同点(胡锦涛与 小布什在对方大学里的演讲:个性化程度 +演讲风格) 2. 语料未讨论相似点,三段针锋相对的不同 方面。各段在段内进行比较,3段之间貌 似平行(如英美两国在报业的三个方面不 同;美加在移民政策上的不同;各类中西 比较议题) 3. 1段综述a方的论点;2段分开论述b方的两 个分论点(如美国1970年代三大运动的作 用和不足;美国梦的优劣)

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更多示例 4. 1段讨论美国反对控枪一方的论点;2 段讨论支持控枪一方的主要论点 5. 1段讨论中美两国媒体特色相同点;2 段讨论各自不同之处或特色 6. 1段讨论美国上大学的缺点;2段分开 讨论去美国上大学的优点。 7. 未提及双方相似点,3段分开讨论 video game对儿童的积极、消极作用在3个 方面的针锋相对。 8. 未提及相似点,3段分开讨论中美当代 家庭模式的不同

比较式的三套结构 (选择哪个要看题目怎么问)
1、+ (段内a&b), -1, -2 (段内a vs. b) 【你的结论立场是二者异大于同】 2、-1,-2,-3 (段内a vs. b) ? 【你的结论立场是二者截然不同】 3、+a, +b1,+b2 ? 【你的结论立场是支持b方】

作文最后一段的Conclusion写法 50-60字左右
? 结论部分很可能需要你给出一点自己的评 价、感想 ? 传统议论文结论必须有:将你的几个分论 点重复说一遍总结即可。 ? Summary题型结论: ? 首先将3个你自己文章的分论点综述下 ? 然后针对题目的重心貌似说几句自己的评 价,但实际上一定要和你的文章主体部分 的笔墨所体现的立场保持一致。

? MERCI BEAUCOUP ? 多谢 ? 范范_老师@新浪微博


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