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高中英语语法 被动语态详解


高一语法

被动语态

Warming up
《Love To Be Loved By You》是一首旋律 优美的英文歌曲,演唱者是美国流行歌手马 克· 特伦茨(Marc Terenzi)。2005年,Marc 与德国歌手莎拉· 寇娜(Sarah Connor)结婚 时,将这首歌作为爱的礼物献给妻子。

T

ask 1 Fill the blank by the song Baby, tell me how can I tell you That I love you more than life Show me how can I show you That I’m blinded by your light When you touch me I can touch you To find out the dream is true I love to be loved I need to be loved I love to be lovedby you

Summary: 主动 or 被动?
That I love you more than life
That I’m blinded by your light I love to be loved I need to be loved
被动 主动

I love to be loved by you

(一 ) 语 态 分 类 (二 ) 被 动 语 态 的 使 用 (三)主动语态变被动语态的方法 (四)常见的八种时态中的被动语态 (五) 含有情态动词的被动语态: (六) 总结:被动语态的时态、人称和数的变化

( 一) 语 态 分 类

英语动词有两种语态,主动语态和被动语态。 主动语态表示主语是动作的执行者,被动语态表 示主语是动作的承受者。如: They will build a new bridge over the river. (主动) A new bridge will be built over the river. (被动) 汉语中常用“被”、“给”、“由”、“受” 等词用来表示被动,而英语用: 助动词be + 及物动词的过去分词构成。

被动语态的时态、人称和数的变化
主要体现在be的变化上,其形式与系动词be的变化形式完全 一样。以 give 为例,列表如下: am / is / are + done 一般现在时:
was / were + done 一般过去时: shall / will + be done 一般将来时: 一般过去将来时:should / would + be done am / is / are + being + done 现在进行时: was / were + being + done 过去进行时: have / has + been + done 现在完成时: had + been + done 过去完成时: shall / will + have been + done 将来完成时: 过去将来完成时:should / would + have been + done [注]被动语态没有将来进行时和过去将来进行时。

常见的八种时态中的被动语态

1. 一般现在时: (1)People grow rice in the south of the country. Rice is grown in the south of the country. (2)The school doesn't allow us to enter the chemistry lab without a teacher. We are not allowed to enter the chemistry lab without a teacher.

.If he___ enough time, he will come up with an idea. A. gives B. will give C. is given D. will be given ?.A new film is going to ___ this Sunday. A. show B. showing C. be shown D. be showing
?

. Many bridges ___ over the river since liberation. A. are built B. Have built C. built D. have been built ?.The radio says a wild animal zoo is to ____ in our city. A. be building B. build C. be built D. built
?

summary
一般现在时(simple present): 主动语态 S(主语)+v(动词)

S(主语)+am/is/are +过去分词(done)

Task 3 Group Work
1 一般过去时:S+was/were +P.P.
一般将来时: S+ will+be+ P.P. 情态动词:

S+can/may/must/shoud + be+ P.P.

Group Work 2:
can carry basket he the He can carry the basket. The basket can be carried by him.

should classroom We the clean every day

We should clean the classroom every day.

The classroom should be cleaned by us every day.

(三)常见的八种时态中的被动语态 2. 一般过去时: (1)They agreed on the building of a new car factory last month.

The building of a new car factory was
agreed on last month.

(2)The

students

didn't

forget

his

lessons easily.

His lessons were not easily forgotten.

?. I should very much like to have gone to the

party,but I______invited. A.am not B.haven’t been C.was not D.will not be 析:should/would like to have done sth.意“本 想做某事”,例如:I should like to have seen the film,but it wasn?t possible.由于这种句式 表示“过去想”,所以but后的句子也应该是 过去时态与之相配合,故此题答案是C。

(三)常见的八种时态中的被动语态 3. 一般将来时: (1)They will send cars abroad by sea. Cars will be sent abroad by sea.

(2)They will give plenty of jobs to
school-leavers.

Plenty of jobs will be given to schoolleavers.

?. I promise that the matter will______. (NMET)

A.be taden care B.be taken care of C.take care D.take care of
析:take care of…是固定短语,若无of则不可带宾语, 只能跟that从句。所以此题答案为B。

(三)常见的八种时态中的被动语态 4. 过去将来时: (1)The manager said they would complete
the project by the end of the year. The manager said the project would be completed by the end of the year. (2) The workers told me they would mend the car as soon as possible. The workers told me that the car would be mended as soon as possible.

(三)常见的八种时态中的被动语态 5. 现在进行时:

(1)The radio is broadcasting English
lessons.

English lessons are being broadcasted
on the radio.

(2) We are painting the rooms.
The rooms are being painted.

?.

—Have you got the result of the last examination? —Not yet. We’ve been told that the papers ________. A. are marked B. are being marked C. have been marked D. were marked
此题答案应为B。

.We can’t use the bridge now, because it ____. A. has been repaired B. is repairing C. is repaired D. is being repaired
?

(三)常见的八种时态中的被动语态 6. 过去进行时:

(1)The workers were mending the road.
The road was being mended.

(2)This time last year we were planting
trees here.

Trees were being planted here this
time last year.

(三)常见的八种时态中的被动语态 7. 现在完成时: (1)Someone has told me the sports meeting might be put off.

I have been told the sports meeting
might be put off.

(2)He has brought his book here.
His book has been brought here.

(三)常见的八种时态中的被动语态 8. 过去完成时: (1)When I got to the theatre, I found they had

already sold out the tickets.
When I got to the theatre, I found the tickets

had already been sold out.
(2) The whole country was very sad at the

news of his death; People had considered him
to be a great leader.

He had been considered to be a great leader.

?.

—Have you got the result of the last examination? —Not yet. We’ve been told that the papers ________. A. are marked B. are being marked C. have been marked D. were marked
此题答案应为B。

A lot of new roads ___ built in the west of China. A. must B. must be C. has D. have ?.His car ___ tomorrow. A. will be repaired B. is repaired C. is being repaired D. has been repaired
?.

(四) 含有情态动词的被动语态: 含有情态动词的被动语态是由“情态动词 + be+ 及物动词的过去分词”构成。 (1)You must hand in your compositions after class. Your compositions must be handed in after class. (2)He can write a great many letters with the computer. A great many letters can be written with the computer by him.

Ask and answer
water When every day Where at home my grandma Who
A: When are the flowers watered? B: The flowers are watered every day. A: Where are the flowers watered? B: The flowers are watered at home. A: Who are the flowers watered by? B: The flowers are watered by my grandma. A: Are the flowers watered by my grandma at home every day? B: yes, they are.

When

where

who

sweep on weekends in the kitchen my mother

do after school in the classroom the children

(二 ) 被 动 语 态 的 使 用

1.及物动词或词组

?.——Do

you like the material? ——Yes,it______very soft. (NMET) A.is feeling B.felt C.feels D.is felt

析:观察题干,空白线后无宾语,可知feel是 不及物动词,表“(某物)摸起来…”意思, 是连系动词,不能用于被动式,也不用进 行时。根据此题对话情景,是指某种材料 的常规特性,要用一般现在时,不能用过 去时,故答案为C。feel作“感觉”、“认 为”、“摸”等意时是及物动词,可带宾 语,有时态,语态等变化。

?.Great

changes______in the city,and a lot of factories______. (NMET) A.have been taken place…have been set up B.have taken place…have been set up C.have taken place…have set up D.were taken place…were set up

析:take place(发生)是不及物动词,不可用于被 动语态,于是可排除A、D,又因set up(建造)是及 物动词,在此题中应该用被动式,故排除C,答案 为B。

2.不及物动词或词组

第一,一些不及物动词短语没有被动语态,如:take place, break out, belong to, lose heart, consist of, add up to等。如: The fire broke out in the capital building. 误:The fire was broke out in the capital building. 第二,不及物动词没有被动语态,如: rise, happen, succeed, remain, lie等。 When we got to the top of the mountain, the sun had already risen. 误:The sun had already been risen. After the earthquake, few houses remained. 误:After the earthquake, few houses were remained. 第三,宾语是反身代词,相互代词,同源宾语,不定式, v-ing 形 式及抽象名词等,不能变为被动句子的主语,如: I taught myself English. 误:Myself was taught English. We love each other. 误:Each other is loved.

下列情况主动句不能改为被动句:
第四,感官系动词一般用主动形式表示被动意义,如:feel,look, seem, taste, sound, remain等。 (1)— Do you like the material? — Yes, it feels very soft. 误:It is felt very soft. (2)The food tastes delicious. 误:The food is tasted delicious. (3)The pop music sounds beautiful. 误:The pop music is sounded beautiful. 第五,谓语是及物动词 leave, enter, reach, suit, have, benefit, lack, own等。如: He entered the room and got his book. 误:The room was entered and his book was got. She had her hand burned. 误:Her hand was had burned.

被 动 语 态 的 使 用
1.当不知道或没有必要指出动作的执行者时,常用被动语态,这时 往往不用by 短语。

“Mr. White, the cup was broken after class. ”
2. 突出或强调动作的承受者,如果需要说出动作的执行者,用 by 短语。

These records were made by John Denver. The cup was broken by Paul.
这时常用in + 名词作状语,而代替 by 短语。

3.当汉语句子的主语既不是动作的执行者,也不是动作的承受者时,

These cars were made in China. 15, 000 cars will be produced each year in the new factory.

?.This

music _____ the Moonlight Sonata . A. is listened to B. is heard C. is sounded like D. sounds like ?.This car _____ a used car. A. doesn’t look like B. isn’t liked like C. does look D. looks

?.These

days many children are made ________ what they are not _________. A.to do; interested in B. to do; interested C. do; interested D. do; interested in
此题答案应为A。

Task 4 (五)主动语态变被动语态的方法
I


bought a computer last term.
谓 宾(受动者)

A computer was bought (by me) last term. 一变 二套 三注意

语态转换时所注意的问题
1. 把主动语态变为被动语态时,其谓语动词的时态要与原句时态 保持一致,其谓语动词的数要与新主语保持一致。 We have bought a new computer. A new computer has been bought. (正确) A new computer have been bought. (错误)

2. 含有双宾语的主动句变被动句时,可分别将其中的一个宾语变
为主语,另一个不动,一般变间接宾语为主语时比较多。 My uncle gave me a present on my birthday. I was given a present on my birthday. 保留宾语 如果把直接宾语(指物)改为主语,则在间接宾语(指人)前加适 当的介词,如上句还可以说:

×

A present was given to me yesterday.

注意:1.一般在下列动词后,常在间接宾语前用介

词 to,如: bring, give, hand, lend, offer, pass, pay, promise, sell, show, take, teach, tell 等。 (1) The book was showed to the class. (2) My bike was lent to her. 2.一般在下列动词后,间接宾语前用介词 for, 如: build, buy, cook, cut, choose, do, fetch, find, fix, get, keep, make, order, paint, play, sing 等。 (1) A new skirt was made for me. (2) The meat was cooked for us. (3) Some country music was played for us.

3. 由动词 + 介词或副词构成的短语动词,要把它们作为整体看,

即把它们看成一个及物动词,介词或副词不可拆开或漏掉。这类动

词有:

不及物动词+ 介词,如: agree to, ask for, laugh at, operated on The patient is being operated on.

listen to, look after, think of, talk about 等。

The problem is solved. It needn't be talked about.

及物动词+ 副词:如:bring about, carry out, find out, give up

hand in, make out, pass on, point out, put away, put off, think His request was turned down.

over, turn down, work out, turn out 等。

The sports meet will be put off because of the bad weather.

.That kind of shirts __ cotton. A. is made from B. are made from C. is made of D. are made of ?.My suit are made ___ cotton and ___ Shanghai. A.from ,in B. of, in C. of, by D. from ,by
?

4. 带复合宾语( 宾语+ 宾补)的动词改为被动语态时,一 般把主动结构中的宾语改为主语,而宾语补足语保留在谓 语动词后面。如: (1) We always keep the classroom clean. →The classroom is always kept clean. (2) She told us to follow her instructions. →We were told to follow her instructions. 注意:在see, watch, hear, notice, listen to, look at, make, feel等动词后作宾语补足语的动词不定式都不带 to, 但改成被动语态后都带to,这时不定式为主语补足语,也 就是说不定式作主语补足语不存在省略to 的问题。 We often hear him play the guitar. →He is often heard to play the guitar.

.They ___ day and night. A.are made work B. are made to work C. made to be worked D. are making to work
?

5. 当主动句的主语是nobody, no one等含有否定意 义的不定代词时,被动句中将其变为 anybody, 作 by 的宾语,并将谓语动词变为否定的被动语态。

如:
Nobody can answer this question.

误 : The question can be answered by
nobody. anybody.

×

正:The question can not be answered by

6. 当否定句中的宾语是anything, anybody, anyone等不定 代词时,在被动句中应将其分别变为 nothing, nobody, no one作主语,并将谓语动词变为肯定的被动语态。如:
They haven't done anything to make the river clean. 误:Anything hasn't been done to make the river clean. 正:Nothing has been done to make the river clean.

7. 以who为主语开头的疑问句,变被动时,用by whom放 在句首: Who wrote the story? 误:Who was the story written? 正:By whom was the story written?

7. 有些动词既是及物又是不及物,当它们和 well, badly,

easily 等副词连用时,表示主语内在品质或性能,是不及 write, read, clean, sell, wash, cook 等。如:
(1)The cloth washes easily. 这布很好洗。 (2)The new product sells well. 这新产品很畅销。 对比: The books sell well. (主动句)

物动词,用主动表示被动,这时不用被动语态,常见的有:

The books were sold out. (被动句)
The meat didn’t cook well. (主动句)

The meat was cooked for a long time. (被动句)

?.These

days many children are made ________ what they are not _________. A.to do; interested in B. to do; interested C. do; interested D. do; interested in
此题答案应为A。

8. 在汉语中,有一类句子不出现主语,在英语中一般可 用被动结构来表示,例如: 据说…… It is said that … 据报导…… It is reported that … 据推测…… It is supposed that … 希望…… It is hoped that … 众所周知…… It is well known that … 普遍认为…… It is generally considered that … 有人建议…… It is suggested that … 1) It is reported that it is going to rain tomorrow. 2) It is well known that Thomas Edison invented the electric lamp.

homework

1根据今天内容总结下列时态的被动语 态,可借助网络,书籍… 做练习册。 现在进行时: 现在完成时: 过去进行时: …

2以小组为单位用被动语态列举学习英语的 重要性,写一篇作文 e.g. English is used as an international language. So, yours: English… English… English…


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