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高一语法限制性定语从句讲解


中小学 1 对 1 课外辅导专家

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讲义编号 SH12YY000001 授课班级:高二 学员姓名:程嘉栋 学科组长签名及日期 课 题 定语从句(1) 备课时间:2015/08/04 1、掌握定语从句的用法 2、能够熟练应用,并做对题目 正确分析句子成分 能够分析句子,做对题目 教学内容 年 级: G2 课时数:2 学科教师:

刘瑞芳 剩余天数

辅导科目: 英语

授课时间: 2015/08/05 教学目标 重点、难点 考点及考试要求

一、定语从句
一、定语从句 1、功能:相当于形容词,修饰名词或代词,在句中作定语 2、位置:定语从句置于被修饰词之后 Those who are willing to attend the party, sign here please. 3、先行词:被定语从句修饰的词称为先行词 (1)先行词一般是名词和不定代词,如:some-, any-, every-和 no 与-boy, -thing 的合成词;或 all、none、any、 some、that、those 等代词。数词也可以作先行词,人称代词也同样可作先行词。 (2)先行词与关系词是等量关系。必须注意两点: ①先行词在从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的数由先行词而定。 This is the place which is worth visiting. ②关系词在从句句子中充当了成分,其意思就是先行词的意义,所以在从句中不能重复其意。 There are many places we can visit(them)in China. 4、关系词:引导定语从句的都称关系词 关系代词:who, whom, which, that, whose, as。 关系副词:when, where, why。that 偶尔也作关系副词。

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5、确定关系词的步骤 (1)先找关系词,看先行词指的是什么。 (2)看关系词在从句中所充当的成分。 二、关系代词引导的定语从句 关系代词所代替的先行词是人或物的名词或代词,并在句中充当主语、宾语、定语等成分。关系代词在定语 从句中作主语时,从句谓语动词的人称和数要和先行词保持一致。 注意事项:that 在从句中作主语或宾语,既可以指人又可以指物;which 在从句中作主语或是宾语,只能指 物;who,whom 在从句中分别作主语或宾语,只能指人;whose 为关系代词 who 的所有格形式,用作名词的限 定语,whose 引导的定语从句既可以是限制性的,也可以为非限制性的。先行词既可以是人,也可以是无,whose 和它所修饰的名词在定语从句中可作主语及动词或介词的宾语。 1、指人 who, whom, that 这些词代替的先行词是人的名词或代词,在从句中所起作用如下: I thank the woman. The woman helps me a lot. I thank the woman who (that)helps me a lot.(主语) The man was Jones .I saw him. The man (who /whom /that) I saw was Jones.(作宾语) She was the woman .I told you about her. She was the woman (who /whom/ that) I told you about .(做介词宾语) She was the woman whom about I told you.(介词后只能用宾格) 2、指物 which, that 它们所代替的先行词是事物的名词或代词,在从句中可作主语、宾语等, A prosperity appears in the countryside. A prosperity had never been seen before .

A prosperity which / that had never been seen before appears in the countryside. 农村出现了前所未有的繁荣。 (which / that 在句中作主语) Where is the book (which/that) I bought last week? ( 做宾语) 3、Whose 用来指人或物,(只用作定语, 若指物,它还可以同 of which 互换), 例如:They rushed over to help the man. His car had broken down. They rushed over to help the man whose car had broken down. 那人车坏了,大家都跑过去帮忙。 有时也可以用来指具体事物或抽象概念,这时可以与 of which 结构互换,词序是:“名词+of which He’s written a book the name of which I’ve completely forgotten. (= whose name) 4、关系代词 as,在从句中作主语、宾语和表语。
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中小学 1 对 1 课外辅导专家
(1)先行词被 such 和 the same 修饰,或句型 as many(much)中,从句都用 as 引导。 Such books as you bought are useful. The school is just the same as it was 10 years age. 注意:区别①such ? that ? 引导的结果状语从句。They are such lovely children that we love them much.②the same ? that ? 引导定语从句。I want to use the same tool that you used just now. (2)无先行词的定语从句用 as 和 which 引导。 区别:①意义上:as 含有“这点正如??一样” 。②位置上:as 从句可置句首,也可在另处。 He didn’t pass the exam, as we had expected. There is lots of air in loose snow, which can keep the cold out. As is known, the earth is round, not flat. 三、特殊用法: 1)只用 who 的 ①当先行词是 one, ones, anyone 或 those , these 时,关系代词用 who。 The comrade I want to learn from is the one who studies hard and works hard. Anyone who breaks the law should be punished. Anyone who goes there will be punished. These who are going to Beijing are the best students of our school. ②在 there be 开头的句子中。 There’s a beautiful girl who came to see you this morning. There is a student who wants to see you. ③先行词后有一个较长的定语。 I met a foreigner in the city last week who could speak Chinese well. ④一个句子中带有两个定语从句,其中一个定语从句的关系代词是 that,另一个宜用 who,以免重复。 The student that won the first prize is the monitor who works hards. ⑤在非限定性定语从句中。 She has a brother, who worked at that factory ten years ago. 2、that 与 which 的区分 1)指物时宜用 that 的情况: ①当先行词为 all, none, much, little, few, something, anything, everything, nothing 等不定代词时。 All that can be done has been done. ②当先行词既指人又指物时。
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中小学 1 对 1 课外辅导专家
He spoke of the men and the thing (that) he had seen abroad. ③当先行词是疑问词 who, what, which 时或句子以疑问词 who , what , which 打头时。 Who that has such a home doesn’t love it? ④先行词是序数词、形容词最高级或者当先行词被序数词或形容词的最高级修饰时。 This is one of the best films that I have ever seen. This is the best that can be done now. ⑤当先行词被 the very, the only, the last, the same , just, one of , any, every , few , little , no , all , one of 等修饰 时。 This is one of the very book that I am looking for. ⑥关系代词在从句中作表语。 Mary is no longer the girl that she used to be. 2)只能用 which 不能用 that 的情况。 ①引导非限定性定语从句修饰某物或整个句子。 Bruce went towards the fire, which was still smoking. Tom came back late, which made his parents very angry. ②关系代词作介词的宾语。This is the house in which Lu Xun once lived. ③that,those 作主语时 Those which are on the desk are English books. ④.先行词是专有名词、整个句子或世界上独一无二的物质名词时,一般用非限定性定语从句修饰。 The sun, which gives us light and heat, is very big. 注意:当引导定语从句的关系代词在从句中作主语时,那么定语从句中的谓语动词的数的形式应与先行词保持一 致。 (1)one of+复数名词+关系代词+复数动词 He is one of the students who pass the exam. (2)the only one of+复数名词+关系代词+单数动词 He is the only one of the students who passes the exam.他是唯一通过考试的学生。 (3)其他情况 I,who am your teacher,will try my best to help you.我,你的老师,将尽力帮你。 Have you heard of the persons and things that are being talked about? 你听说过正在被谈论的这些人和事。 定从练习 关系代词和并句 I. please use who/whom to connect the following two sentences together 1. Teachers are professionals. They work in schools, collages and universities.

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中小学 1 对 1 课外辅导专家
2. A chef is a skilled cook. He usually works in a big restaurant or a grand hotel.

3.

Lingling is a fashion model. She often appears on the stage.

4.

The girl is a world famous fashion model. She is often involved in many performances

5. The dancer is a laid-off worker. She performs very well.

6. The sick woman is my aunt. A nurse is looking after her.

精炼
1.The place _______interested me most was the Children's Palace. A. which B. where C. what D. in which

2.Do you know the man _______? A. whom I spoke B. to who spoke C. I spoke to D. that I spoke

3.This is the hotel _______last month. A. which they stayed C. where they stayed at B. at that they stayed D. where they stayed

4.Do you know the year ______the Chinese Communist Party was founded? A. which B. that C. when D. on which

5.That is the day ______I'll never forget. A. which B. on which C. in which D. when

6.The factory ______we'll visit next week is not far from here. A. where B. to which C. which D. in which

7.Great changes have taken place since then in the factory _______we are working. A. where B. that C. which D. there

8.This is one of the best films _______. A. that have been shown this year C. that has been shown this year 9.Can you lend me the book ______the other day? B. that have shown D. that you talked

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中小学 1 对 1 课外辅导专家
A. about which you talked C. about that you talked 10.The pen ______he is writing is mine. A. with which B. in which C. on which D. by which B. which you talked D. that you talked

11.They arrived at a farmhouse, in front of ______sat a small boy. A. whom B. who C. which D. that

12.The engineer ______my father works is about 50 years old. A. to whom B. on whom C. with which D. with whom

13.It there anyone in your class ______family is in the country? A. who B. who's C. which D. whose

14.I'm interested in ______ you have said. A. all that B. all what C. that D. which

15.I want to use the same dictionary ______was used yesterday. A. which B. who C. what D. as

16.He isn't such a man ______he used to be. A. who B. whom C. that D. as

17.He is good at English, ______we all know. A. that B. as C. whom D. what

18.Li Ming, ______to the concert enjoyed it very much. A. I went with B. with whom I went C. with who I went D.I went with him

19.I don't like ______ as you read. A. the novels B. the such novels C. such novels D. same novels

20.He talked a lot about things and persons ________they remembered in the school. A. which B. that C. whom D. what

21.The letter is from my sister, ______is working in Beijing. A. which B. that C. whom D. who

22.In our factory there are 2,000 workers, two thirds of ____are women. A. them B. which C. whom D. who

23.You're the only person ______I've ever met ______could do it. A. who;/ B./; whom C. whom;/ D./; who
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中小学 1 对 1 课外辅导专家
24.I lost a book, ______I can't remember now. A. whose title B. its title C. the title of it D. the title of that

25.Last summer we visited the West Lake, ______Hangzhou is famous in the world. A. for which B. for that C. in which D. what

26.I have bought such a watch _______ was advertised on TV. A. that B. which C. as D. it

27.I can never forget the day _______ we worked together and the day ______ we spent together. A. when; which B. which; when C. what; that D. on which; when

28.The way ______he looks at problems is wrong. A. which B. whose C. what D./

29.This is the reason ______he didn't come to the meeting. A. in which B. with which C. that D. for which

30.This machine, ______for many years, is still working perfectly. A. after which I have looked C. that I have looked after B. which I have looked after D. I have looked after

31.The reason ______he didn't come was ______he was ill. A. why; that B.that;why C. for that;that D.for which;what

32.He is working hard, ______will make him pass the final exam. A.that B.which C.for which D.who

33.That is not the way ______I do it. A./ B.which C.for which D.with which

34.I have two grammars, ______are of great use. A. all of which B. either of which C. both of that D. both of which

35.I want to use the same tools _______used in your factory a few days ago. A. as was B. which was C. as were D. which

36.My neigh bours used to give me a hand in time of trouble, _______ was very kind of them. A. who B. which C. that D. it

37.This is the magazine _______ I copied the paragraph. A. that B. which C. from that D. from which

38.He is not such a man _______ would leave his work half done.
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中小学 1 对 1 课外辅导专家
A. that B. which C. who D. as

39. You can depend on whatever promise _______ he makes. A. / B. why C. when D. whose

40. Smoking, _______ is a bad habit, is, however, popular. A. that B. which C. it D. though

41. --- Did you ask the guard _______ happened? --- Yes, he told me all _______ he knew. A. what; that B. what; what C. which; which D. that; that

42. I shall never forget those years _______ I lived on the farm with the farmers, _______ has a great effect on my life. A. when; who B. that; which C. which; that D. when; which

43. The number of the people who _______ cars _______ increasing. A. owns; are B. owns; is C. own; is D. own; are

44. During the days ________, he worked as a servant at the Browns. A. followed B. following C. to follow D. that followed

45. Is oxygen the only gas _______ helps fire burn? A. that B. / C. which D. it

46. The clever boy made a hole in the wall, _______ he could see _____ was going on inside house. A. which; what B. through which; what C. through that; what D. what; that

47. Is _______ some German friends visited last week? A. this school B. this the school C. this school one D. this school where

48. John got beaten in the game, _______ had been expected. A. as B. that C. what D. who

49. I have bought two ballpens, _______ writes well. A. none of them B. neither of them C. neither of which D. none of which

50. All that can be eaten _______ eaten up. A. are being B. has been C. had been D. have been

三、高考链接(2013 上海高考真题)
II. Grammar and Vocabulary Section A
25. — I’m looking for a nearby place for my holiday. Any good ideas? — How about the Moon Lake? It is ________ easy reach of the city.
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中小学 1 对 1 课外辅导专家
A. by B. beyond C. within D. from 26. Those who smoke heavily should remind ________ of health, the bad smell and the feelings of other people. A. theirs B. them C. themselves D. oneself 27. Bob called to tell his mother that he couldn’t enter the house, for he ________ his key at school. A. had left B. would leave C. was leaving D. has left 28. It’s a ________ clock, made of brass and dating from the nineteenth century. A. charming French small B. French small charming C. small French charming D. charming small French 29. The school board is made up of parents who ________ to make decisions about school affairs. A. had been elected B. had elected C. have been elected D. have elected 30. They promised to develop a software package by the end of this year, ________ they might have. A. however difficult B. how difficult C. whatever difficulty D. what difficulty 31. The judges gave no hint of what they thought, so I left the room really ________. A. to be worried B. to worry C. having worried D. worried 32. The students are looking forward to having an opportunity ________ society for real-life experience. A. explore B. to explore C. exploring D. explored 33. I have no idea ________ the cell phone isn’t working, so could you fix it for me? A. what B. why C. if D. which 34. Young people may risk ________ deaf if they are exposed to very loud music every day. A. to go B. to have gone C. going D. having gone 35. Sophia got an e-mail ________ her credit card account number. A. asking for B. ask for C. asked for D. having asked for 36. I cannot hear the professor clearly as there is too much noise ________ I am sitting. A. before B. until C. unless D. where 37. ________ at the photos, illustrations, title and headings and you can guess what the reading is about. A. To look B. Looking C. Having looked D. Look 38. An ecosystem consists of the living and nonliving things in an area ________ interact with one another. A. that B. where C. who D. what 39. Among the crises that face humans ________ the lack of natural resources. A. is B. are C. is there D. are there 40. Some people care much about their appearance and always ask if they look fine in ________ they are wearing. A. that B. what C. how D. Which

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中小学 1 对 1 课外辅导专家

签字确认

学员

教师

班主任

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