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英语必修一Unit4单词讲解


Unit4 Earthquakes

? earthquake n. 地震 ? Eg: It is reported that an earthquake broke out last night in Southeast Asia.
? right away 立刻;马上 ? 同义词: right now=straight away=at once

=in no time=immediately ? 注意:right now除表示“立刻,马上”之外, 还表示“现在,此刻”,比now的语气强, 相当于at this moment, at present,用于进行 时。

? ? ? ? ? ? ?

well ① n. 井 Eg: A book is a well of knowledge. ② adj. 健康的 Eg: I hope you will get well soon. ③ adv. 熟练地,有效地 Eg: He plays the piano very well for his age.

? ? ? ? ? ?

smelly adj. 有臭味的,发臭的 Eg: His socks are smelly. 拓展: blood ─ bloody cloud ─ cloudy rain ─ rainy greed ─ greedy 词根:smell 可用作系动词或实义动词,用 作系动词时,意为“闻起来”;用作实义 动词时意为“闻” ? Eg: You may smell the mixture and it smells terrible.

blood + -y = bloody 流血的 rain + -y = rainy 下雨的
cloud + -y = cloudy 多云的 wind + -y = windy 多风的

snow + -y = snowy 下雪的
dream+-y = dreamy 幻想的 ice + -y = icy冷漠的,冰的 mud+ -y = muddy 泥泞的 sun + -y = sunny阳光灿烂的

greed + -y = greedy贪婪的
taste+ -y = tasty 美味的 fat + -y = fatty 肥胖的 fog + -y = foggy 有雾的

? burst ? ①v.(使)爆裂;(使)破裂;(使)爆炸 ? Eg: You are going to burst the balloon if you are not careful. ? The balloon suddenly burst. ? ②v.猛冲;突然出现 ? Eg: He burst into the room without knocking. ? burst into+ n.=burst out doing sth. 突然…… 起来 eg: burst into laughter=burst out laughing

eg: 她突然笑起来。

She burst out laughing.
She burst into laughter .

他突然大哭起来。
He burst out crying. 闯入 充满

He burst into tears.
n. 突然爆裂,爆发 短语:a burst of… 一阵…

burst into burst with

eg: 一阵笑声 a burst of laughter 勃然大怒 a burst of anger

? event n. ? (1) [C](尤指涉及几个人的)事件,大 事 ? Eg: That was an important historical event. ? (2)[C](体育比赛等的)项目,赛事 ? Eg: The Olympic Games are important events in the sports world.

4. at an end 结束,终结 eg: 炎热的天气终于结束了。

The hot days are at last at an end.
The hot days come to an end at last. be at an end = come to an end 结束 短语:put an end to…=bring…to an end 使…结束 eg: 他们应该结束战争。 …… They should put an end to the war. They should bring the war to an end. …… 辨析:at an end, in the end, at the end of, by the end of

1). at an end: 表示“终结,结束”,与be动词连用。 eg: 战争结束了。

The war was at an end.= The war came to an end.
2). in the end: 表示“最终,终于”,单独使用作状语。 eg: 最终他们放弃了那项计划。 They gave up the plan in the end. (at last) 3). at the end of: 表示“在…的尽头/末尾” eg: 今年年底,我父亲要回家。 My father will come home at the end of this year. He is at the end of his patience.
他已经忍耐到极限了。

4). by the end of: 到…末为止,常与完成时态连用。 by the end of last…用于过去完成时

by the end of next…用于将来完成时
eg: 到上个月末为止,他在那条船上已经待了两年。

By the end of last month, he had been on that
ship for two years.

到下学期末为止,我将学会3000多个英语单词。
I will have learned more than 3000 English words by the end of next term.

5. nation n. 民族,国家,国民 单词积累:national adj. 国家的,民族的,国营的 nationality n. 国籍 辨析:nation, country, state 易混词 辨析 例句 nation
侧重指“人民”,即 The whole nation was in deep sorrow. 举国悲痛。 “国民”

侧重指“疆土”,即 He has been to many African country “国土”。 countries.他去过许多非洲国家。

state

侧重指“政 权”“政体”,即 “国权”

He’s a head of state. 他是一位国家元首。

? ? ? ? ? ?

ruin (1) n. [U] 毁坏;毁灭;灭亡 Eg: The war brought ruin to the country. (2) n. 倒塌的建筑物,废墟 Eg: The castle now lies in ruins. 注意:ruin表示“废墟,遗迹”,常用复数, 常构成in ruins,意为“严重受损,破败不 堪”,强调状态,常用作表语或状语。 ? (3)v. (完全地)毁坏,毁掉;使破产 ? Eg: I was ruined by that law case.

? 拓展: ? be in ruins 呈一片废墟 bring sth to ruin 使某物毁灭 bring sb to ruin 使某人破产 suffering n. [U] 疼痛,痛苦,折磨,苦难 eg: Death finally brought an end to her suffering. 注意:sufferings 表示“痛苦,苦恼” eg: The hospital aims to ease the sufferings of the dying.

? extreme ? (1)adj. 极度(大)的;严重的;极端的; 过分的 ? Eg: extreme weather conditions 极端恶劣的 天气情况 ? extreme sports 极限运动 ? (2) n. [C] 完全相反的事物;极端,极度, 极限 ? Eg: extremes of cold, wind or rain 严寒,狂风, 骤雨 ? 拓展: go to extremes 走极端

injure

指损害健康,成就,容 A bullet injured his left eye. 貌等,强调功能的丧失, 一颗子弹伤了他的左眼。 常指事故中的伤害 普通用语,既可指肉体 上的伤害,也可指精神 上,感情上的伤害 I don’t want to hurt you. 我不想伤害你。 The soldier was wounded badly. 这位士兵严重受伤。

hurt

指枪伤,刀伤,刺伤等 wound 皮肉之伤,尤指战场上 所受的伤

harm

一般指伤害有生命的东 Smoking seriously harmed 西,常指伤及人的健康, his health. 权利,事业等 吸烟严重地损害了他的健康。

? ? ? ? ?
? ? ? ?

track (1)n. [C] 足迹,踪迹;轨道,跑道 Eg: We followed the bear’s tracks in the snow. (2) vt. 跟踪,追踪 Eg: We continued tracking the plane on our radar. 拓展: keep track of 记录;掌握……的线索 useless adj. 无用的,无效的,无价值的 Eg: He knew it was useless to protest. 固定句式: It is useless (no use) doing sth 做某事是无用的

? shock ? (1)v. 使震惊;使惊愕;使难以置信 ? 搭配: be shocked at 对……感到震惊 ? be shocked to do sth 惧怕做某事 eg: The murder of such a young child deeply shocked the whole community. (2)v. (使)愤慨,(使)生气 eg: Just ignore all their bad language ─ they only do it to shock. (3) n. 令人震惊的(情况,消息) 搭配:be a shock to sb 对某人来说是一个打击 eg: It was a real shock to hear that the factory would have to close.

? shocked adj. 惊愕的,感到震惊的 shocking adj. 令人震惊的 rescue (1) n. [C,U] 救援,营救;救援行动 eg: The rescue team made ten rescues in a week. (2) vt. 救援,拯救,解救 搭配:rescue sb/sth from 把……从……(地 方)解救出来 eg: They rescued the boy from the burning house.

? a rescue team 救援队 rescue worker 救援人员
trap (1) vt. (trapped)困住,关住,使陷入危 险中 搭配:be trapped in 困在……中 eg: The car was trapped in the deep snow. (2) n. [C]陷阱;困境;圈套,诡计 eg: She had set a trap for him and he had walked straight into it.

? ? ? ?

electricity n. [U] 电,电力 Eg: This machine is run/driven by electricity. 拓展: turn on/off electricity 接通/切断电源 electric adj. 用电的,电动的 electrical adj. 电的,与电有关的 electronic adj.电子的

? disaster n. 灾难,灾祸 ? Eg: The fire was a great disaster. ? 拓展: a traffic disaster 一起交通事故 ? natural disaster 自然灾害 ? a disaster area 灾区
? dig out (dug) 挖出,翻找出 ? Eg: Why did you dig out those old magazines?

9. bury vt. 埋葬,掩埋,隐藏 eg: 她被安葬在她丈夫的坟边。

She was buried beside her husband’s grave.
她双手捂着脸哭了起来。 She buried her face in her hands and cried. 短语:bury oneself in…=be buried in…. 专心于…, 埋首于… bend one’s mind/efforts/thoughts to… devote oneself to…=be devoted to… 专心于…,献身于… be lost in… 陷入…中

10. shelter n. 掩蔽,躲避处,避难,保护 短语:take shelter from… 躲避…

vt.&vi. 庇护,掩护 (常与from搭配使用)
意为“保护…不受…的伤害/侵害”

eg: 人们在百货商场躲避阵雨。
People took shelter from the shower in the

department store.
那些树木庇护田地不受冷风侵袭。

The trees shelter the field from the cold wind.

? title ? (1)n. [C] 标题,题目 ? Eg: His novel was published under the title of Love and Reason. ? (2) n. [C] 职位名称;职称 ? Eg: The official title of the job is “Administrative Assistant”. ? (3)vt. (给书籍,乐曲等)加标题 ? Eg: Their first album was titled “Ocean Drive”.

11. damage n.&vt. 损失,损害 eg: Smoking can damage your health. 抽烟会损害你的健康。 短语:do damage to… 对…造成损害

12. frighten vt. 使惊吓,吓唬 frightened adj. 受惊的,受恐吓的 frightening adj. 令人恐惧的 短语:be frightened at… 受…惊吓,见…大吃一惊 be frightened of sb/sth 害怕某人/某物 同义词:shock 近义词:surprise

? congratulation n. 祝贺;恭贺;贺词 ? 搭配: offer/send one’s congratulations to sb on sth 因某事向某人表示祝贺 ? Eg: We offered our congratulations to him on his success. ? congratulate vt.祝贺 ? 搭配:congratulate sb on sth 因某事祝贺 某人 ? congratulate oneself on sth/doing sth/that 暗自庆幸 ? Eg: I heartily congratulate myself on having chosen a good woman to be my wife.

? ? ? ? ?

judge (1)n. 裁判员,评判员;法官;审判员 Eg: The judge’s decision is final. (2) vt. 判断;断定;认为 Eg: Judging by her letter, they are having a wonderful time. ? (3)vt. 裁判;评判;担任裁判 ? Eg: She was asked to judge the essay competition. ? judge 是一个重要的动词,尤其要注意它所构成 的分词悬垂结构judging from/by…,它在句中做 独立成分,不受句子主语的影响和限制,表达的 意义是说话者的看法或判断。

? ? ? ? ? ?

express vt. 表示,表达,表露 搭配: express sth 表达/表露 express oneself 表达自己的思想感情 express itself 显而易见,不言自明 Eg: Perhaps I have not expressed myself very well. ? Their pleasure expressed itself in a burst of applause.


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