定时训练(15) 专题特训(阅读理解) Passage 1 (2014· 浙江五校联盟模拟)Space invaders A normal conversation between strangers involves more than talk.It also involves the dynamics of space interaction.If one person g
ets too close， the other person will back up.If the first person invades the other's space again，the other person will back up again.The person who finds himself backing up is trying to increase the distance of the comfort zone.The person closing in is trying to decrease that distance.Most likely neither person is fully aware of what is going on. In the 1960s，American anthropologist Edward T．Hall was a pioneer in the study of human behavioral use of space.His field of study became known as proxemics(空间关系学)．Hall said that personal space for people in the United States can be defined as having four distinct zones： the intimate zone within 18 inches of your body，for whispering and embracing；the personal zone of 18 inches to four feet，for talking with close friends；the social zone of four to 10 feet，for conversing with acquaintance；and the public zone of 10 to 25 feet，for interaction with strangers or talking to a group. Historians say that our standards of personal space began with the Industrial Revolution in the 18th century.In cities such as London and New York，people of different social and economic classes were suddenly crammed together ， so they unconsciously developed a commonly understood code of politeness to restrict the space around them. People exhibit nonverbal messages of discomfort when their zones are violated.Invaded people might tap their toes，pull at their hair，and they might become completely rigid，or even become angry.As Hall noted in his landmark work，a comfortable conversation needs to include the parameters(规范)of human personal space. 1．This passage is mostly about________． A．what nonverbal communication B．human conversation C．the life of Edward T．Hall D．human behavioral use of space 解析 主旨大意题。本篇文章每段基本都出现比较关键的 space 这个单词，而且从阅读 中可以发现指的是人与人交流时的空间位置感。因此选择 D 项。 答案 D 2．Edward T．Hall defined________． A．interactions between strangers B．angry people C．four zones of personal space D．the Industrial Revolution 解析 细节理解题。由文章第二段第三句可知答案。 答案 C 3．If you and a close friend began talking when you were eight feet apart，you would
probably soon________． A．move closer together B．move farther apart C．begin talking more softly D．ask another friend to join in the conversation 解析 细节理解题。根据第二段“the personal zone of 18 inches to four feet，for talking with close friends”可知好朋友之间交谈时的空间距离是 18 英寸到 4 英尺，因此在离 8 英尺 远时应走近一些。故选 A 项。 答案 A 4．The third paragraph provides________． A．a historical perspective on personal space B．an economic reason for personal space C．an overview of Edward T．Hall's field of study D．a definition of personal space 解析 推理判断题。 第三段第一句说这是历史学家的观点， 而后从历史的角度来说明空 间感的发展。A 项指的是从历史的角度看个人空间感。 答案 A 5．The word “dynamics” means “________”． A．difficulties B．forces or influences that cause change C．largeness D．explosions so large that they are beyond belief 解析 词义猜测题。此句为文章的主题句，在理解了全文之后，可知文章在说明人在交 谈的过程中，个人空间位置的动态变化。故选 B。 答案 B Passage 2 (2014· 山东高考命题研究专家原创卷)Foxes have become a part of life in Britain's urban areas.They are striking creatures but they are also dangerous.Three years ago，twin baby girls Isabella and Lola Koupparis were left with arm and face injuries after they were attacked by a fox while they were sleeping at their home.Last week，four－week－old baby boy Denny Dolan was bitten by a fox which entered his home.After gaining access to the home through the front door， the fox pulled the baby down from the sofa and tried to drag him outside，biting him and almost severing(割断)his finger. Although fox attacks on humans are still very rare，they will become more common if we don't change our behaviour towards these increasingly fearless animals.It is humans rather than foxes that are responsible for rising fox attacks on humans.
On the one hand，people who love foxes treat these wild animals like pets，leaving food out for foxes， feeding them from their hands， and even inviting foxes into their home.The result is that the fox is more brazen(厚颜无耻的)and less inclined to avoid us.It is those people who feed foxes that cause foxes to lose their fear of humans.However，as long as they have a healthy fear of humans，they won't bother humans. On the other hand，foxes have moved into cities for lack of resources in rural areas.We take away their natural habitat to build more houses and factories.Foxes have no choice but to live and search for food in the city.If they live in the forest，no fox attack will happen. We have to learn to share the earth with animals and let foxes return to their natural habitat.We also have to learn to look upon foxes as wild animals.We have to remember that they are instinctive killers，efficient and silent with only one purpose，kill to eat.We must certainly not intervene them，even when they look starved.They are hungry for a reason.The hunger will force them to hunt for rabbits and other animals instead of waiting for food at your door. 6．We can learn from the passage that________． A．it is common for people to spot foxes in British cities B．it is very difficult for people to raise foxes as pets C．it is common for foxes to attack a child in Britain's urban areas D．it is very dangerous for foxes to live in Britain's urban areas 解析 细节理解题。根据第一段第一句可知，在英国城市里见到狐狸很普遍。 答案 A 7．Why do more and more foxes flood into cities? A．Because urban people love the cute animal. B．Because foxes lack natural resources in the forest. C．Because no houses are built for them in the forest. D．Because their habitats are occupied by other animals. 解析 细节理解题。 根据第四段第一句可知，狐狸涌入城市的原因是它们在农村地区
缺少生存的资源。 答案 B 8．According to the author，what is the result of treating foxes like pets? A．Foxes will get milder and milder. B．Foxes will become fearless to humans. C．Foxes will leave their natural habitat. D．Foxes will not bother humans any longer. 解析 细节理解题。根据第三段第二、三句可知，人把狐狸当宠物对待的结果是狐狸变 得不再怕人。 答案 B 9．We can learn from the passage that the author________． A．is very cruel to foxes B．is a wild animal lover
C．is concerned about foxes D．is against feeding foxes 解析 细节理解题。根据最后一段可以看出作者是反对给狐狸喂食的。 答案 D 10．What is the main idea of the passage? A．It is humans rather than foxes that are to blame for the rising fox attacks on humans. B．People in cities must certainly not feed foxes，even when they look starved. C．Human beings have to learn to live in harmony with wild animals in cities. D．Foxes in British cities are striking creatures but they are also dangerous animals. 解析 主旨大意题。 本文主要说明了狐狸伤人事件增多的现象并分析了其原因， 最后得 出结论：人类要为增多的狐狸伤人事件负全责。 答案 A Passage 3 (2013·广 州 市 调 研 )As thousands of communities in the USA—especially in the South—became booming gateways for immigrant families from Central and South America during the 1990s and the early years of the new century，public schools struggled with the unfamiliar task of serving the large number of English learners arriving in their classrooms. Education programs needed to be built__from__scratch． “We had no teaching resources suitable for English learners here before.We had to develop them all ourselves.” a Texas principal said.Throughout the country，districts had to train their own teachers to teach English to non－ native speakers or recruit teachers from elsewhere.School staff members had to figure out how to communicate with parents who didn't speak English. But even as immigration has slowed or stopped in many places，and instructional programs for English learners have matured，serving immigrant families and their children remains work in progress in many public schools， especially those in communities that are skeptical， or sometimes unwelcoming，to the newcomers.One of the biggest challenges educators face is communicating effectively with parents who don't speak English—an issue that，in part，has contributed to recent complaints of discrimination by Latino students in some cities. “The parents' role is very important for the success of these students，but it's also one of the most difficult things we've had to tackle， ” said James D． Rollins， the president of the Springdale School District，where the 19，000－student school system has gone from having no English learners 15 years ago to more than 7，500 now.“You have to make it a priority and work on it.” Aside from the practical challenges ， such as finding bilingual( 会说两种语言的 )staff members，guiding districts through such dramatic changes requires school leaders to bridge difficult political and cultural divide.For school leaders in the South.especially in the last few years，this difficult job has been made harder by the negative attitudes of some locals towards immigrants. 11．According to the passage，what is the problem that public schools are facing? A．Handling more cases from the immigrant Mexican communities. B．Offering services to immigrant families in the southern states.
C．Offering enough communicative lessons to immigrant parents. D．Providing education for non－native English learners. 解析 细节理解题。 由第一段可知， 美国南部的公立学校面临着难以为日益增加的不懂 英语的移民子女提供足够的语言教育资源的问题。 答案 D 12．The underlined part “built from scratch” in Paragraph 2 probably means“________”． A．completely new B．painful to make C．based on past experience D．constructed gradually 解析 词义猜测题。 由画线部分后面的内容可以看出当地的教育主管部门面对这一状况 毫无经验，只能独立研究解决。故答案为 A 项。 答案 A 13．What is one of the things the school leaders have done to deal with the problem? A．Provide more Spanish－only classes. B．Invite more teachers from other places. C．Train their teachers to speak Spanish. D．Employ bilingual parents as part－time teachers. 解析 细节理解题。由第二段可知，当地的教育主管部门除了培训本地教师，还从其他 地区引进教师。 答案 B 14．What do we know about the immigrant parents? A．Many of them cannot speak English. B．Most of them think education is not important. C．Some of them feel skeptical about the local community. D．Few of them have attended American schools. 解析 推理判断题。由第三段可推知，很多移民家庭中的家长不会说英语。 答案 A 15．According to Paragraph 3，what has caused some of the recent complaints by Latino students? A．Discrimination by schools. B．Unfriendliness of the locals. C．Miscommunication with parents. D．Poor government service. 解析 细节理解题。由第三段最后一句可知答案为 C 项。 答案 C
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