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时间状语从句-高中(clause of time)
1.引导时间状语从句的从属连词分类; 2.易混淆连词的辨析 3.倒装

1. 【09 福建】She had just finished her homework piano yesterday. A. when B. while C. after D. since 2.【2012 山东卷】He smiled politely ______ Mary apologized for her drunken friends. A. as A. when A. when B. if C. unless D. though D. since he is ready for his new job. 3.【2011 四川卷 6】As it reported, it is 100 years _____Qinghua University was founded. B. before C. after 4. 【10 ? 陕西】John thinks it won’t be long B. after C. before D. since her mother asked her to practice playing the

5.【2012 全国 II】I had hardly got to the office ______ my wife phoned me to go back home at once. A. when B. than C. until D. after 1. 【答案】A 【解析】根据主从句的动词时态可知主句谓语动词的动作在从句谓语动词之前已经完成, 引导词的意思是: 当??的时候, 选 A。 2.【答案】A 【解析】此处是 as 引导这个时间状语从句,这里 smile 和 apologize 同时进行,as 意为:当?的时候。句意:当 玛丽为她喝醉了朋友道歉时,他礼貌地微笑着。 3.【答案】D 【解析】“It is + 时间段 +since + 从句(谓语为一般过去时)”为固定句型,故答案选 D。句意为:“正如所 报道的那样,自从清华大学建校以来已有 100 年时间了。” 4. 【答案】C 【解析】所填词引导状语从句, 构成 It(will)be+时间段+状语从句, 意思是:过多久才将......, 选 C。 5.【答案】A 【解析】此题较易。只要辨认出固定句型 hardly?when?问题即刻解决。句意:我刚到办公室,我妻子就给我打 电话让我立刻回家。 【考点定位】考查固定句型 hardly?when?的用法。

一、从属连词分类: 1. 基本类 包括 when, while, as, before, after, since, till, until, once, as soon as 等。 Did anyone call when I was out? 我不在家时谁来过电话吗? We have known each other since we were children. 我们从小认识。 You’ll feel better after you take the pills. 吃完药丸后你会感到好一些。 Make sure that all the lights are off before you go to bed. 睡觉前一定要关灯。

2. 名词类 包括(表示一?就?)the moment, the minute, the second, the instant , every time,each time,(the) next time,any time,the last time,the first time 等。 Tell me the moment (that) you get the results. 你一拿到结果就给我打电话。 Next time you come in, please close the door. 下次你进来,请关门。 He felt nervous each time she spoke to him. 每次她和他讲话,他都感到紧张。 The last time we talked he said he needed another two days. 上次我们谈话时他说他还需要两天。 3. 副词类 如 immediately, directly, instantly 等。如: I came immediately you called. 你一打电话我就来了。 Directly I walked in the door I smelt smoke. 我一进门就闻到烟味。 4. 句型类 包括 no sooner?than, hardly/ scarcely?when 等。如: I had no sooner closed the door than somebody knocked. 我刚把门关上就有人敲门。 Hardly were the words uttered when he began to regret them. 话刚说出口他就开始后悔了。 二、易混淆从属连词辨析 (一) When, while, as (1) when 既可引导一个持续动作,也可引导一个短暂动作,可用于主句动作和从句动作同时发生,也可用于从句 动作先于主句动作发生。 When the film ended,the people went back.电影一结束,看电影的人便回去了。 Most of the guests had left when he arrived at the party. Sorry,I was out when you called me.(call 为短暂性动词)对不起,你打电话时我刚好外出了。 When he had finished his homework,he took a short rest.(finished 先发生)当他完成作业后,他休息了 一会儿。 When I got to the airport,the guests had left.(got to 后发生)当我赶到飞机场时,客人们已经离开了。 注意:?表示“每当?的时候”(暗示一种规律性),一般要用 when: It’s cold when it snows. 下雪时天冷。 He smiles when you praise him. 你夸奖他时他总是笑笑。 ?when 可用作并列连词,表示“这时(突然)”; We were about to start when it began to rain. 我们正要出发,这时天开始下雨了。 ?在将来时从句中,常用 when,且从句须用一般时代替将来时。主将从现原则 You shall borrow the book when I have finished reading it.在我读完这本书后,你可以借阅。 When the manager comes here for a visit next week,I’ll talk with him about this.下周,经理来这参 观时,我会和他谈谈此事。 高考链接: 1.(2011 浙江高考)One Friday ,we were packing to leave for a weekend away _______my daughter heard cries for help. A. after B. while C. since D. when 2.(2010 全国卷 II 高考)Tom was about to close the windows _____his attention was caught by a bird. A. when B. if C. and D. till 3.(2010 四川卷 20) Because of the heavy traffic, it was already time for lunch break ______she got to her office. A. since B. that C. when D. until (2)从属连词 while 引导的的动作必须是持续性的,不能和瞬间性动词连用。侧重主句动作和从句动作相对比。 Please don't talk so loud while others are working .别人在工作时,请别高声谈话。

While he was watching TV, the boy fell asleep. While Mary was writing a letter, the children were playing outside. He is a worker, while his sister is a doctor. Don’t talk while you’re eating. 吃饭时不要说话。 I kept silent while he was writing. 在他写的时候,我默不做声。 注意:while 也可以用作并列连词,表示“而”、“却”(表示对比)。 He likes coffee, while she likes tea. 他喜欢咖啡,而她却喜欢茶。 高考链接: 1.(2011 陕西高考)_________all of them are strong candidates, only one will be chosen for the post. A. Since B. While C. If D. As 2.(2011 北京高考)_______ volleyball is her main focus, she’s also great at basketball. A. Since B. Once C. Unless D. While 3.(2010 全国卷 I 高考) Mary made coffee _________ her guests were finishing their meal. A. so that B. although C. while D. as if 4.(2009.安徽高考)–I wonder how much you charge for your services. -- The first two are free ____ the third costs $30. A. while B. until C. when D. before 5.(2009.辽宁高考) It just isn’t fair_____ I was working as a waiter last month; my friends were lying on the beach. A whenever B. though C. for D. while (3) as 引导一个时间状语从句,其动作为持续性动作,多用于主句和从句动作交替进行或同时发生,可翻译为 “一边??,一边??”或者“随着时间的推移”。 As time goes on ,it's getting warmer and warmer.随着时间的推移,天气越来越暖和了。 As the time went on,the weather got worse.(as 表示“随着??”之意) The atmosphere gets thinner and thinner as the height increases.随着高度的增加,大气越来越稀薄。 As years go by,China is getting stronger and richer.随着时间一年一年过去,中国变得越来越富强了。 He hurried home, looking behind as he went. She wept as she spoke.她边说边哭 He looked behind from to time as he went.他一边走,一边不时地往后看 高考链接: Jenny was very sad over the loss of the photos she had shot at Canada, _____ this was a memory she especially treasured.(06 广东) A. as B. if C. when D. where (4)如果主句表示的是短暂动作,而从句用延续性动词的进行时态表示在一段时间内正在进行的动作,此时 when, while 与 as 可互换使用。 He fell asleep when [while, as] he was reading.(read 为延续性动词)他看书时睡着了。 When /While /As we were dancing,a stranger came in.(dance 为延续性动词)当我们跳舞时,一位陌生人走了 进来。 When /While /As she was making a phone call,I was writing a letter.(make 为延续性动词)当她在打电话 时,我正在写信。

When/While/ As I was walking down the street, I came across an old friend of mine. (二)Before 和 after 表示“在?之前(或之后)” 这两个连词大家貌似很熟,但其实是历年高考中大家最容易犯错的两个连词。例如可以试问自己下:before 后面 接先发生动作后发生动作?after 后面接先发生后发生?摸清动作发生的先后顺序。牢记‘前’(before)接后, ‘后’(after)接前 这样的口诀。 (三)Before 和 Since (1) before 有时可译为“还没??就“。 He had measured me before I could say a word. 我还没来得及说话.他就给我最好了尺寸。 I hadn't waited long before he came. 我还没等多久他就来了。 I slipped out before the lecture started. 还没等讲座开始我就溜了出去。 before 也可用于 it 结构,与 since 结构比较相似,注意它们所用时态的区别。 其结构是:It will be + 段时间 + before sb. does sth.表将来 或 It was + 段时间 + before sb. did sth.表过去 常译作“还要多久才??”。 He is leaving for Australia and it will be three years before he comes back. 他要去澳大利亚了,3 年 后才会回来。 During the war he joined the army and it was three years before he came back. 战争期间他参了军,3 年 后才回来。 (2)Since 自....以来 1)若 since 引导的状语从句的谓语动词是终止性动词(如 go,come,leave,start,begin 等)的过去时,则从句 表示的时间是“从该动作开始的那一时刻起”。这是最常见的一种用法。 He has studied very hard since he came to our school.自从来到我们学校, 他学习就非常努力。 Great changes have taken place in our school since you left.自从你离开这里, 我们学校发生了很大的变 化。 2) 若 since 引导的状语从句的谓语动词是持续性动词或表示状态的静态动词(如 live,stay,study,learn, smoke, be 等)的过去时,则从句表示的时间是“从该动作或状态的完成或结束时算起”。 I haven’t heard from him since he lived here.从他不住这儿起, 我一直没有收到他的信。 I haven’t eaten snakes since I was a student at school.was 表示状态 I haven’t eaten snakes since I left school.自从我毕业后就一直没吃过蛇。 试比较: He has written to me frequently since I was ill.自从我病愈以来,他经常给我写信。(从句谓语为状态动词) He has written to me frequently since I fell ill.自从我生病以来, 他经常给我写信。(从句谓语为终止性 动词) 3) 若 since 引导的状语从句的谓语为持续性动词或静态动词的现在完成时,则表示动作和状态延续到现在(说话 时刻), 其表示的时间的起点应从动作发生之时算起。 He has written to me frequently since I have been ill.这里 have been ill 表示状态的持续性,时间的起 点应从:“开始生病”时算起。“自从我生病以来, 他经常给我写信。” 试比较: I’ve written her 20 letters since I have been here.自从我来到这,我已经给她写了 20 封信。 (从开始算起)

I’ve written her 20 letters since I was here.自从我离开这儿,我已经给她写了 20 封信。 (从结束算起) 4) It is + 段时间 + since sb. did sth. It has been + 段时间 + since have done sth. 表示“从??起已有多长时间了”。 两句型意思相同, 前者是规范说法, 后者是口语说法。 用法:since 从句中常用一般过去时,若从句中是持续性动词的一般过去时,则表示该动作结束有多长时间了。 It is three years since he smoked.他不吸烟已有 3 年了。 试比较: It is three years since he began to smoke. It is three years since he has smoked. 两句均意为:他吸烟已有 3 年了。 注意:在这种结构中,since 引导的从句绝对不能用否定式的谓语动词来表示否定意义, 试比较:他好久没学汉语了。 误:It is a long time since be didn’t study Chinese. 正:It’s a long time since he studied Chinese. (studied 为持续性动词, 应从其动作结束时算起) (四)Till,until 和 not?until 无论肯定句还是否定句,until 的意思都是“过则反主”,即“过了从句所发生的动作后,则发生与主句相反的动 作”。 The baby won't stop crying until his mother tells him a story. 过了他妈给他讲故事这个动作时间,小孩儿就停止哭泣了,但主句说不会停哭,所以选择 until。 1)肯定形式表示的意思是"做某事直至某时",动词必须是延续性的。 正确使用这两个连词的关键之一就在于判断句中的动词该用肯定式还是否定式。 肯定句:I slept until midnight. 我一直睡到半夜时醒了。 2)否定形式表达的意思是"直至某时才做某事"。动词为延续性或非延续性都可以。 否定句:She didn't arrive until 6 o'clock. 她直到 6 点才到。 Don't get off the bus until it has stopped. 公共汽车停稳后再下车。 I didn't manage to do it until you had explained how. 直到你教我后,我才会做。 3)区别:until 可用于句首,而 till 通常不用于句首。 Until you told me, I had heard nothing of what happened. 直到你告诉我以前,出了什么事我一点也不知道。 4)否定句可用另外两种句式表示。 Not until?在句首,主句用倒装. Not until I began to work did I realize how much time I had wasted. 直到工作,才认识到我已蹉跎了几多岁月。 (五)表示"一?就?"的结构 as soon as, the moment, the minute, the instant, once, immediately, directly, instantly(从句中用一 般时态代替将来时态) As soon as I got home, it began to rain.

Tell him the news as soon as you see him. The moment I heard the voice, I knew my father is coming. The boy burst into tears immediately he saw his mother. hardly/scarcely?when, no sooner?than(hardly/scarcely 与 no sooner 引导的句子的谓语动词用过去完成时, 而 when 与 then 引导的句子的谓语动词用一般过去时)如果 hardly, scarcely 或 no sooner 置于句首,句子必须 用倒装结构。 I had hardly / scarcely got home when it began to rain. I had no sooner got home than it began to rain. sb.had hardly/scarcely done sth.when... =Hardly / Scarcely had sb.done sth.when... I had hardly /scarcely closed my eyes when someone knocked at the door. =Hardly / Scarcely had I closed my eyes when someone knocked at the door.我刚一闭上眼,就有人在 敲门了。 I had hardly /scarcely entered my room when the telephone rang. =Hardly /Scarcely had I entered my room when the telephone rang.我刚一走进房门,电话就响了。

1.We were swimming in the lake_____suddenly the storm started.(2004 北京春 26) A.when B.while C.until D.before

2.It was evening____ we reached the little town of Winchester.(2004 天津 32) A.that B.until C.since D.before

3.You can eat food free in my restaurant_____you like.(2004 重庆 21) A.whenever B.wherever C.whatever D.however 4.Scientists say it may be five or six years______it is possible to test this medicine on human patients.(2004 福建 31) A.since B.after C.before D.when

5.We told that we should follow the main road_____we reached the central railway station.(2004 辽宁 27) A.whenever B.until C.while D.wherever 6.It is almost five years____we saw each other last time.(2005 北京 23) A.before B.since C.after D.when

7.Simon thought his computer was broken______his little brother pointed out that he had forgotten t o turn it on.(2005 北京春 35)


B.unless C.after


8.The American Civil War lasted four years_____the North won in the end.(2005 广东 30) A.after B.before C.when D.then

9.--Did Jack come back early last night? --Yes. It was not yet eight o'clock_____he arrived home. (2005 福建 24) A.before B.when C.that D.until

10.“You can't have this football back_____you promise not to kick it at my cat again.” the old man said firmly.(2006 广东 31) A.because B.since C.when D.until

11.I had just stepped out of the bathroom and was busily drying myself with a towel____I heard the steps.(2006 湖南 31) A.while B.when C.since D.after

12.--How long do you think it will be___China sends a manned spaceship to the moon? --Perhaps two or three years.(2006 福建 25) A.when B.until C.that D.before 13.--Why didn't you tell him about the meeting? --He rushed out of the room____I could say a word. (2006 四川 35) A.before B.until C.when D.after


1. It was quiet ________ those big trucks started coming through the town. A. before B. after C. until D. unless 2. It seemed only seconds ________ the boy finished washing his face. A. when B. before C. after D. even if 3. Hardly had he reached the school gate ________ the bell rang. A. while B. when C. as D. as soon as 4.We were told that we should follow the main road _____ we reached the central railway station. A. whenever B. until C. while D. wherever

5. I recognized you ________ I saw you at the airport. A. the moment B. while C. after D. once 6. He was about to go to bed ________ the doorbell rang. A. while B. as C. before D. when 7.________I listen to your advice, I get into trouble. A. Every time B. When C. While D. Until 8. _____ John was watching TV, his wife was cooking. A. As B. As soon as C. While D. Till 9. The children ran away from the orchard(果园) ______ they saw the guard. A. the moment B. after C. before D. as 10. No sooner had I arrived home _____ it began to rain. A. when B. while C. as D. than 11. Several weeks had gone by _____ I realized the painting was missing. A. as B. before C. since D. when 12. It _____ long before we ____ the result of the experiment. A. will not be; will know B. is; will know C. will not be; know 13. –What was the party like? --Wonderful. It’s years _____ I enjoyed myself so much. A. after B. before C. when D. since 14. The new secretary is supposed to report to the manager as soon as she_____. A. will arrive B. arrives C. is going to arrive D. is arriving 15. _____ got into the room _____ the telephone rang. A. He hardly had; then B. Hardly had he; when C. He had not; then D. Not had he; when 16. No sooner had he finished his talk _____ he was surrounded by the workers. A. as B. then C. than D. when 17. –Did you remember to give Mary the money you owed her? --Yes, I gave it to her _____ I saw her. A. while B. the moment C. suddenly D. once 18. I thought her nice and honest _____ I met her.

D. is; know

A. first time B. for the first time C. the first time D. by the first time 19. He will have learned English for eight years by the time he _____ from the university next year. A. will graduate B. will have graduated C. graduates D. is to graduate 20. The moment the 28th Olympic Games _____ open, the whole world cheered. A. declared B. have been declared C. have declared D. were declared 答案:1-5 CBBBA 6-10 DACAD 11-15 BCDBB 16-20 CBCCD




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