高考英语专题 情态动词 一、情态动词的基本用法 1．can 和 could( could 为 can 的过去式)的基本用法 (1)表示能力； (2)在疑问句和否定句中表示―怀疑，猜测‖或―可能性‖； (3)表示―许可‖时 can 可以和 may 换用； (4)如果要表示委婉的语气，可用 could 代替 can，这时 could 不再是 can 的过去式； (5)can 和 be
able to 都可表示能力。但是 can 只有现在式和过去式，而 be able to 则有更多的形式；can 表示有能力 做某事，而 be able to 则表示通过努力，克服困难做成某事。 (6) ―can not but＋动词原形‖表示―不得不，只好‖。 如：I can not but choose to go. 我只好去。 (7) cannot(或 never 等否定词)与 enough 连用表示―再……也不为过‖。 如：You cannot be careful enough to cross the road.过马路时你怎么小心都不为过。 (8) ―can not ……too…‖表示―无论怎么都不过分，越……越好‖ 2．may 和 might( might 为 may 的过去式)的基本用法 (1)表示允许或征询对方许可，有―可以‖之意。如：You may use my dictionary. 在回答对方说―可以做某事‖或―不可以做某事‖时，一般不用 may 或 may not，以避免语气生硬，而是用比较婉转的 说法进行回答。 如：—May I use this dictionary？—Yes，please.或—I'm afraid not. 在请求对方许可时，如果用 Might I．..就比用 May I．..语气更婉转些。 如：Might I have a look at your new computer？ 但是表示―阻止‖或―禁止‖对方做某事时，要用 must not 代替 may not。 如：—May I swim in this lake？—No，you mustn't. It's too dangerous. (2)may 和 might 都可以表示可能性，表示―或许，可能‖之意， 如果用 might 表示可能性，则语气更加不肯定。 如：They may(might)be in the library now. (3)―may well＋动词原形‖是一种常用结构，意为―完全能，很可能‖，相当于 be very likely to。 如：He may well be proud of his son.他大可为他的儿子感到自豪。 (4)―may/might as well＋动词原形‖意为―最好，满可以，不如‖。 如：You may as well do it at once.你最好马上就做这件事。 (5)may 可以用于祈使句中，表示祝愿。 如：May we never forget each other.愿我们彼此永不相忘。 3．must 的基本用法 (1)must 表示―必须，应该‖之意，其否定式为 must not，缩写形式为 mustn’t，表示―不准，不许可，禁止‖之意。 如：We must study hard and make progress every day./You mustn't touch the fire. (2)对以 must 开头的疑问句作否定回答时，要用 needn’t 或 don’t (doesn’t) have to，而不用 mustn’t， (3)在肯定句中 must 可以表示推测，表示―一定，必定‖之意。 如：—Whose new bike can it be? —It must be Liu Dong’s.His father just bought him a new one. (4) must 表示―偏要、硬要(做某事)‖。 如：Must you make so much noise?你非得弄出这么多噪音吗？ (5) mustn’t 表示的是―禁止，不许可‖之意。 如：—Must we finish the work tomorrow？—No，you needn't(don’t have to)，but you must finish it in three days. （6）must 没有人称、数、时态的变化 4．have to 的基本用法 have to 和 must 的意思相近，只是 must 侧重表示说话人的主观看法，而 have to 则表示客观需要。 如：I must study hard./I had to give it up because of illness. 5．ought to 的基本用法
(1)表示义务，意为―应当‖，语气比 should 强。 如：Everyone ought to obey the traffic regulations. (2)表示推测，注意与 must 表示推测时的区别：He must be home by now.(断定他已到家)/He ought to be home by now.(不十分肯定)/This is where the oil must be.(比较直率)/This is where the oil ought to be.(比较含蓄) (3)在美国英语中 ought to 用于否定句和疑问句时 to 可以省略。 如：Ought you smoke so much？/You oughtn't smoke so much. 6．dare 的基本用法 (1)dare 作情态动词时，主要用于否定句、疑问句和条件句中。 如：Dare he break the traffic regulations again? (2)在现代英语中 dare 常作实义动词，其用法与其他实义动词相同。 如：She dares to stay at home alone at night. 7．need 的基本用法 (1)need 作情态动词时，主要用于否定句和疑问句和条件句中。 如：He needn't worry about us now. (2)need 也作实义动词，用于肯定句、否定句和疑问句，其后可接名词、代词、动名词或带 to 的动词不定式作宾语。 如：You need to practise reading aloud every day. 8．shall 的基本用法 (1)shall 用于第二、第三人称时，表示说话人的意愿，可表示命令、警告、强制、威胁或允诺等。 如：He shall go first，whether he wants to or not. (2)在疑问句中，shall 用于第一、第三人称，表示说话人征询对方意见或请求指示。 如：Shall I open the door? 当颁布法律、规定时，也要用 shall。 如：You shall leave the room at once，and he also shall.(＝I order you and him to leave the room at once.)(说话者的命令) (3)在比较正式的书面语中，如法律条文中所规定的权利或义务往往用 shall 来表示。 9．should 的基本用法 (1)should 可以表示建议或劝告，表示―应该、理应‖之意。 如：You should learn from each other. (2)should 可以用在条件状语从句中，表示语气较强的假设，译作―万一，竟然‖，这时也可将 should 置于从句之首 即将 should 放在主语前面，而省略 if。 如：If anyone should come(＝Should anyone come)，say I am not at home.万一有人来访，就说我不在家。 (3)should 还可以表示谦逊、客气、委婉之意，译为―可……，倒……‖。 如：I should say that it would be better to try it again.我倒是认为最好再试一试。 10．will 的基本用法 (1)用于各种人称，可以表示意志或决心。 如：I have told him again and again to stop smoking，but he will not listen. (2)在疑问句中，用于第二人称，表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问对方的意愿。 如：Will you please tell me how to get to the Capital Gynmasium? (3)will 可以表示一种习惯性的动作，有―总是‖或―总要‖之意。 如：Every morning he will have a walk along this river. （4）表示过去反复发生的动作或某种倾向 11．would 的基本用法 (1)would 作为 will 的过去式时，可用于各种人称，表示过去的意志或决心。 如：He promised he would never smoke again. (2)在疑问句中，用于第二人称，表示说话人向对方提出请求或询问对方的意愿，语气比 will 委婉。 如：Would you like some more coffee? (3)在日常生活中，用―I would like to...‖表示―我想要‖或―我愿意‖之意，以使语气委婉。
如：I would like to do Exercise 2 first. (4)would 可以表示过去的习惯性动作，比 used to 正式，但没有―现已无此习惯‖的含义。 如：Last year our English teacher would sometimes tell us stories in English after class. (5)表猜测。 如：It would be about ten when he left home./What would she be doing there？/I thought he would have told you about it. 12．used to，had better，would rather 的基本用法 (1)used to 表示过去的习惯性动作或状态，现在已不存在。 在间接引语中，其形式可以不变。如：He told us he used to play football when he was young. 在疑问句、否定句、否定疑问句中，可有两种形式。 疑问句：Did you use to/Used you to go to the same school as your brother？ 否定句：I usedn’t to/didn’t use to go there.否定疑问句：Usen’t you to/Didn’t you use to be interested in the theatre？ 在其反意疑问句或简略回答中，也有两种形式。 如：She used to be very fat，didn’t/use(d)n’t she？/—Used you to get up early in the morning？—Yes，I did/used to. (2)had better 意为―最好‖，后接不带 to 的不定式。如：—We had better go now.—Yes，we had(we’d better/we had better)． /Hadn’t we better stop now？(Had we better not stop now？)/I think I'd better be going.(进行时态，表示―最好立即‖) /You had better have done that.(用于完成时态，表示未完成的动作) had better 对同辈或晚辈使用，对长辈不可用。 (3)would rather 意为―宁愿‖，后接不带 to 的不定式。如：I’d rather not say anything./Would you rather work on a farm？ /—Wouldn’t you rather stay here？—No，I would not.I’d rather go there.would rather 表选择，其后可接 than。 如：I would rather work on a farm than in a factory./I would rather watch TV than go to see a film. 二、情态动词+have done 情态动词＋完成式 用法 例句 must have done The lights were out. They must have been asleep. can/could have done 表示对过去发生的行为的怀疑和不肯定，通常用在否定句和疑问句中。 ①I saw Mr.Wang just now. He couldn't have gone to Beijing.②Can he have gone to his uncle's？ could have done 可用于肯定句中，表示对过去没有实现的事情的遗憾或责备，意为―本来可以，本能够……‖。 You could have done better, but you were too careless. may/might (not) have done 表示对过去已发生行为的推测，用于肯定句中，表示―也许已经……‖；在否定句中表示―可能 不‖，不用于疑问句中。用 might 则表示语气更加不肯定。 ①It's too late. I think he may have gone to bed. ②He may not have finished the work. ③She might have caught a cold. should/ought (not)to have done 肯定句中，表示―本该做某事而实际上未做‖；用于否定句中，则表示―不该做的事反而做了‖。 ①You should have come to the meeting earlier.②He ought not to have treated his parents like that. need/needn't have done 肯定式表示―本来有必要做某事‖；否定式表示―做了本来不必去做的事‖。 You needn't have taken a taxi, for it was very near. had better have done 用于事后的建议，含轻微责备的口吻，意为―当时最好做了某事‖，其否定式 had better not have done 表达相反的含义。 You'd better not have scolded her. would rather have done 表―当时宁愿做了某事‖表示―后悔‖之意。 I would rather have taken her advice.
专项练习（一） 1. I _______ you, because I thought I must be wrong. A. dare not ask B. dare not to ask C. dare not asking D. dare to not ask 2. There __________ some flowers in the garden. A. were used to be B. used to be C. uses to be D. used to be having 3. ―_____ I take it out?‖ ―I?m sorry, you ____.‖ A. Could …couldn?t B. Might…might not C. Could…can D. May…can?t 4. You were stupid to climb the tree. You __________ hurt yourself. A. may B. might C. will D. might have 5. You ______ those letters. Why didn? t you ? A. should post B. should have posted C. must have posted D. ought to post. 6. All the lights are on, the Smiths __________ up. A. must get B. is getting C. must be getting D. would get 7. He __________ lead a horse to the water but he __________ not make it drink. A. will…can B. may…can C. may…dares D. dare…can 8. ―Need we do this job now?‖ ―Yes, __________.‖ A. you need B. you should C. you must D. you can 9. ________ to have lunch with us today? A. Do you likes B. Would you like C. Will you liked D. Have you liked 10. He said that you _______ watch TV all the evening if you wished. A. may B. must C. can D. might 11. –Is John coming by train? --He should, but he __________ not. He likes driving his car. A. must B. can C. need D. may 12. Peter __________ come with us tonight, but he isn? t very sure yet. A. must B. can C. may D. will 13. Michael ________ be a policeman, for he? s much too short. A. needn? t B. can? t C. shouldn? t D. won? t 14. I thought you ______be hungry, so I have brought you some cakes. A. may B. might C. can D. could 15. I wonder how he __________ that to the teacher. A. dare to say B. dare saying C. not dare say D. dared say 16. Come on! We _________hurry because there isn? t much time left. A. may B. must C. can D. need 17. Amy did best in the English test. She __________ hard last week. A. must have working B. should have worked C. should work D. must work 18. The fire spread through the hotel very quickly but everyone __________ get out. A. had to B. would C. could D. was able to 19. –--I stayed at a hotel while in New York. ---Oh, did you? You __________ with Barbara. A. could have stayed B. could stay C. would stay D. must have stayed 20. It? s nearly seven o? clock. Jack ______ be here at any moment. A. must B. need C. should D. can
专项练习（二） 1. Jean _________ have kept his promise. I wonder why he changed his idea. 2. A. must B. should C. need D. would 2. Jane ________have come to the party, but she __________ not find the exact time. A. could; could B. might; could C. should; could D. should; would 3. So many mistakes in your homework! You_____more careful. A. may be B. had to C. would be D. should have been 4．Her brother ________ be at home now, because he was seen playing basketball in the stadium just now. A. mustn’t B. needn’t C. can’t D. shouldn't 5．---I can’t understand why our boss is late. ---He________ the early bus. A. could miss B. may have missed C. can have missed D. might miss 6. She didn't answer the phone, she ______ asleep. A. may be B. must be C. should have been D. must have been 7．The little girl’s eyes were red. She ______. A. may cry B. must cry C. must be cried D. must have been crying 8．He______ his supper now, for the dining hall is still closed. A. can’t be having B. needn’t be having C. mustn’t be having D. shouldn't be having 9．I parked my bike behind the building, but now it is gone. It ________ . A. may be stolen B. must be stolen C. must have been stolen D. must have stolen 10. ______ Mr. Black_______go to work by ferry before the bridge was built? A. Did; used to B. Use; to C. Did; use to D. Does; use to 11. The hotel is only a stone’s throw away, you ______ take a bus. A. need not to B. not need to C. don't need D. need not 12. I am busy now, _______ my brother do it for you ?A. Will B. Shall C. Must 13. ---You needn’t do it right now, need you?---Yes I am afraid I ______ . A. need B. needn’t C. must D. mustn’t 14.My English-Chinese dictionary has disappeared . Who _____ have taken it? A. should B. must C. could D. would 15. ---The room is so dirty._______ we clean it?----Of course. A． Will B. Shall C. Would D. Do 16. If you have something important to do, you ______ waste any time. A. needn’t B. mustn’t C. may not D. won’t 17. If you want to borrow a football after school, your student card______ here. A. has to leave B. must leave C. has to be left D. must be left 18. ― Did you scold him for his carelessness?‖ ―Yes, but _____ it‖ A. I’d rather not do B. I’d rather not have done C. I shouldn’t do D. I’d better not do 19. ― Don’t get near to it . It is too dangerous!‖ ―_______‖ . A. Yes, I won’t B. No, I don’t C. No, I can’t D. No, I won’t 20. He must be in the classroom, _______ he? A. mustn’t B. can’t C. isn’t D.can 21. He________ be in the garden. He must be in the room. A. can’t B. mustn’t C. will not D. may not 22. ―Do you have to leave now?‖ ―I am very sorry, but I really______.‖ A. can’t B. have C. should D. must 23. ―Let’s go to the library, shall we?‖ ―_________?‖ A. No, I can’t B. Yes, I will C. Yes , thank you D. No, we’d better not
24. ―Can I take it away?‖ ― You ______ better not.‖A. should B. could C. would D. had 25. You _______ have brought your camera. They all had theirs with them. A. couldn’t B. needn’t C. wouldn’t D. mustn’t 26. See who is there!______it be May? A. May B. Must C. Can D. Will 27. John______ be a basketball player. He is much too short. A. may B. mustn’t C. can’t D. should 28. The Chinese teacher looks so pale. She ______ be ill. A. must B. mustn’t C. can D. need 29. Something______to save our earth. Do you think so? A. can do B. must do C. has to do D. must be done 30. Look at what you have done! You ______ be more careful. A. ought B. can C. would D. should 专项练习（三） 1. — Has Li Lin started? He said he would join in the party.— He ______. He is a man of keeping his word. A. could have left B. must have left C. can’t come D. won’t be coming 2. — May I park my car here?— No, you ______. No car is allowed to park here. A. may not B. needn’t C. mustn’t D. daren’t 3. — Excuse me, could you tell me where the Yajia Supermarket is?— It’s two blocks straight ahead. You ______ miss it .A. mustn’t B. can’t C. needn’t D. shouldn’t 4. — I saw Mr. Sun at Tongyu Station this morning. — You ______. He’s still on holiday in Hawaii. A. couldn’t have B. mustn’t have C. shouldn’t D. needn’t 5. — How about paying a visit to Dr. Wang, our former Chinese teacher?— Good idea. I will e-mail him today so that he ______ know ______ to expect us. A. shall; why B. could; when C. would; what D. will; how 6. Everything has two sides. Beautiful songs, sometimes, ______ be just noise to others. A. must B. may C. should D. could 7. Someone ______ my umbrella. I found it wet yesterday. A. must be using B. must have used C. must use D. must have been using 8. — How dangerous it was!— Yes, but for the passer-by’s quick action, the girl ______. A. was drowned B. could have been drowned C. had drowned D. should be drowned 9. You ____ scold such a pupil who always keeps silent so seriously that you _____ hurt him. A. should; can B. may; will C. mustn’t; may D. can’t; must 10. — Why does Alice know so much about Angkor Wat?— She ______ have been there, or ... A. must B. oughtn’t to C. may D. can’t 11. — You may laugh, but I’ve been thinking of becoming a vegetarian.— Oh, you ______ be crazy. You will be hungry all the time. A. must B. may C. will D. need 12. — What’s the matter with you?— Oh, I’m not feeling well in the stomach. I ______ so much fried fish just now. A. shouldn’t eat B. mustn’t have eaten C. shouldn’t have eaten D. mustn’t eat 13. — ______ he have been chosen as captain of the football team?— Yes, he ______. A. Can; must have B. Must; must have C. Can; must D. Must; must 14. Mr. Zhang ______ in Shanghai tomorrow morning. A. can have arrived B. will have arrived C. may have arrived D. must have arrived 15. Miss Wang started at 8 o’clock, and she ______ be there now.
A. should B. can C. can’t D. need 16. — It must be Mr. Li who did it. — No, it ______ be Mr. Li. A. mustn’t B. wouldn’t C. can’t D. may 17. You ______ finish reading the book as soon as possible.A. may B. can C. need D. should 18. — Need you go to work now? — Yes, I ______. A. must B. need C. can D. dare 19. Your trousers are dirty. ______ them for you? A. Shall I wash B. Will I wash C. Am I going to wash D. Am I washing 20. You are late for school today. You ______ to school earlier. A. ought to come B. should have come C. ought have come D. should come 21. We must learn from Lei Feng, ______ we? A. may B. can’t C. don’t D. needn’t 22. She must be hungry, ______ she? A. isn’t B. needn’t C. doesn’t D won’t 23. He ought to come here early, ______ he? A. would B. should C. didn’t D. shouldn’t 24. You used to smoke, ______ you? A. used to B. don’t C. didn’t D. shouldn’t 25. You ought ______ for what you haven’t done .A. not to be punished B. not be punished C. to not punished D. to not be punished 26. ______ you please tell me the way to the post office? A. Must B. Need C. Would D. Should 27. I’m sure he ______ have the computer sooner or later. A. shall B. can C. must D. would 28. It is important that we ______ learn how to drive. A. have to B. should C. need D. shall
答案： 1.A2.B3.D4.D5.B6.C7.B8.C9.B10.D11.D12.C13.B14.B15.D16.B17.A18.D19.A20. 专项练习（二）1B2A3D4C5B6D7D8A9C10C11D12B13C14C15B16B17C18B19D20C21A22D23D24D25B26C27C28A29D30D 1.解析： 选 B. ―should have +过去分词‖ 表示―过去本来应该(但没能)做某事‖； keep one’s promise 意为―信守诺言‖。 2.解析： 选 A.― could have+过去分词表示过去本来应该(但 没能)做某事‖。 3.解析： 选 D. ―You should have been more careful‖. 意为： 你本来应该更细心的。 4． 解析： 选 C. can’t be at home 意为： 不可能在家。 5 解析： 选 B. ―may have+ 过去分词‖表示对过去动作的判断，意为：可能做了某事。 注意：can 表示可能时，只能用于疑问句和反问句。6.解析：选 D. 表示：对过去发生的事情的肯定推测。7．解 析：选 D. 意为：她刚才肯定一直在哭。对过去某事正发生的推测。8．解析：选 A. 对现在正在发生的事情的否定推测。9．解析：选 C. 对过去发生的事情 的肯定推测 的被动式。10.解析：选 C. used to do 的疑问式，可以是 Used+主语+to do ?或 Did +主语+use to do? 11.解析：选 D. 说话人认为不必要乘车, need 为情态动词。 12.解析：选 B. 在疑问句中 shall 用于第三人称，也表示征求意见。 13.解析：选 C. Yes 的意思是：不。意为：恐怕我必须现在就做。 14.解析：选 C. could/can have done 用于否定推测和疑问推测。 15.解析：选 B. shall 用在疑问句中，常用于第一，三人称， 表示征求意见或请求指示。 16.解析：选 B. 根据句意用 mustn’t 17.解析：选 C. have to 表示客观需要，must 表示主观需要。学生证必须放在此是客观需要。 18.解析：选 B. would rather 加完成时表示对完成了的或过去了的事情的态度。意为：当时是不情愿做的。 19.解析：选 D. A 为错误的表达方式；B 和 C 没有直接回答对方的问候。 20.解析：选 C. 对表否定的 must 进行反意疑问时，要用句子的实义动词 21.解析：选 A. 否定推测用 can’t 不用 mustn’t 22.解析：选 D. 回答 have to 的疑问句用 must 作肯定回答。 23.解析：选 D. A,B,C 都 不能回答 shall we, 此处 D 的语气比较婉转客气。 24.解析：选 D. had better 与不带 to 的不定式构成谓语，可以变成疑问句：Hadn’t you better---25. 解析：选 B. 本来不必要做某事. 26. l 解析：选 C. 表推测时 A，B 都用作疑问句。 27.解析：选 C. 断然的不定推测用 can’t 28.解析：选 A. 表示有把握的肯定推测用 must 29.解析：选 D. ―something must be done‖ 意为：必须采取措施。 30. 解析：选 D. ought 后应用 to （三）答案及解析：1. B。从 He is a man of keeping his word 中可以看出，李林肯定已经出发来参加聚会了，这是对已经发生的事情非常肯定的推测，故用 must have done。 注意 must 表推测时，不能用于否定句和疑问句中。2. C。此题考查以情态动词提问的一般疑问句的回答。在英语中，以某些情态动词提问的句子，出于礼貌委婉或句意 的需 要，回答时，要换用另一个情态动词。在回答 must 开头的一般疑问句时，肯定回答用 must，否定回答用 needn’t 或 don’t have to；在回答 may 开头的一般疑问句时， 肯定回答用 may，否定回答用 mustn’t；在回答 need 开头的一般疑问句时，肯定回答用 must，否定回答用 needn’t。3. B。根据题意，此处需要表示―推测‖的否定结构，故 can’t 为正确答案。4. A。这是一个省略句，couldn’t have done 表示对过去发生的动作的否定推测，意为―不可能……‖。5. B。这是一个综合题。本题 so that 后的目的状语 从句中的谓语动词要用―情态动词（ may / might / can / could ） + 动词原形‖。When to expect us 表示―我们什么时候可到达‖。―疑问词+不定式‖结构在句中作 know 的宾 语。6. B。由 sometimes 可知，此处应用表示可能性不大的情态动词，即 may。7. B。由后句可知，这是对过去发生的事情的肯定推测，故 B 项正确。8. B。but for 的意思 是―要不是‖，语法功能上等同于 if 引导的否定虚拟条件句，因前句中 How dangerous it was 可知应与过去事实相反。9. C。mustn’t 表示―不准许‖，may 表示可能性，所以 C 正确。10. C。句意：她或许到过那里，或者……。or ... 是重要的信息，说明还有其他的可能性。A 的说法太绝对，与 or ... 提供的信息冲突。11. A。must 表示的把握 最大，may 表示有可能，need 不表示推测，will 表示将来。根据句意可知 A 正确，表明对对方的不理解和责备，语气比较坚决。12. C。shouldn’t have done 表示―本不该 做……，但实际上却做了‖。13. A。疑问句中可以用 can, 肯定句用 must。14. B。will + have done，表示对将来必然进程的猜测。15. A。should 表示主观性猜测，译为―应 该‖。 16. C。can’t 表示否定的猜测，侧重于主观判断，译为―决不会；不可能‖。 17. D。should 表示劝告某人应该做某事。 18. A。need 引导的一般疑问句，肯定回答应 用 must。19. A。Shall I ... ？是征求对方意见时常用的句型。
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