Step Ⅲ Grammar Explain the usage of the past participles as predicative and attribute. 1. 过去分词作表语表示主语所处的状态。用作表语的过去分词大多来自及物动 词；不及物动词的过去分词能作表语的只限于少数表示位置转移的动词，如 go, come, 例如： The man looked quit
e disappointed. He is greatly discouraged by her refusal. His hair is nearly all gone. 已经形容词化了的过去分词大多可作表语，常见的有 accomplished, amazed, amused, astonished, broken, closed, completed, complicated, confused, crowded, devoted, disappointed, discouraged, drunk, excited, frightened, hurt, interested, 2. 过去分词作定语 a）用作前置定语的过去分词通常来自及物动词，带有被动意义和完成意义。例 如： We like skating in the frozen lake in the winter. =We like skating in the lake which has been frozen in the winter. How many finished products have you got up to now? =How many products that have been finished have you got up to now? 来自不及物动词的过去分词很少能单独用作前置定语， 能作这样用的仅限以下几 个词，这时仅表示完成意义，不表示被动意义。例如： a retired worker=a worker who has retired an escaped prisoner=a prisoner who has escaped a faded / withered flower=a flower that has faded / withered fallen leaves=leaves that have fallen the risen sun=the sun that has just risen
lost, satisfied, surprised, worried 等。
a returned student=a student who has returned
vanished treasure=treasure that has vanished b) 用作后置定语的过去分词通常也来自及物动词，表示被动意义和完成意义。 这时过去分词相当于一个定语从句。例如： Things seen are better than things heard. =Things which are seen are better than things which are heard. The lobster broiled over charcoal was delicious. =The lobster which was broiled over charcoal was delicious. Practice: 将下列句子译成英语。 1. 他看上去又累又沮丧. 2. 我们一得到补充资金,就继续我们的实验。 3. 我们可以看到被阳光照亮的月球的一部分. 4. 经过一个激动和无眠的夜晚之后，第二天我强迫自己在海滨走了很久. 5. 早在 1649 年,俄亥俄州就决定在每一个城镇建立免费的、 由税收支持的学校。 6. 彼得对这一切似乎很惊奇。 Sample answers: 1. He looked tired and depressed. 2. We will go on with our experiment as soon as we get the added fund. 3. We can see the part of the moon lighted by sunlight. 4. After a night spent in excitement and sleepless-ness, I forced myself to take a long walk along the beach the n ext day. 5. As early as in 1649, Ohio made a decision that free, tax-supported schools must be established in every town. 6. Peter was very amazed at all this.
高二英语必修五语法知识点第一讲、 过去分词做定语和表语。 同时我们对这个高二英语 必修五语法知识点配有同步练习题，在做试题中让同学们巩固这个英语语法知识点。 1.English is a widely used language. 2.He threw away the broken cup. 3.This is one of the schools built in 1980s. 4.Prices of daily goods bought through a computer can be lower than store prices. 单个过去分词作定语，常放在被修饰词的前面; 过去分词短语作定语，常放在被修饰词的后面。 spoken English = English which is spoken terrified people = the people who are terrified an organized way = a way that is organized affected area 灾区 = the area which is affected stolen culture relics = culture relics that had been stolen the book recommended by the teacher = the book which was recommended by the teacher printed articles = articles that are printed 1) Doctor John Snow was a well-known doctor in London. 定语 2) John Snow told the astonished people in Broad Street. 定语 3) He got interested in the two theories. 表语 4) Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood 表语 Past Participle as the Attribute 定语 Past Participle as the Predicative 表语
1.terrified people1.people who are terrified 2.reserved seats2.seats that are reserved 3.polluted water3.water that is polluted 4.a crowded room4.a room that is crowded 5.a pleased winner5.a winner that is pleased 6. Astonished children6.children who look astonished 7.a broken vase 7.a vase that is broken 8.a closed door8.a door that is closed 9.the tired audience9.the audience who feel tired 10.a trapped animal10.an animal that is trapped There are many fallen leaves on the ground. = There are many leaves which had fallen on the ground. (地上有许多落叶) Some of them, born and brought up in rural villages, had never been to Beijing. = Some of them , who had been born and brought up in rural villages, had never been to Beijing. (他们中的一些人，在农村出生并长大，从没去过北京) 及物动词的过去分词表示结束了的被动动作或者没有一定的时间性,只表示被动关系。 polluted water = water which is polluted reserved seats = the seats which were reserved trapped animal = the animal which was trapped 不及物动词的过去分词不表被动，只表示动作发生在谓语动词之前，含有动作完成， 动作结束之含义。 boiled water = water which has boiled
fallen leaves = the leaves which have fallen risen sun = the sun which has risen 过去分词作定语也可用作非限制性定语，前后用逗号隔开。 The books, written by Guo Jingming, are very popular with teenagers. 这些书 是郭敬明写的，深受青少年的喜爱。 Some of them, born and brought up in rural villages, had never been to Beijing. 他们中的一些人，在农村出生并长大，从没过北京. The book _written by the farmer (一本农民写的书) is very popular. The building built last year (去年建的楼房) now collapsed in the Wenchuan earthquake. The problem discussed at the meeting yesterday (在昨天会议上讨论的) was very difficult to solve. The window broken by that naughty boy 被那个顽皮男孩打破的) is being repaired. The children examined in the hospital yesterday 昨天在医院检查的) were seriously ill. The people exposed to the sun (暴露在阳光下的) got sunburnt. The boy punished severely by the teacher (受到老师严厉惩罚的) is now a college student. The water delivered to his home (送到他家的水) carried disease. The English today is quite different from the English spoken in the past 300 years (300 年前所说的). Most of the artists invited to the party (被邀请去参加聚会的) were from South Africa. The students inspired by the teacher (受到老师鼓舞的)worked harder than ever before. The Olympic Games, __A_ in 776 B.C. did not include women players until 1912.
A. first played B. to be first played C. first playing D. to be first playing ①过去分词做定语与其修饰词之间是动宾关系且过去分词表示的动作已完成。 ②现在分词作定语表示动作正在发生，与修饰词是主谓关系。 ③不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作。 first played in 776B.C. = which was first played in 776 B.C. Consolidation 巩固 1. Prices of daily goods ____ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying 2. With a lot of different problems ____, the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling C. to settle D. being settled 3. Don’t use words, expressions or phrases ____ only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known 4. When I got back, I saw a message ____ to the door____ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A. pin, read B. pinning, reading C. pinned, reading D. pinned, read 2)作表语 表示主语的心理感觉或所处的状态。许多动词的过去分词已经被当作形容词 使用。如：disappointed, excited, moved, puzzled, pleased, surprised, lost 等。 The window is broken. 窗户碎了。 Don’t get so excited. 别这么激动。
1.用作表语的过去分词被动意味很弱， 主要表示动作的完成和状态， 此时相当于一个形 容词。 2.被动语态的过去分词动词意味很强,句子主语为动作的承受者，后面常跟 by 短语。 ① The glass is broken. The glass was broken by Tom. ② The windows are closed. The windows are closed by Jack. 3.表示“感觉流露”的一些过去分词(如:interested, surprised, excited, frightened, shocked)和一些过去分词(如 dressed, drunk, devoted, lost, known)常用作表语,表示状态.其中有些仅表示状态,毫无被动意味。 ① How did the audience receive the new play? They got very excited. ② How did Bob do in the exams this time? Well, his father seems pleased with his results. ③ She was very disappointed to hear the result. ④ He’s quite experienced in teaching beginners. 作表语练习： Cleaning women in big cities usually get ________by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay 该题考查分词作表语的用法。“to pay sb. by the hour” 计时给某人报酬。此题被 动结构作表语。类似的有：get burnt, get hurt , get wounded. 1. The rooms are ____, so you can’t move in. A. painted B. painting C. being painted D. to be painted 2. As soon as he entered the city, he ____. A. was losing B. got losing C. grew lost D. got lost 3. What he has done is really ____.Now his parents
are _____ him. A. disappointing; disappointed at B. disappointing; disappointed about C. disappointing; disappointed with D. disappointed; disappointing by 现在分词和过去分词做定语的区别 现在分词表示主动意义，过去分词表示被动意义. 现在分词表示正在进行，过去分词表示状态或完成. a moving movie a moved audience boiling water boiled water 感人的电影 被感动的观众 正在烧(煮沸)的水 已煮沸的水
developing countries 反展中国家 developed countries 发达国家 falling leaves 落叶(正在进行) fallen leaves 落叶(已经完成) The child standing over there is my brother. The room facing south is our classroom. The book written by Lu Xun is very good. The road completed yesterday is leading to Tibet.
Ⅰ.单项填空 1．(2010 年高考北京卷)I’m calling to enquire about the position ________ in yesterday’s China Daily. A．advertised C．advertising B．to be advertised D．having advertised
2．(2010 年高考湖南卷)So far nobody has claimed the money ________ in the library. A．discovered B．to be discovered
C．discovering D．having discovered 3．(2010 年高考福建卷)In April，thousands of holidaymakers remained ________ abroad due to the volcanic ash cloud. A．sticking B．stuck
C．to be stuck D．to have stuck 4．(2010 年高考大纲全国卷Ⅰ)Mrs.White showed her students some old maps ________ from the library. A．to borrow B．to be borrowed C．borrowed D．borrowing 5．(2010 年高考四川卷)A great number of students ________ said they were forced to practise the piano. A．to question B．to be questioned C．questioned D．questioning 6．Those ________ by the teacher last night handed in their papers one by one. A．scolded B．being scolded
C．scolding D．having scolded 7．The computer centre，________ last year，is very popular among the students in this school. A．open B．opening
C．having opened D．opened 8．The Town Hall ________ in the 1800’s was the most distinguished building at that time.
A．to be completed B．having been completed C．completed D．being completed 9． (2010 年高考陕西卷)________ from the top of the tower， the south foot of the mountain is a sea of trees. A．Seen B．Seeing
C．Having seen D．To see 10． Tom sounds very much ________ in the job， but I’m not sure whether he can manage it. A．interested B．interesting
C．interestingly D．interestedly 11．Sarah，hurry up.I’m afraid you won’t have time to ________ before the party. A．get changed B．get change
C．get changing D．get to change 12．It is believed that if a book is ________，it will surely ________ the reader. A．interested；interest B．interesting；be interested C．interested；be interesting D．interesting；interest 13．Cleaning women in big cities usually get ________ by the hour. A．pay B．paying
C．paid D．to pay 14．Many things ________ impossible in the past are common today. A．being considered B．considering C．to be considered D．considered 15．—The man ________ in blue looks unhappy.What is the matter? —Because he feels ________ at his son’s failure.
A．dressed；disappointed B．dressing；disappointing C．dressing；disappointed D．dressed；disappointing Ⅱ.用括号里所给动词的适当形式填空 1．The Olympic Games，first ________(play)in 776 BC，did not include women players until 1912. 2． When they reached the railway station， the two boys got ________(separate)from their parents. 3．Most of the people ________(invite)to the conference were famous actors. 4．We finished the run in less than half the time ________(allow)． 5．It is one of the funniest things ________(find)on the Internet so far this year. 6．The children were ________(frighten)at the sad sight. 7．When they came to the village，they found all the doors were ________(lock)． 8．The people seemed terribly ________(shock)after the earthquake. 9．They had to adapt their thinking to the ________(change)conditions. 10．The concert ________(give)by their friends was a success.
答案： 1.解析：选 A。被修饰词是不定代词如 something，everything，anyone，nobody 等或指示 代词 those 时，单个分词作定语也要后置。根据 those 与 scold 之间的被动关系可排除选项 C 和 D；由 last night 可知分词表示动作已经发生，所以 A 项正确。 2.解析：选 C。考查非谓语动词作定语。question 与 students 之间存在被动关系，question 表示的动作也已完成，故用过去分词。 3.解析：选 C。句意：怀特夫人给她的学生们看了一些从图书馆里借来的旧地图。old maps 与 borrow 之间是被动关系，由句中的动词 showed 可知此动作已经发生，可排除不定式短 语作后置定语，即排除 A、B 两项；D 项表示主动或进行，也不符合语境；C 项表示被动或 完成，符合语境。 4.解析：选 B。句意：四月份，由于火山灰云的影响，成千上万的度假者被滞留在海外。空 格处用过去分词 stuck 表示“被卡住”，引申为“被滞留”，符合句意；现在分词表示动作正在 进行；动词不定式表示将要发生的动作，不符合句意。 5.解析：选 A。句意：迄今为止，没有人认领在图书馆里发现的钱。本题考查非谓语动词作 定语，因 discover 与 money 之间是逻辑上的动宾关系，故用过去分词作定语。 6.解析：选 A。句意：我打电话来咨询一下有关昨天在《中国日报》上刊登广告(招聘)的职 位。advertised...是过去分词短语作后置定语，被修饰词 position 与 advertise 是被动关系。 7.解析：选 D。空一为现在分词作表语，表示主语的特征，“令人感兴趣的，有趣的”；空二 的 interest 是谓语动词。 8.解析：选 A。get changed 是系表结构，意为“换衣服”，类似的短语还有 get married 等。 9.解析：选 A。sound 在此为系动词，interested 为过去分词作表语，意为“感兴趣的”。 10.解析：选 A。句意：从塔顶看，这座山的南边脚下是树的海洋。seen from the top of the tower 是一个过去分词短语，在句子中作状语，其逻辑主语是句子的主语 the south foot，它 们之间是动宾关系，故用过去分词。 11.解析：选 C。考查过去分词作定语。句意：那个完成于 19 世纪的城镇大厅是那个时代最 独特的建筑。to be completed 不定式表将来，将要被完成；having been completed 已经被 完成，但注意 having been done 的形式只能作状语，而此处要选定语；completed 过去分 词表被动和完成；being completed 正在被完成。由题意知是已经被完成，所以选 C。 12.解析：选 D。opened 为过去分词作后置定语，表示被动和完成，相当于一个非限制性定 语从句。 13.解析：选 A。dressed 为过去分词作后置定语；disappointed 为过去分词作表语，说明人 的情况而不是物的情况。 14.解析：选 D。该句等同于 Many things that were considered impossible in the past are common today.句意：许多过去认为是不可能的事，现在很普通。 15.解析：选 C。get paid 相当于 be paid，意为“得到报酬，被付钱”。
5．found 6.frightened 7.locked 8.shocked 9．changed 10.given 文 章来
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