【解题技巧】 单句改错题是考查学生的识别能力、分析能力和综合运用英语知识能力。 做单句改错题首先要读通句子，在此基础上，根据不同的情况，用所掌握的语法、词汇知识为标准， 具体排除干扰，判断、找出错误，予以改正。 一、有些句子学生十分熟悉，根据所学知识，一眼就可识破，则不必顾及其他。如 : I must try my best learn En
glish well. try one’s best 后应跟不定式。故在 best 后应加“to”。 二、有些题目要从时态、语态、语气或主谓一致等方面来判断。如 : 1. We have studied most of Book by the end of last week. by 后跟表示过去的时间状语时，对应的时态该用过去完成时，因此，该句中 have 应改为 had。 2. Those novels wrote by Lu Xun 60 years ago. 句中 wrote 应改为 were written。因为 these novels 是动作的承受者。 三、有些题目要从动词的用法，词组搭配以及用词的知识方面考虑。如 : —Where’s the boy student？ —He has been to the library. 句中 has been to 表示“去过某地，已回来”，而这里的男同学显然没回来，所以该处需改为“has gone to”。 四、越来越多的辨认错误题，综合了尽可能多的语法、词汇知识，因而同学们不能只从某项语法或词 汇用法方面去判断，更应从各方面来判断错误的可能性。如 : He broke the window when he was playing football and he paid of the glass the next day. 这一句不但要考虑 broke、 是否正确， paid 而且要判断 football, next day 前是否有定冠词， 更要核对 “paid of”的准确性，因为 of 与 for 较相似，故此句 paid of 应改为 paid for。 【经典范例引路】 例 1 Lily has reached home three hours ago. A B C D 简析 :此题选 A。可将 has reached 改为 reached，即一般过去时。另一种改法是将句尾的 three hours ago 去掉，因涉及到不止一个选项，故在此题中不能这么改。 例 2 You can’t get across when the lights are green. A B C D 简析 :此题选 D。此题语法上并没有错，只是不符合事实，应将 D 项的 green 改为 red，才符合“红 灯停，绿灯行”的交通规则。 例 3 Don’t get into the gate before they tell you do that. A B C D 简析 :此题选 D。tell 后接不定式作宾语补足语，即 tell sb. to do sth，其中的 to 不可省略。 1. Everyone of us is working hard in the factory. 2. I have caught a bad cold for a week and I can’t get rid of it. 3. This is the steel plant where we visited last week. 4. Following the road and you will find the store. 5. This is all what Dr. Smith said at the meeting. 6. He promised to come and see us after the supper. 7. John had been here to see you, but he left five minutes ago. 8. My mother is busy preparing for supper. 9. I’ve heard him but I never know him. 10. We got on the school bus and which took us straight to the People’s Park.
11. From what I have seen and heard, I must say Chinese people are living happily. 12. Everyone agreed to his suggestion which we should hold a meeting to talk about the problem. 13. Oliver Twist, the hero of the story, he was an orphan. 14. Why don’t you ask anybody else to help you? 15. The pen is missing, for we cannot find it everywhere. 16. Sorry, I have a such book. 17. The two languages are not at all the same in neither spelling or grammar. 18. Most people can quick get help from a doctor when ill. 19. He told me that how important it is to learn English. 20. Can’t you remember tell me that the other day? 21. She asked me if I had found out my new pen. 22. He had changed so much that I could hardly know him. 23. I learnt of from Joan that Mary had fallen ill. 24. I didn’t hear you. Please repeat the sentence again., 25. Would you please speak something about your family? 26. We must study hard in order to serve for the people better in the future. 27. I know little about Tom, but I know Mary better than he. 28. The writing of the report spent me two evenings. 29. If I had time, I shall see the new film. 30. Don’t let the children who are so young to go swimming. 31. It took place in France, an European country. 32. Would you bought the dictionary if you had had more money yesterday? 33. I shall lend the money to who comes first. 34. That is known to all, Taiwan belongs to China. 35. What was it that woke up the baby? 36. “Do you mind getting me some water?” “Certainly don’t.” 37. He enjoyed nothing but listen to music. 38. Cotton feels softly. 39. He is by far the clever student in our class. 40. I came here especially to ask you for advice. 41. I don’t doubt whether I’m able to finish the work on time. 42. Would you be kind as to turn off the TV set? 43. Do you know what do these words mean? 44. Hearing her name calling, she rushed out of the room. 45. Do you know anything about the accident happened in the village yesterday? 46. The little girl hurried home with the remained money. 47. Speak slowly and try to make yourself understand 48. The population of Zhengzhou is fewer than that of Beijing. 49. My father has two brothers , both of them are all Party members. 50. I followed Mr.Smith entering the office. 51. He’ll leave Beijing to Paris tomorrow. 52. He devoted his life for his country. 53. There having no buses, we had to walk home. 54. Being Sunday today, we don’t have to work. 55. Not had studied his lessons well, he failed in the exam.
56. My brother has turned an engineer for two years. 57. I have three letters to be answer this afternoon. 58. The recorder needs be repaired before it can be used. 59. Having been ill for a long time, so she fell behind her classmates. 60. They may go to London, but they were not certain . 61. I don’t think he can do the work well, can’t he? 62. The book which brought for me by my brother cost a lot of money. 63. You must do everything you can help them. 64. The farmers re very busy today and they will stop working until dark. 65. After mixing the three together, he dipped one of his finger into the cup. 66. The old man asked a policeman,” Could you show me how get to the post office? 67. The teacher found a cup broken and tried to find who had broken it. 68. In England as early as the twelve century, young people enjoyed playing football. 69. Jack regretted not go to the meeting last week. 70. I have lost my key; I can’t remember where I forgot it. 71. What a terrible weather we have been having! 72. The composition is well written except a few spelling mistakes. 73. The students have to follow the teacher’s advice, haven’t they? 74. Autumn has come and it is time for harvest the rice. 75. Please put everything back and tidy the lab in the end of your experiment. 76. “Listen to me carefully; do all what I’ll tell you to do,” said the teacher.. 77. The other day we dropped in on the village. 78. There will not be enough rooms for such a large population in the future. 79. “Help yourselves with the fish. It’s very delicious.” mother said to the guests. 80. To my opinion, computers will enter every family in the near future. 81. The machine is used to working for man. 82. She married the man because what he had done for her. 83. A hundred of people attended the meeting last night. 84. Tell me how long she will be back, in ten days or a week? 85. What did you do in the evening of May Day? 86. “You will be late for school unless you will get up at five.”said mother. 87. It is much easy to make plans than to carry them out. 88. Thanks the teacher’s help, I have made great progress in my English study. 89. People both at home and abroad have been great helped by the new computer. 90. The computer is an useful machine that can do many things for us. 91. You had better go and see him, didn’t you? 92. We must devote every effort to finish the task on time. 93. We’ll never forget the days when we spent together happily in the middle school. 94. He has written many books , two of them are widely read. 95. How did you like the dancers and their performances which you saw at the party? 96. Is there any place for me in the car? 97. He hid himself after a tree. 98. My neighbor is a seventy-years-old woman. 99. He was wounded with a stone. 100. It was yesterday when he broke the window. 101.There was a heavy rain last night.
102.This is one of the most exciting football games which I have ever seen. 103.Where is my trousers? 104.Generally speaking, when a child learns to read, he usually begins from A,B,C. 105. Mr Zhang’s English is perfect, so he has made lots of foreign friends from English-spoken countries. 106.The police has been going all out to search for the prisoner all over the country for two weeks. 107.I was caught by the rain last night. 108.Has he returned back yet? 109.It took us two hours to walk across the forest. 110.He had little to eat and a large house to live in. 111. Mother doesn’t like milk and so do I. 112.I lay down again with my head covering. 113. He was wounded on the left leg. 114.I have only a pen, not two. 115.China is very lager than Japan. 116.His advise is very useful. 117.Unless he said he wasn’t hungry, he ate a big breakfast. 118.It will make you good to have some outdoor exercise. 119.There are lots of money left. 120.He entered from the front door. 121.One thousand dollars are enough to live on. 122.His book is quite different from me. 123.He rose his hand before asking the question. 124.I visited a place where is surrounded by mountains. 125.What beautiful the sun is! 126.He had no sooner arrived when he fell ill. 127.Mrs Johnson gave her friends , Mary and I, a tea party. 128.A house built of bricks lasts longer than the one that is made of woods. 129.I like English better than my brother likes. 130.I will be used to live in the south. 131.He was warmly welcome by his friends. 132.I received a letter writing in green ink. 133.She did nothing but cried all day. 134.The old man walked slowly cross the street. 135.The boy’s face is like his father. 136.The weather was so hot and we could not read much. 137.This piece of fish smelled badly. 138.The young is taught to respect the old. 139.—You have not yet finished your work, have you? --- Yes, I haven’t. 140.There is nothing interesting on today’s paper. 141.They won us in the football game last week. 142.He thinks he needs not do it in a hurry. 143.The teacher with many students have gone to the exhibition. 144.He seems to be a bright student, isn’t he? 145.He returned home in the afternoon of his holiday. 146.He was educated at an university.
147.You won’t fail unless you work harder. 148.The robber was an one-eyed man. 149.Who of them is your father? 150.These shoes are too little for me. 151.Do you fond of hunting? 152.The mistakes made by the Chinese students of English are different from that by the Japanese students. 153.He left home last year and I haven’t seen him from then. 154.He cannot do it like your father does. 155.Between the trees stand a stranger. 156.Enough have been said about it. 157.Neither of the books are difficult to read. 158.He hoped to complete the work before he leaves the city. 159.The thief wanted to get in and stole something. 160.He hanged his coat by the window. 161.We all thought it was him who had stolen it. 162.He is going to shoot some sparrows in the trees. 163.The king let him chose what he liked. 164.He ordered us not speak so loudly. 165.Turn to the right, you will find the post office. 166.We all felt if we were going to fly. 167.Tell me the best way which to express my thanks. 168.It is certain he will come. 169.I found strange that she had not come yet. 170.We all considered it a pity you could not come with us. 171.As weather is fine, let us take a long walk. 172.Have the police found the knife which the man was killed? 173.The moon moves round the earth is well known to us all. 174.After we seated at the table, she suddenly felt a pain in her stomach. 175.This is the classroom for us to study. 176.The ship hardly left the port when the storm came. 177.I have been waiting you for a long time. 178.How dare you say such thing to my face? 179.The time is sure to come when my words come true. 180.I really don’t know how to do. 181.He suggested me that I go to see the manager. 182.I lent him the book I bought the day before. 183.I never buy anything unless it is not really needed. 184.You need not to go with me unless you are free now. 185.I am sure it will be dark before we won’t get there. 186.I don’t know if they will come, but if they will come, please show them the way to my house. 187.I could not make myself understood entirely well. 188.This book is too hard for me to read it 189.As he was careless, so he failed 190.I was too tired not to walk any further. 191.Why not to take a holiday for a few days? 192.This book is cheap enough for him to buy it.
193.She did nothing but to cry. 194.Would you kindly let me to know as soon as possible? 195.I asked him to tell me that how much he paid a year for his son’s education. 196.I don’t know when he will be come back home. 197.He nodded his head in silence, and his eyes bright with tears. 198.Though rich, but he works very hard. 199.That is all what I want to tell you. 200.There is somebody whom you want to see him. 201.What a beautiful weather we are having recently! 202.The new flowers are for her, not for his. 203.They live in the Room 305 in that building. 204.Mike is a college student from Britain. 205.We used to go to beds at nine ten at school. 206.Please you work harder at your lessons. 207.I have no papers to write on. 208.Please not look out of the window in class. 209.We got an English evening last Wednesday. 210.Let’s see who can reach to there first. 211.Which is much cheap, this one or that one? 212.We have to work hard on physics this term. 213.Is there any deer in the zoo? 214.She hasn’t returned back home yet. 215.The boy is old enough to take care of him. 216.It’s too hot in day and too cold at night on the noon. 217.John studies much more harder than any of the others. 218.Physics is one of the most difficult subject for us. 219.After quick supper, Tom returned to the cinema. 220.We must be strict in ourselves in everything. 221.The girl doesn’t dare to go out at night lonely. 222.Will I get you a piece of chalk, Mr.White? 223.As a boy, he made a life by selling newspapers. 224.When he came in, the speaker found the listeners all seating. 225.John had to make some rooms for Joe and Mike. 226.After the supper the singer didn’t go upstairs. 227.There are around one hundred woman workers in this factory. 228.Jack was said to be made stay behind by his teacher after school yesterday. 229.Great changes have been taken place in the past year. 230.Hear! How nicely the girl is playing the piano! 231.I didn’t go to the film because I have seen it before. 232.How shall I do with the old machine? 233.She was about to get into sleep while the baby woke up and began to cry. 234.We have friends over the world. 235.He failed but wanted to try the second time. 236.He left Shanghai at a cold winter night. 237.Sorry, I forgot your book in my office yesterday. 238.They have only a little room to live.
239.Tom didn’t leave until his sister was seen to enter into the village. 240.My idea is quite different from you. 241.He raised his sound so that we could hear him. 242.I want to make clear that I don’t want the price. 243.When wet clothes are hanged up near a fire, steam can be seen rising from them. 244.I haven’t received a letter from him in the past a few years. 245.The dustmen have gone on strike for more than two weeks. 246.’Will the play be put on again?” Yes, I think it. 247.Though it was very cold, but he went out without an overcoat. 248.My uncle began to study French in the fifties. 249.How do you think of the bicycle of this model? 250.I used to dance a lot when I was an university student. 251.I always find physics difficulty to learn. 252.It was polite for him to make room for you. 253.That’s quite far from here to the bus stop. 254. He made such many mistakes in his homework that the teacher made him do it again. 255. There were many restaurants and we were not sure which to eat. 256. She fixed all the radios besides the smallest one ,because there were no parts for it. 257. “Which of the two buses goes to the hospital? “None of them does.” 258. Be careful not to loose the money. 259. Many new homes have been built in the past few months in our village. 260. New York is the larger city in the U.S. 261. She takes much interest in the Chinese history. 262. My brother left the school at the age of fifteen. So he hasn’t much knowledge. 263. Mary got up, dressed her and went to the party. 264. Made of plastics, so the machine is quite light in weight. 265. Even a boy of three knows it’s wrong to say lies. 266. My father has two brothers and three of them are all Party member. 267. The discovery is great importance in science. 268. Do you know who’s English is the best in your class? 269. “Are those apples green or red? “Yes, they are red.” 270. We play basketballs at four in the afternoon. 271. About two hundred fifty workers attended the meeting. 272. Pass Rose and I two pieces of bread, please. 273. Here are some news for you, Mary. 274. Look! A police is coming this way. 275. You’d better borrow your bike to her. 276. The teacher will have a talk with you after the class. 277. I’m sorry, sir. I was late to school this morning. 278. The match between Class 4 and Class 5 is sure to be excited. 279. The talk is going to give by a famous professor. 280. The teacher told me that Mary did very good in drawing. 281. You can’t jump so highly on the earth as on the moon. 282. There’s going to be a match this afternoon, isn’t it? 283. She said she was leaving the second morning. 284. Tell him about it if you will see him tomorrow.
285. Do more speaking, you will be good at spoken English. 286. The boy was too tired not to walk any farther. 287. The students are really pleased after such a pleasing trip. 288. It has been too dry this year and there are a few apples on the tree. 289. Hundreds college students gathered for the meeting. 290. In the past three years, the doctor saved many people’s lives. 291. We all hope he will stay here for another some days. 292. The town is two miles far away from our school. 293. To them joy, they got two tickets for the football match. 294. Mary is an active girl when his brother is a man of few words. 295. Our physics teacher said light traveled faster than sound. 296. His grandfather has been death for nearly a year. 297. The teacher handed over the textbooks to the students. 298. A plane is the machine that can fly. 299. You will have to give other example. One is not enough. 300. The letter was sent by an old friend of John. 301. None job is easy enough for him to do. 302. Every of them has a copy of the handbook. 303. Who’s the young man playing a violin? 304. I feel very asleep now because I didn’t sleep well last night. 305. You are wanted by the phone. 306. Better don’t leave your little daughter by herself at home. 307. Do you still remember the house there we used to play? 308. She stopped cry and told me what had happened. 309. A language can only be learned with using it. 310. The police works hard day and night for the safety of the people. 311. I used to having a drink before going to bed. 312. She’s very ill but the doctor won’t give her away. 313. All needs to be done should be done quickly. 314. Fish can’t live there’s no water. 315. He came to the party without invited. 316. He raised his noise in order to be heard by us all. 317. I have no clean clothes and have to have the dirty clothes washing. 318. The ground is covered with falling leaves. 319. Man can now travel in the space. 320. Usually in the beginning of class, we read aloud our texts. 321. Three-fourths of the apple were eaten by the rat. 322. The boy was sent to hospital with one of his legs breaking. 323. I have made this clear to her that her job is very important. 324. I once suggested that we students must be given more free time. 325. I had hardly set out than it began to rain. 326. It was as he was ill that he missed the chance. 327. I have never seen a snake so thick as a log. 328. How I hope I hadn’t missed the lecture yesterday.! 329. My home town has taken on a new look. How great it has changed ! 330. He didn’t marry with my sister until he was thirty.
331. I don’t suppose he will be back in six. 332. Their football team has won ours several times. 333. Do you know our team leader we call him Big Wang? 334. We’d like see your birthday present. 335. She reached early in order to sit in the front. 336. In the end of the class, the teacher taught us an English song. 337. We all find it difficulty to learn physics. 338. I t is known to all that Lu Xun died in 30’s. 339. Is it true that some Germen will come to our school next week? 340. We shall never forget what that the headmaster said at yesterday’s meeting. 341. My brother didn’t stop play outside until my mother called him. 342. The students were praised because having made rapid progress. 343. It is I who is right. 344. Is this the pen you bought it last Sunday? 345. John looks much like his mother than his father. 346. I t was happened that he was not at home when we called. 347. It’s very nice for you to help me with that heavy bag. 348. My son isn’t old enough not to go to school. 349. I didn’t think it one of the best films that has ever been shown here this year. 350. Each of the students in our class have got such a dictionary. 351. It is the soldier which was wounded in that battle. 352. I have to get up early tomorrow so that I catch the first bus. 353. She left her hometown to Shanghai early this morning. 354. He will be well again in three days’ time . I hope you to take it easy. 355. We make him our monitor, but he refused. 356. She knows quite a few English words, she’s only a girl of six. 357. From this fact we can see that one shouldn’t be too sure of oneself. 358. His advice how to improve our writing sounds reasonable. 359. There are such many mistakes in his homework. 360. You see what clever the boy is. 361. They kept on coming to the hospital and see him. 362. I don’t think the TV set took him so much money. 363. He’s getting old. He doesn’t eat as many as before. 364. Why not stopping for a rest under that tree? 365. Your voice sounds quite different in the phone. 366. It’s very nice for you to help me. 367. Who’s younger, Rose and Mary? 368. Could you tell me when he has arrived? 369. I’m sorry I have such little money on me. 370. By that time, she had falled asleep. 371. I can’t decide if to go and see him or not. 372. I won’t believe it until I had seen it myself. 373. Let me fit the new clothes in my son. 374. The fact which he gave up smoking delighted his wife. 375. The young man looks strange on that suit. 376. Do you know who is in the charge of the children here?
377. I need a cloth to wipe out the mud with. 378. All he could do were to go back home. 379. Thank you for the pleasing evening. 380. I was told to go there at once, that I followed. 381. Why worry? It’s nothing serious. 382. It’s years after I painted a picture. 383. He ran in and told us the excited news. 384. As a student, I didn’t use to playing football. 385. All the work here was done by hands. 386. Excuse me, shall I have the word with you? 387. He is not here. He can have gone to the library. 388. The dress my aunt bought me isn’t fit me. 389. I t was raining hard and he prevented from going out. 390. You’d better not have the machine work too long. 391. Having read the magazine, so he put it in its place. 392. The woman stands there is a friend of my mother’ s. 393. Food, such as rice and vegetables , have been wasted a lot by the students. 394. Much have been done about the pollution. 395. There will be a lot of more people in this developing area. 396. The sun’s light and heat make possible for plants to grow better. 397. Does the air in this city use to be very dirty? 398. His parents prevented him from sent to Tibet. 399. Mary had her hair burning while doing cooking. 400. Plastics is used to taking the place of wood in many fields. 401. Does this river go across the town or around it? 402. The town has population of forty thousand. 403. Please tell me all what he told you the other day. 404. Although he is considered a great writer, still his works are not widely read. 405. It won’t be long before they will get married. 406. What a fun it is to go swimming in summer. 407. They spent many years save enough money to build a house of their own. 408. Man can travel in the space. 409. Will you join in us if we decide to do the new experiment? 410. She is thinking about what do next. 411. Only then did I realized that I had made a mistake. 412. I wonder if you will be kind to carry the bag for me. 413. I didn’t learn to ride a car until I was forty. 414. We hoped each other the best of luck in the exam. 415. Sorry, your letter is still in my pocket. I forgot post it. 416. The speaker is an old professor in his sixty’s. 417. The fish has gone bad. It smells terribly. 418. When she came, you were on your way to get the key you have left in the office. 419. Last night my father worked late into the night, prepared a report for the meeting. 420. I once suggested give us students more free time. 421. The light in the hall is still turned on. I have to go and turn it off. 422. Why did she refused to take his presents is not known.
423. Usually at the begin of a meeting, we sang the national song. 424. He was quite out of breathe when he got there. 425. After quickly washing my clothes, I went to receive her at the station. 426. Look up! There’s danger ahead. 427. ”Do you know she doesn’t like you?” “No, I don’t. Nor don’t I care.” 428. “How is your mother now. “She is a lot of better, .thank you. 429. To my mind, this novel is far much interesting than that one. 430. Tom is a good boy, except he is sometimes a little careless. 431. These days I am considering change my job. 432. Will the people sit at the back please keep quiet? 433. Probably I’ll stay four and five days with my uncle. 434. Three fourths of the earth are covered by water. 435. That she learned from you made her very sad for a few weeks. 436. Now a color TV set costs much less than it was years ago. 437. It is said that the man has been found and was sent to hospital. 438. I could have helped her but she didn’t ask me. 439. She was just about get into sleep when the baby began to cry. 440. Last Sunday I went to town, buying some apples and visited my grandma. 441. I remember she was killed in an accident in a rainy day. 442. She hasn’t got used to speak in public yet. 443. Tom failed again in his English exam, this made his father very angry. 444. Jane hasn’t come yet. What do you suppose having happened to her? 445. Even if inviting , I won’t go. 446. The Yangtze River is the fourth long river in the world. 447. One of the students sit in front gave a different answer to the question. 448. The trousers are made very small. The cloth have been wasted. 449. It’ll be some time when the building is completed. 450. They lost the game. How they wish they didn’t. 451. Does she matter if she is a bit late for the meeting? 452. Did you have any difficulties in making the machine move again? 453. Having lived in Shanghai for many years , he knew the city very much. 454. How about invited her to dinner tonight? 455. We made up our mind to do our best to make progress. 456. It has rained for days and the river has raised about five feet. 457.There was nothing in his talk which interested me. 458.Mary was among the girls who was praised at the meeting. 459.The number of the passengers killed in the accident are surprising. 460.I have made this clear to her that the job is very important. 461.I can’t go with you, but I really wish I can. 462.If you told me about it , I would have helped you. 463.She insisted that she hadn’t took my magazine. 464.We haven’t moved into the building because the rooms are being painting. 465.The more he thought about it , the more questions he thought of ask. 466.His order is that the rules don’t be broken anytime. 467.The play to be put up next week is an exciting one. 468.He is well known in this city with that new invention.
469.The boy is always m aking a lot of noises. 470.I just couldn’t think of a way solving the problem at that time. 471.No one in my family but my parents are interested in the play. 472.Little I know when it was impolite to get in a word. 473. “You make a mistake here, Li, Ping.” “Why , so I was.” 474.It was until midnight that he felt asleep. 475.The puzzling mother couldn’t understand why her daughter got so excited. 476.I have handed in all the exercise books except John. 477.I had hardly set out than it began to rain. 478.Since she understood you, why not to try to explain it to him? 479.By the time you will come back , we shall have had our final examination. 480. I’m afraid I will have a little time to come and see you. 481.All happened in our school was quite unexpected. 482.Bamboo is very useful. We can make it of many kinds of things . 483.You are only one of the workers I can trust. 484.The food in our country is quite different from one in Britain. 485.Was it last Sunday when you met her in the street? 486.That is two days since I came here. 487.What was it which you sent her the next day. 488.Mary fell seriously ill last week but now she looks as good as before. 489.Can you tell me how much the TV set took you? 490.It took place in the afternoon when I met you in the street 491.The book is said to have translated into several languages. 492. “ It’s not good room for you, isn’t it” 493. The sight of a snake very frightened her. 494. I have never seen so thick a snow. 495.I just can’t imagine how a satellite looks like. 496.The young man lives upstairs is a man of few words. 497.I don’t think the woman easy to get along with. 498.Please tell me how long she has got married. 499. The old man was found lying death in bed a week later. 500.The professor who arrives this morning is from Beijing University. 501.He stood up to make himself see and was soon found by his friends. 502.It was late but the peasants still had their tractor work in the fields. 503. Don’t worry. I’ll have John finishing the work for you. 504. She doesn’t talk as many as she used to . 505. Stay where you are, boys. Wait until I will come back. 506.I was running after Tom’s bike while I fell over a stone. 507.John and I have done our homework, Mother. So let me go for a swim, will you? 508. Of all the students I made few mistakes in the exam. 509. The boy told the teacher all had happened. 510.There are more than fifty students in his class, but only few of them like music. A I live in the country and my father was a farmer. 1. __________ He is now forty-five year old. Because of years of 2. __________ hard work, he looks old than his age. When I was 3. __________
young, he used to tell me the importance study. Father knows little about English and other subjects， but he usually gives me some good advices on how to learn my lessons good. He is not only kind to me but also very strict in me. With his help, I’ve made great progress. I’ll never to forget what he taught me. I think my father is best father in the world. B We’ve just moved in a house and we want to buy a new color television set, and I’m not sure about a size. Maybe we should buy a big one. If we buy a small one, we might have to change it in a few years’ time a bigger one. My husband thinks it’s no necessary to buy a very big one. He said our sitting room isn’t very big. If we put in a very big television, they will be bad for our eyes. Anyway, we’d better to make quick decision because the price may go up soon.
4. __________ 5. __________ 6. __________ 7. __________ 8. __________ 9. __________ 10. _________
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
C Most families in China hoped their single children will have a happy future, so they are very strict in their children. So do teachers in schools! Many children are given so much homework that they have hardly any spare time have sports. The children are forbidden to do anything but to study. No wonder so many children are tired of lessons. Some even attack or kill his parents and teachers! I believe many people already read this kind of news in newspapers or magazines. Shouldn’t we draw a lessons from the accidents? Now our government is making out a plan to solve the education problems. D Nowadays, almost every family has TV set, and almost everyone likes watching TV. TV has become a part of our life. TV has any advantages, for example, it informs us of the latest news which is happening in the world; it can open our eyes, enlarge our knowledge and also help us to see more about the world.it also has some disadvantages. People waste too much time in watching TV and his normal life and work are affected.To the children who they spend too much times in watching TV, it can do harm to their sight and healthy. So we should control the time of watching TV. E The Huaihe River has been serious polluted. Day and night millions of tons of waste water is being poured it from hundreds of factories. The waste water is harmful. At present
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3.
there is no fish in it. The river water cannot be drunk. People in 4. either bank have to dig wells to take drinking water. The Huaihe 5. River is such dirty and poisonous that people don’t dare swim 6. in it. Something must be done to stopping the pollution. The 7. government and the people near the river must try to clear water 8. as soon as possible. Now special attention has been pay to the 9. pollution by the government and more scientists. The pollution 10. will be prevented in the near future. F Dear Abby, How are you? Today I’ve got a wonderful news to tell you. 1. I have offered a scholarship at a university in Australia for my 2. further education. One hundred and twenty students took exam 3. for it, but only a few was chosen and I was one of them. However, 4. my parents are not happy about it. They are strongly against I 5. going there. They say it is too far away that they will not see me 6. for a whole year and they are afraid I will feel alone. They can’t 7. imagine a girl so young living alone. They advise me to studying 8. in the capital instead. Then I’ll be able to continue living them. 9. How can I persuade them to accept the fact that I have grown up？ 10. Best wishes Jane Dear sir, I ‘m very sorry trouble you . 1. _________ My name is Mary. I usually do the shop at your store. 2._________ Three days ago, I bought some clothes at your store . 3. _________ But I was not carefully enough then. . 4. _________ When I went home ,I found some problem. 5._________ The pants is too short for my husband . 6. _________ And my daughter don’t like the red skirt . 7. _________ She likes a yellow skirt one . 8. _________ I will glad if you can change 9. _________ me some new one. 10. _________ Mary 二、 Alice and Jack are middle school student . 1._________ They volunteer them time to help other people . 2. _________ The work take them 3 hours a week . 3._________ Alice loves read .She often helps young children to read . 4._________ Jack likes animals .He wants to be a vet before he leaves school . 5._________ Every Saturday morning he goes to work in a animals hospital. 6. _________ He says he has learned a lot of about animals 7._________ Alice and Jack both think volunteering is great . 8. _________ They feel good about help other people . 9._________ They spend time doing what they love to do . 10. _________ 三、
Dear Timmy , How are you ? It is over a year since I see you last time . 1._________ I am glad to telling you that we had an outing on April 9 . 2._________ We set out form our school bus at 7:00 a.m. 3._________ An hour later we arrive at a lake . 4._________ The lake was very beautifully . 5. _________ We boated on the lake and have lunch in a small restaurant . 6._________ At 4:00 p.m , we had to go away back . 7. _________ All of we had a wonderful time . 8. _________ How did you spend you spring time ? 9._________ I ‘m looking forward to receiving your letter soon. 10._________ Yours Xiao Ming 四、 Good morning ! We are very happy to here today . 1. _________ Now let me introduce myself and my friends for you . 2. _________ My name is Andy .I’m come from Canda. I ‘m eighteen . 3. _________ I have many hobby. But collecting stamps is my favourite . 4._________ . He is Mike . he come from America . 5._________ He is twenty – four .He likes play football . 6._________ He started play football five years ago . 7._________ She is Mary . She is from English . She is thirty . 8._________ Playing ping-pong is she favourite . 9. _________ That’s all , thank you ! 10. _________
五、 I have a cat .It’s name is Mimi . It has short , grey fur or white paws . Its eyes is green . It weigh about two kilograms. Usually , its favourite foods is fish. It also likes milk if it not too cold . It likes sleep in a basket . When it is not sleeping ,it often plays on with balls . I feed Mimi every day and give it clean water . It never worries because we take good care it . Mimi is my well friend. I like it very much. . 1._________ 2._________ 3._________ 4. _________ 5. _________ 6.________ 7._________ 8. _________ 9. _________ 10._________
Good afternoon! Welcome Guangming Shopping Center. 1. _________ There is different kinds of things in our center. 2_________ If you want flowers and clothes ,you can go to the first one floor. 3. _________ On the second floor ,there are many interesting cards and book . 4. _________ If you need CDs and CD players , please go to the third floor . 5._________ By the way , if you are tired and would like to something to drink , 6. _________ please go down to first floor . 7._________ You can get a lots of drinks there . 8. _________ Thank you for come . 9. _________ And hope you enjoy you day in our center. 10._________ 七、 Dear Mary , Thank you for telling me something for your Chinese teacher . 1. _________ I think your have a good teacher. 2._________ Now let me telling you something about my English teacher . 3. _________ Miss White is come from America. 4._________ She is tall . And she very beautiful . 5._________ She has taught our English for two years . 6._________ She is always in blue,because blue is she favourite . 7. _________ She likes reading and she also loves travelling when she is free . 8._________ She is kind and helpfully . 9. _________ All of us likes her very much 10 _________ Best wishes ! Yours Li Hong 八、 Mike is middle school student . 1. _________ He will has a lot of things to do next week . 2 ._________ He will go to the movies for his parents on Monday . 3. _________ On Tuesday ,He will is going to play basketball 4. _________ And he will go to the mountains at Wednesday . 5._________ On Thursday he will visits museums . 6._________ On Friday he will watch a football matches 7. _________ with he friends . 8. _________ On Saturday and Sunday ,he will stay at home 9. _________ and surfing the Internet . 10. _________ 九、 Dear Tina , I am very happy to receives your email . Now let me tell you something about city of Luodi. It is at the center of Hunan Province.
1. _________ 2. _________ 3. _________
It is a beautifully city with a population of 200,000. 4. _________ On both side of the wide streets are many green trees . 5. _________ It is very so hot in summer but not rather cold in winter . 6. _________ We have much places of interest here . 7. _________ You can visited Meijiang Scenic Spot,Boyue Cave , Meishan 8. _________ Imperial Palace and the Nativeplace of Zeng Guofan. 9. _________ So Welcome to Luodi but enjoy yourself here if you have time ! 10. _________ Yours , Yan Hong
十、 Dear friends , How time flies! Three years have passed since Mr Johnson come to our school . Now he has finished his works successfully . and will leaves for home . Mr Johnson is so kinder , patient and helpful . His teaching is lively and interested . We all love him so much as well as his wonderful lessons in spoken English . Now I would like to express our thanks him. Goodbye ,Mr Johnson .Welcome to China again.
1._________ 2. _________ 3. _________ 4. _________ 5. _________ 6. _________ 7. _________ 8. _________ 9. _________ 10. ________
A I have come in China for two years. My friends in 1. __________ England sometimes write to me, ask me how long 2. __________ I’ll stay here, when I’m thinking of returning 3. __________ home. The answer of their questions is simple: I 4. __________ do not know when I return home. At the moment， 5. __________ I have no reason to return back to England. I like 6. __________ living in China; I enjoy meeting Chinese people 7. __________ and travel around the country. My work is very 8. __________ interested, and there are so many things I don’t know 9. __________ about China that I hope to discover it in the future. 10. ________ B Dear Li Hong， Next Monday was my birthday. I‘m going 1._______ to hold a birthday party at the home in the 2._______ evening. It will start on 7：30. Would you like 3._______ come？ I have also invited some other 4._______ classmate of ours and some of my friends. 5._______ I live at Guangming Road. You can taking 6._______ No 23 or No 45 bus and get up at the end of 7._______ Guangming Road. Then walk left for 50 metres. 8._______ It‘s a red house with white door. You can’t 9._______
miss it. I hope you will go. 10._______ Yours ever Liu Mei C Mary is my best friend. We’re all from Henan, 1. _____ but now I live in Beijing when she lives in 2. _____ Guangzhou. We don’t look each other very often, 3. _____ but we’re keep in touch all the time. I often write 4 . _____ to Mary and telling her about the things that 5. _____ are happened at my company, and she often 6. _____ writes to me about her work. We talk on phone 7. _____ once a week. Sometime I call her on her 8. _____ car phone, or we send e-mail to each other. 9. _____ We’re really luck. There are so many ways 10. ____ we can keep in touch with each other. D Charles Dickens, one of the English writer, 1___ was born in an small town in England. When he was 2____ twelve, he could go to the school. Two years later, 3___ he had to work. After work, he often go to the library 4____ to read books. Then he wrote lot of stories. Dickens 5___ died over a hundred years ago, and people still read 6____ his books on great interest. 7___ E Many years ago a poor man grew an orange tree. 1. ___ On the tree there were many fine oranges. Some day he found 2. ___ one of them was so big as a football. He took it 3. ___ for the king. The king was so happy that he gave the 4. __ poor man lots money. When a rich man heard of it, 5. ___ he said for himself, “I’ll take my gold cup to the king 6. __ and he will give me much money. Next day the king received 7. __ from the cup. The king was very fond of the cup and he told 8. __ the rich man,“I have an orange. It’s beautiful than the cup, 9. ___ so I have decided to give it to you as the reward instead money. 10. __ F Have you ever heard from the saying: All work and no 1 __________ play make Jack a dull boy? What this means is that if you 2 __________ study all the times you will become a boring person. You 3 __________ must go out and having fun with your friends, otherwise 4 __________ you will lose him. No one wants to be friends with the 5 __________ person who that only works and studies. Perhaps you have 6 __________ a confidence problem. Please try remember that the work 7 __________ you do is for yourself rather than for anyone else. You do 8 __________ not have to compete your classmates. No one can be 9 __________ happier in studying seven days and seven nights a week. 10 _________ G
Dear Tracy， Although I'm 16 years old，but my father still treats 1 __________ me as a careless children. He doesn’t value my opinions. 2 __________ He is very strict with me and often punishes me about 3 __________ leaving things lying around in the house while he did this 4 __________ all time. I think he fails to set an example to me to 5 __________ follow. But he often says：“Doing as I say，not as I do.” 6 __________ Even worse，he points out my past mistakes to guests， 7 __________ making me feel hurting. I love my father, but I can’t 8 __________ bear what he does. I have been tried many times 9 __________ to talk with he but he never listens. Please, help me. 10 _________ Puzzled H Every morning Steve went to work by train. As he 1 __________ has a long trip, he always buys newspaper. It helps 2 __________ make the time passing more quickly. One Tuesday 3 __________ morning, he turned over the sports page. He wanted 4 __________ to see the report about an important football match 5 __________ the night before. The report was so interesting that he 6 __________ forgot to get off at his station. He did not know it unless 7 __________ he saw the sea. He got off at the next station, and had to wait 8 __________ a long time for a train to go back. It was no doubt that he arrived 9 __________ late at the office. His boss was angry when Sieve told to him 10 _________ why hewas late. “Work is very important than football! ”. he shouted. A I live in the country and my father was a farmer. He is now forty-five year old. Because of years of hard work, he looks old than his age. When I was young, he used to tell me the importance study. Father knows little about English and other subjects， but he usually gives me some good advices on how to learn my lessons good. He is not only kind to me but also very strict in me. With his help, I’ve made great progress. I’ll never to forget what he taught me. I think my father is best father in the world. B We’ve just moved in a house and we want to buy a new color television set, and I’m not sure about a size. Maybe we should buy a big one. If we buy a small one, we might have to change it in a few years’ time a bigger one. My husband thinks it’s no necessary to buy a very big one. He said our sitting room isn’t very big. If we put in a very big television, they will
1. __________ 2. __________ 3. __________ 4. __________ 5. __________ 6. __________ 7. __________ 8. __________ 9. __________ 10. _________
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
be bad for our eyes. Anyway, we’d better to make quick decision because the price may go up soon.
C Most families in China hoped their single children will have a happy future, so they are very strict in their children. So do teachers in schools! Many children are given so much homework that they have hardly any spare time have sports. The children are forbidden to do anything but to study. No wonder so many children are tired of lessons. Some even attack or kill his parents and teachers! I believe many people already read this kind of news in newspapers or magazines. Shouldn’t we draw a lessons from the accidents? Now our government is making out a plan to solve the education problems. D Nowadays, almost every family has TV set, and almost everyone likes watching TV. TV has become a part of our life. TV has any advantages, for example, it informs us of the latest news which is happening in the world; it can open our eyes, enlarge our knowledge and also help us to see more about the world.it also has some disadvantages. People waste too much time in watching TV and his normal life and work are affected.To the children who they spend too much times in watching TV, it can do harm to their sight and healthy. So we should control the time of watching TV. E The Huaihe River has been serious polluted. Day and night millions of tons of waste water is being poured it from hundreds of factories. The waste water is harmful. At present there is no fish in it. The river water cannot be drunk. People in either bank have to dig wells to take drinking water. The Huaihe River is such dirty and poisonous that people don’t dare swim in it. Something must be done to stopping the pollution. The government and the people near the river must try to clear water as soon as possible. Now special attention has been pay to the pollution by the government and more scientists. The pollution will be prevented in the near future. F Dear Abby, How are you? Today I’ve got a wonderful news to tell you. I have offered a scholarship at a university in Australia for my further education. One hundred and twenty students took exam for it, but only a few was chosen and I was one of them. However, my parents are not happy about it. They are strongly against I going there. They say it is too far away that they will not see me for a whole year and they are afraid I will feel alone. They can’t
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
imagine a girl so young living alone. They advise me to studying 8. in the capital instead. Then I’ll be able to continue living them. 9. How can I persuade them to accept the fact that I have grown up？ 10. Best wishes Jane 一、 Dear sir, I ‘m very sorry trouble you . 1. _________ My name is Mary. I usually do the shop at your store. 2._________ Three days ago, I bought some clothes at your store . 3. _________ But I was not carefully enough then. . 4. _________ When I went home ,I found some problem. 5._________ The pants is too short for my husband . 6. _________ And my daughter don’t like the red skirt . 7. _________ She likes a yellow skirt one . 8. _________ I will glad if you can change 9. _________ me some new one. 10. _________ Mary 二、 Alice and Jack are middle school student . 1._________ They volunteer them time to help other people . 2. _________ The work take them 3 hours a week . 3._________ Alice loves read .She often helps young children to read . 4._________ Jack likes animals .He wants to be a vet before he leaves school . 5._________ Every Saturday morning he goes to work in a animals hospital. 6. _________ He says he has learned a lot of about animals 7._________ Alice and Jack both think volunteering is great . 8. _________ They feel good about help other people . 9._________ They spend time doing what they love to do . 10. _________ 三、 Dear Timmy , How are you ? It is over a year since I see you last time . 1._________ I am glad to telling you that we had an outing on April 9 . 2._________ We set out form our school bus at 7:00 a.m. 3._________ An hour later we arrive at a lake . 4._________ The lake was very beautifully . 5. _________ We boated on the lake and have lunch in a small restaurant . 6._________ At 4:00 p.m , we had to go away back . 7. _________ All of we had a wonderful time . 8. _________ How did you spend you spring time ? 9._________ I ‘m looking forward to receiving your letter soon. 10._________ Yours Xiao Ming 四、
Good morning ! We are very happy to here today . 1. _________ Now let me introduce myself and my friends for you . 2. _________ My name is Andy .I’m come from Canda. I ‘m eighteen . 3. _________ I have many hobby. But collecting stamps is my favourite . 4._________ . He is Mike . he come from America . 5._________ He is twenty – four .He likes play football . 6._________ He started play football five years ago . 7._________ She is Mary . She is from English . She is thirty . 8._________ Playing ping-pong is she favourite . 9. _________ That’s all , thank you ! 10. _________
五、 I have a cat .It’s name is Mimi . It has short , grey fur or white paws . Its eyes is green . It weigh about two kilograms. Usually , its favourite foods is fish. It also likes milk if it not too cold . It likes sleep in a basket . When it is not sleeping ,it often plays on with balls . I feed Mimi every day and give it clean water . It never worries because we take good care it . Mimi is my well friend. I like it very much. . 1._________ 2._________ 3._________ 4. _________ 5. _________ 6.________ 7._________ 8. _________ 9. _________ 10._________
六、 Good afternoon! Welcome Guangming Shopping Center. 1. _________ There is different kinds of things in our center. 2_________ If you want flowers and clothes ,you can go to the first one floor. 3. _________ On the second floor ,there are many interesting cards and book . 4. _________ If you need CDs and CD players , please go to the third floor . 5._________ By the way , if you are tired and would like to something to drink , 6. _________ please go down to first floor . 7._________ You can get a lots of drinks there . 8. _________ Thank you for come . 9. _________ And hope you enjoy you day in our center. 10._________ 七、 Dear Mary , Thank you for telling me something for your Chinese teacher . 1. _________ I think your have a good teacher. 2._________
Now let me telling you something about my English teacher . 3. _________ Miss White is come from America. 4._________ She is tall . And she very beautiful . 5._________ She has taught our English for two years . 6._________ She is always in blue,because blue is she favourite . 7. _________ She likes reading and she also loves travelling when she is free . 8._________ She is kind and helpfully . 9. _________ All of us likes her very much 10 _________ Best wishes ! Yours Li Hong 八、 Mike is middle school student . 1. _________ He will has a lot of things to do next week . 2 ._________ He will go to the movies for his parents on Monday . 3. _________ On Tuesday ,He will is going to play basketball 4. _________ And he will go to the mountains at Wednesday . 5._________ On Thursday he will visits museums . 6._________ On Friday he will watch a football matches 7. _________ with he friends . 8. _________ On Saturday and Sunday ,he will stay at home 9. _________ and surfing the Internet . 10. _________ 九、 Dear Tina , I am very happy to receives your email . 1. _________ Now let me tell you something about city of Luodi. 2. _________ It is at the center of Hunan Province. 3. _________ It is a beautifully city with a population of 200,000. 4. _________ On both side of the wide streets are many green trees . 5. _________ It is very so hot in summer but not rather cold in winter . 6. _________ We have much places of interest here . 7. _________ You can visited Meijiang Scenic Spot,Boyue Cave , Meishan 8. _________ Imperial Palace and the Nativeplace of Zeng Guofan. 9. _________ So Welcome to Luodi but enjoy yourself here if you have time ! 10. _________ Yours , Yan Hong
十、 Dear friends , How time flies! Three years have passed since Mr Johnson come to our school . Now he has finished his works successfully .
1._________ 2. _________ 3. _________
and will leaves for home . Mr Johnson is so kinder , patient and helpful . His teaching is lively and interested . We all love him so much as well as his wonderful lessons in spoken English . Now I would like to express our thanks him. Goodbye ,Mr Johnson .Welcome to China again.
4. _________ 5. _________ 6. _________ 7. _________ 8. _________ 9. _________ 10. ________
A I have come in China for two years. My friends in 1. __________ England sometimes write to me, ask me how long 2. __________ I’ll stay here, when I’m thinking of returning 3. __________ home. The answer of their questions is simple: I 4. __________ do not know when I return home. At the moment， 5. __________ I have no reason to return back to England. I like 6. __________ living in China; I enjoy meeting Chinese people 7. __________ and travel around the country. My work is very 8. __________ interested, and there are so many things I don’t know 9. __________ about China that I hope to discover it in the future. 10. ________ B Dear Li Hong， Next Monday was my birthday. I‘m going 1._______ to hold a birthday party at the home in the 2._______ evening. It will start on 7：30. Would you like 3._______ come？ I have also invited some other 4._______ classmate of ours and some of my friends. 5._______ I live at Guangming Road. You can taking 6._______ No 23 or No 45 bus and get up at the end of 7._______ Guangming Road. Then walk left for 50 metres. 8._______ It‘s a red house with white door. You can’t 9._______ miss it. I hope you will go. 10._______ Yours ever Liu Mei C Mary is my best friend. We’re all from Henan, 1. _____ but now I live in Beijing when she lives in 2. _____ Guangzhou. We don’t look each other very often, 3. _____ but we’re keep in touch all the time. I often write 4 . _____ to Mary and telling her about the things that 5. _____ are happened at my company, and she often 6. _____ writes to me about her work. We talk on phone 7. _____ once a week. Sometime I call her on her 8. _____ car phone, or we send e-mail to each other. 9. _____ We’re really luck. There are so many ways 10. ____ we can keep in touch with each other. D
Charles Dickens, one of the English writer, 1___ was born in an small town in England. When he was 2____ twelve, he could go to the school. Two years later, 3___ he had to work. After work, he often go to the library 4____ to read books. Then he wrote lot of stories. Dickens 5___ died over a hundred years ago, and people still read 6____ his books on great interest. 7___ E Many years ago a poor man grew an orange tree. 1. ___ On the tree there were many fine oranges. Some day he found 2. ___ one of them was so big as a football. He took it 3. ___ for the king. The king was so happy that he gave the 4. __ poor man lots money. When a rich man heard of it, 5. ___ he said for himself, “I’ll take my gold cup to the king 6. __ and he will give me much money. Next day the king received 7. __ from the cup. The king was very fond of the cup and he told 8. __ the rich man,“I have an orange. It’s beautiful than the cup, 9. ___ so I have decided to give it to you as the reward instead money. 10. __ F Have you ever heard from the saying: All work and no 1 __________ play make Jack a dull boy? What this means is that if you 2 __________ study all the times you will become a boring person. You 3 __________ must go out and having fun with your friends, otherwise 4 __________ you will lose him. No one wants to be friends with the 5 __________ person who that only works and studies. Perhaps you have 6 __________ a confidence problem. Please try remember that the work 7 __________ you do is for yourself rather than for anyone else. You do 8 __________ not have to compete your classmates. No one can be 9 __________ happier in studying seven days and seven nights a week. 10 _________ G Dear Tracy， Although I'm 16 years old，but my father still treats 1 __________ me as a careless children. He doesn’t value my opinions. 2 __________ He is very strict with me and often punishes me about 3 __________ leaving things lying around in the house while he did this 4 __________ all time. I think he fails to set an example to me to 5 __________ follow. But he often says：“Doing as I say，not as I do.” 6 __________ Even worse，he points out my past mistakes to guests， 7 __________ making me feel hurting. I love my father, but I can’t 8 __________ bear what he does. I have been tried many times 9 __________ to talk with he but he never listens. Please, help me. 10 _________ Puzzled H Every morning Steve went to work by train. As he 1 __________ has a long trip, he always buys newspaper. It helps 2 __________ make the time passing more quickly. One Tuesday 3 __________
morning, he turned over the sports page. He wanted 4 __________ to see the report about an important football match 5 __________ the night before. The report was so interesting that he 6 __________ forgot to get off at his station. He did not know it unless 7 __________ he saw the sea. He got off at the next station, and had to wait 8 __________ a long time for a train to go back. It was no doubt that he arrived 9 __________ late at the office. His boss was angry when Sieve told to him 10 _________ why hewas late. “Work is very important than football! ”. he shouted.
考查类型: 1. 多词 1）不可数名词泛指时,多冠词,或不可数名词/抽象名词,多不当修饰词.2）谓语动词多不当助动词 3）感官使役 动词后不定式作宾语补足语时多了 to4）不是从句却加了关系词或连接词 5）及物动词后多了介词或副词 6）比 较级前多词 7）词义重叠 / 冗词错误 8）作时间状语的名词短语前多了介词 9）固定搭配中多词 2. 缺词 1）可数名词前缺限定词 2）动词不定式缺 to3）不及物动词后缺介词或副词 4）固定搭配中缺词 50 被动语态缺 助动词 be 6）句子成分残缺(一般缺谓语动词或动词) 3.错词 1）不定冠词 a / an、定冠词或物主代词错误 2）可数名词复数少了－s3）动词时态与时间状语（或上下文） 不一致 4）语态错误 5）非谓语动词形式错误 6）主谓不一致 7）代词和名词不一致 8）词义辨析错误 9）介词 与名词、动词或形容词搭配错误 10）连词错误 11）词类错误 12）关系代词或关系副词错误 13）逻辑错误 14） 固定搭配和习惯用法错误 短文改错口诀 动词形，名词数， 注意形和副； 非谓动词细辨别， 习惯用法要记住； 句子成分多分析， 逻辑错误须关注。 一、动词形 主要包括两类错误：动词的时态和语态错误，以及主、谓不一致的错误。例如： My favourite sport is football. I was member of our school football team. is Now my picture and prize is hanging in the library. are 上述两例分别属于时态错误和主、谓不一致错误。找出此类错误的关键是树立牢固的时态概念，注意短文内容 发生或存在的时间，保持时间概念的一致性。 二、名词数 指名词单、复数形式的用法错误。常表现为将名词复数写成单数。例如： …so that I’ll get good marks in all my subject. subjects 三、区分形和副 即区分形容词和副词在句子中的作用和具体用法。这也是高考短文改错的常考点。例如： I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together. wonderful Unfortunate, there are too many people in my family. Unfortunately 需要注意的是，形容词多用来做定、表、补语等，而副词只能在句子中作状语，修饰动词、形容词、副词或整 个句子。第一例中的 wonderful 作定语修饰 time，第二句的 Unfortunately 作状语修饰整个句子。
四、非为动词细辨别 这是考查最多的错误形式之一。主要有分词和动名词类错误，也包括不定式类错误。例如： …in my spare time, but now I am interesting in football. interested Play football not only makes us grow up tall and strong but also … playing My parents love me? and will do all they can ∧ make sure? to 上述二、三例分别是动名词作主语，和不定式作目的状语。一般的，现在分词有主动态和进行时的含义，而过 去分词具有被动态和完成时的含义，不定式有将来时态的含义。 五、习惯用法要记住 主要考查习惯搭配方面的基础知识。这也是历年高考的常考点，其错误表现形式主要有三种： 多词、少词和搭配错误。例如： It was very kind for them to meet me at the railway station and… of We must keep in mind that we play for the team instead ∧ ourselves. of__ 六、句子成分多分析 不同的句子成分要用不同的词类；不同的语景要选择不同的词语。这些都有待我们对句子结构和句子成分作细 致的分析，才能找出用词不当的错误。例如： They ∧eager to know everything about China and? were I live in Beijing, where is the capital of China. which 第一例漏掉了谓语动词 were，这是受寒于习惯的影响而导致的错误；第二例则是词类与它在句子中的成分不相 符，where 是副词，不能作主语。 七、逻辑错误须关注 与句子的上、下文不一致，甚至相矛盾，属于逻辑性错误。如称谓上的张冠李戴，人名、地名、时间、方位等 方面的错误，常是这类错误的考查对象。例如： The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home. their First, let me tell you something more about myself. 去掉 more … no way of setting the matter except by selling the set. Now someone at home reads instead. everyone 上述第一例中的主语是 Smiths（史密斯夫妇俩），因此后面的 his 不合逻辑。第二例中的 more 在这儿表“再” 的意思，才开始告诉别人，怎么能说“再告诉你一些事”？第三例讲的是为了解决看电视时的争端，“我们” 把电视机卖了；晚上没电视看了，所以与从前一样，大家又都读书了，所以该用 everyone。 1.一致性问题： 1）主谓一致 2）时态一致 3）名词的数 与格的一致 4）代词中指代关系的一致 5）句式结构与语意的一致 6）行文逻辑关系的一致
2.词的用法 1）词的分类知识： 2）构词法知识： 3）词的惯用法 3.短文该错考查项目
1）错词更正 2）多词删除 3）缺词补漏 短文改错的 12 个错误类型: 1. 冠词使用错误 2. 名词使用错误 3. 代词使用错误 4. 谓语动词使用错误 5. 非谓语动词使用错误 6. 介词使用错误 7. 形容词与副词使用错误 8. 并列句与复合句 9. 用词重叠错误 10. 习惯用法错误 11. 逻辑错误 12. 一致性错误 四不改： 1. 单词拼写不改 . 2.大小写不改 . 3.词序不改 . 4.标点符号不改 .
1 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） A shopkeeper once found that a bag money 56．＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ had been stolen from his shop． He went to the 57．＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ judge（法官） and tell him about his loss（损失）． 58．＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ The judge ordered all people of the shop 59．＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ to come before him． He took a number of the 60．＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ sticks of equal length（长度） or gave one stick 61．＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ to each person． Then he said， “Come after me 62．＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ again tomorrow． I’ll then know which of you are 63．＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ the thief because the stick given to a thief 64．＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ will be one inch longer than the other．” 65．＿＿＿＿＿＿＿ 2 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） Miss Evans taught physics in school in London．Last month 56．＿＿＿＿＿ she was explaining to one of her class about sound ，and 57．＿＿＿＿＿ she decide to test them to see how successful she had 58．＿＿＿＿＿ been in her work． She said to them， “Now I has a sister 59．＿＿＿＿＿ in Washington． If I was calling her by the phone， and 60．＿＿＿＿＿ you were on the other side of the street． Who would 61．＿＿＿＿＿ hear me first， my sister and you？ And why？” 62．＿＿＿＿＿ A clever boy at once answered， “You sister， Miss 63．＿＿＿＿＿ Evans， because the electricity travels much faster than sound 64．＿＿＿＿＿ waves．” “Very well，” Miss Evans praised． 65．＿＿＿＿＿ 3 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） It is interested to visit another country， but sometimes 56． ＿＿＿ there are some questions when we don’t know the language very 57． ＿＿＿ well． It may be difficult to talk about the people there． We may 58． ＿＿＿ not know how to use the telephone in the country which are 59． ＿＿＿ visiting． We may not know what to buy the things we need． 60． ＿＿＿ In a strange country we may not know where to eat and what 61． ＿＿＿ to order in a restaurant． It is not easy to decide how many 62． ＿＿＿ money to tip（付小费） waiters or taxi drivers． When we are 63． ＿＿＿
helpless， we may not know how to ask help． 64． ＿＿＿ After a short time later， however， we learn what to do 65． ＿＿＿ and what to say． We learn to enjoy life in another country， and then we may be sorry to leave both the place and the people． 4 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） Long long ago， people had gather leaves and 56． ＿＿＿＿＿ fruit of plants to eat with． They didn’t know how 57． ＿＿＿＿＿ to plant crops or how to keep animals for their 58． ＿＿＿＿＿ food． We call them Stone Age people． Thing for 59． ＿＿＿＿＿ them were terrible and hard． Now there have still 60． ＿＿＿＿＿ some people living liked those Stone Age people． 61． ＿＿＿＿＿ They live in places that are hard reach． They do 62． ＿＿＿＿＿ not know of our invention， for they keep themselves 63． ＿＿＿＿＿ away our civilized world． For many years 64． ＿＿＿＿＿ a group of people call Aruntas have lived alone 65． ＿＿＿＿＿ in the center of Australia． 5 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） How robins（知更鸟） know when it is time 56． ＿＿＿＿＿ to go back north？ They seem to tell by how soon daylight lasts． In late winter， daylight 57． ＿＿＿＿＿ begins to last longest each day． When the 58． ＿＿＿＿＿ daylight lasts long enough， robins start north． 59． ＿＿＿＿＿ They fly by day． Each year they follow a same 60． ＿＿＿＿＿ fly－way． At first， they fly only few miles a 61． ＿＿＿＿＿ day． They stop often in the field to eat bugs 62． ＿＿＿＿＿ （小虫子）． Late， they seem in a hurry． They fly 63． ＿＿＿＿＿ over 100 miles a day． Some are going so far 64． ＿＿＿＿＿ as 180 miles． When they get to home， they 65． ＿＿＿＿＿ always stay together high in a tree． 6 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） On the Internet The Internet is playing a important part in 56． ＿＿＿＿＿ our daily life． On the net，we can learn about 57． ＿＿＿＿＿ news both home and abroad and some other 58． ＿＿＿＿＿ informations as well． We can also make phone calls， 59． ＿＿＿＿＿ send messages by e-mails，go to net schools，and 60． ＿＿＿＿＿ learn foreign languages by ourselves． Beside，we 61． ＿＿＿＿＿ can enjoy music，watch sports matches，and play the 62． ＿＿＿＿＿ chess or cards． The net even help us do shopping， 63． ＿＿＿＿＿ make a chat with others and make friends with them． 64． ＿＿＿＿＿ In a word，the Internet has made our life more easier． 65． ＿＿＿＿＿ 7 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分）
In the morning of November 18th，1755，an earthquake 56． ＿＿＿＿＿ shook Boston．John，a professor at Harvard College felt a quake 57． ＿＿＿＿＿ and woke up．“I rose and found to be fifteen minutes past 58． ＿＿＿＿ four．” He hurried to downstairs to the clock． It had stopped 59． ＿＿＿＿ three minutes ago． Except for stopping the clock，the quake 60． ＿＿＿＿＿ had only thrown a key from the mantel（壁炉架） to the floor． 61． ＿＿＿＿＿ The clock had stopped because John put some long 62． ＿＿＿＿＿ glass tube he was using for an experiment into the case 63． ＿＿＿＿＿ for safekeeping．The quake had been knocked the tubes over and 64． ＿＿＿＿＿ blocked the pendulum（钟摆）． So John had the exactly time of the earthquake． 65． ＿＿＿＿＿ 8 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） People have different tastes in food． Some feel they haven't a meal unless they have had 56． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ pork or other meat；some prefer chickens 57． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ or fish，and eats one or the other at every meal． 58． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ Others prefer vegetables and fruits or grains but would enjoy a meal of potatoes， 59． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ noodles and carrots and some another fruits． 60． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ Others could live on the foods are called 61． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ fast foods，for example，a hamburger or 62． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ hot dog，French fries and a soft drinks． 63． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ Food can be prepared by so many ways． 64． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ Every is satisfactory to different person． 65． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ 9 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） In recently years，dust storms take place more 76． ＿＿＿＿＿ and more often in the north of Chinese． They have 77． ＿＿＿＿＿ brought a great deal of trouble to people’s lives． 78． ＿＿＿＿＿ The strong wind blows up the dust，made the air 79． ＿＿＿＿＿ very dirty． It also stops many of people from going 80． ＿＿＿＿＿ out． In past，people raised a large number of sheep． 81． ＿＿＿＿＿ The sheep eat up a great deal of grass and the land 82． ＿＿＿＿＿ became sandy． Now the government have begun to 83． ＿＿＿＿＿ pay attention to the problem． Each year，a lot of 84． ＿＿＿＿＿ money spent on the improvement of the environment． 85． ＿＿＿＿＿ 10 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） Life in the twenty－one century will be very 56． ＿＿＿ different with life today． There will be many 57． ＿＿＿ changes．What can the changes be？ The population 58． ＿＿＿ is growing fast． That will be many more people in 59． ＿＿＿ the world and most of them will live in longer 60． ＿＿＿ than people live now． Computers will be much 61． ＿＿＿
more smaller and more useful， and there will 62． ＿＿＿ be one in every home． People will work few 63． ＿＿＿ hours than they now and they will have more 64．＿＿＿ free time for reading books， watch TV and traveling． 65．＿＿＿ 11 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） Once one year a race is held． A lot 56． ＿＿＿＿＿ of cars took part this race last year and there 57． ＿＿＿＿＿ had a lot of experiments just before it began． One 58． ＿＿＿＿＿ of the most beautiful car was a Rolls－Royce 59． ＿＿＿＿＿ Silver Ghost． The most usual car was a Benz 60． ＿＿＿＿＿ which had only three wheels． Built in 1885，it is the 61． ＿＿＿＿＿ oldest car taking part． After a great many loud 62． ＿＿＿＿＿ noises，the race began． Many of cars broke down on 63． ＿＿＿＿＿ the way and some drivers spent much time under 64． ＿＿＿＿＿ their cars than in them． The win car reached at 65． ＿＿＿＿＿ a speed of forty miles an hour． 12 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分， 满分 10 分） Sleep，as we know， is important to us． And 56． ＿＿＿＿ how many sleep do we actually need？For most 57． ＿＿＿＿ of us， eight hours seem to be about the right 58． ＿＿＿＿ amount． Yet we know that there are a 59． ＿＿＿＿ great many people who get along well less 60． ＿＿＿＿ sleep ，and some whom may even need more． A 61． ＿＿＿＿ great deal depends by the way we live． But 62． ＿＿＿＿ a good common rule to follow to is to 63． ＿＿＿＿ sleep long as we have to． So we’ll feel 64． ＿＿＿＿ happy and be able to work with our best when we wake． 65． ＿＿＿＿ 13 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） Different people speak different language， 76．＿＿＿＿ but sports have a language of its own． A football 77．＿＿＿＿ player from Japan can not play with a player from 78．＿＿＿＿ England． One does not need to understand the language 79．＿＿＿＿ of the other． The game speaks for themselves． 80．＿＿＿＿ Peoples who do not know each other often become 81．＿＿＿＿ friend after they have played together． The new 82．＿＿＿＿ boy or girl in school quickly become one of the 83．＿＿＿＿ class after few games． People in different parts of 84．＿＿＿＿ the world learn to understand one other through sports． 85．＿＿＿＿ 14 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） My friend Henry has a most unusually hobby 56． ＿＿＿＿＿ （爱好）． He likes plant flowers in strange places． 57． ＿＿＿＿＿
When the spring comes round， you can always tell 58． ＿＿＿＿＿ Henry had been busy working because the dirty sides of 59． ＿＿＿＿＿ canals（沟渠） and railway banks suddenly 60． ＿＿＿＿＿ became filled of flowers． In his spare time， with 61． ＿＿＿＿＿ pockets full of seeds， Henry goes round by his bike． 62． ＿＿＿＿＿ He has a long pipe with him blow seeds into places 63． ＿＿＿＿＿ that is hard to reach． When his flowers fade（凋谢）， 64． ＿＿＿＿＿ he goes round again to collect its seeds． In this way 65． ＿＿＿＿＿ he always has a big supply． 15 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） Dear Peter， Thanks very much on inviting me to your birthday 56．＿＿＿＿＿＿ party on Sunday． I’d like very much come， but 57．＿＿＿＿＿＿ I had an examination on Monday morning． It is 58．＿＿＿＿＿＿ a very important exam， but I can’t afford to 59．＿＿＿＿＿＿ fail it． I’ll spend all the whole weekend reading 60．＿＿＿＿＿＿ and prepare for it． So I’m really sorry that 61．＿＿＿＿＿＿ I won’t able to come this time． Hope you 62．＿＿＿＿＿＿ can understand． I’ll take this chance to wish 63．＿＿＿＿＿＿ you a wonderful time in your birthday． Happy 64．＿＿＿＿＿＿ birthday， Peter， and many happy return of the day！ 65．＿＿＿＿＿＿ Yours， Li Ming 16 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） Sandy is busy． Like many other girl about her 56．＿＿＿＿＿ age， she spends hours in the telephone， talking to her 57．＿＿＿＿＿ friends． She often go out on weekends． She looks 58．＿＿＿＿＿ after children for other families get some money． 59．＿＿＿＿＿ And， of course， during the school years she herself 60．＿＿＿＿＿ has many homework to do． During the football season， 61．＿＿＿＿＿ she and the other pretty girls are leaders for school 62．＿＿＿＿＿ football games． They led the crowd in cheering （加 63．＿＿＿＿＿ 油）for school team． The cheers are not long， but it 64．＿＿＿＿＿ takes a long time to practise shout together． 65．＿＿＿＿＿ 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分）
Mrs Jackson is very old woman． She had a very small room in an old house． She has lived there in 1964． That was the year when her husband death． He 56．＿＿＿＿ 57．＿＿＿＿ 58．＿＿＿＿ 59．＿＿＿＿
had been ill for many year． After his
60．＿＿＿＿ 61．＿＿＿＿ 62．＿＿＿＿ 63．＿＿＿＿ 64．＿＿＿＿
death Mrs Jackson had not some money at all． She found out work in a factory． Her job was to clean the offices． She had get up at six in the morning． Last year she was
ill and her doctor said，“ Not work so hard．” 65．＿＿＿＿ 18 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） Dear Smith， I’m glad to hearing that you are going to visit our school in the near future． 56．＿＿ Now I’d like to tell you the way to our school after you get on the train． Come out from of the railway station， turn left and walk up the road toward the traffic light． After you pass a bank in your left， turn right， and walk still further until you across the road． Then walk along the street and you’ll find cinema on your left． Come to fourth crossing on the left． 63．＿＿ 64．＿＿ 65．＿＿ 57．＿＿
58．＿＿ 59．＿＿ 60．＿＿ 61．＿＿ 62．＿＿
Go down the street and you’ll see No． 1 High School half ? way up the street on your left．You can't miss it．You are welcomed．I hope you'll have a good time． Best wishes． Yours， Li Ping 19 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） Once there was a boy liked reading books very 56． ＿＿＿＿
much． Because the boy was so poor to buy any books， so he had no books of his own． But that could not stop him from reading． He decided to borrow from a friend of his， who was living far away to the boy's home． The boy always tried his best to finish read the books and then returned them back to the owner within the given time． That was the reason why his friend was glad to lend him any of his books． The many books the boy read，
57． ＿＿＿＿ 58． ＿＿＿＿ 59． ＿＿＿＿ 60． ＿＿＿＿ 61． ＿＿＿＿ 62． ＿＿＿＿ 63． ＿＿＿＿ 64． ＿＿＿＿
the more knowledge he learned． And late he became a great writer． 65． ＿＿＿＿ 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） I went down to my friend's Tom's farm last August to helping him． August is the busiest time of the year for farmers，so it is then which they have to cut the corn． It is also the time of me to spend my holiday，so I decided to do something that is useful and at the same time quite different from my work at the office in London． Lucky the weather was fine while my two weeks on the farm． 76． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ 77． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ 78． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ 79． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ 80． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ 81． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ 82． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ 83． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ 84． ＿＿＿＿＿＿
I enjoyed myself and I learned lot there． 85． ＿＿＿＿＿＿ 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） Attention， please！ I’m sorry to tell you that the visit to 56． ＿＿＿ the country， that we planned for this morning， will be put off until tomorrow because the rain． This morning 57． ＿＿＿ 58． ＿＿＿
we will visit a middle school， where has a history of 85
years． This afternoon we’ll visit the industry exhibition， from 60． ＿＿＿ which many new products are in show． Some of them won nation prizes for invention． The bus will wait for us at the gate of our hotel at a half past eight． Please be 61． ＿＿＿ 62． ＿＿＿ 63． ＿＿＿ 64． ＿＿＿ 65． ＿＿＿
there on time． Don’t forget to bringing your things you need
with you． If you had any questions， you can ask me． Thanks． 短文改错（共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分） It is late in the evening． There was a knock on the door． I opened it and found a young man wore dark glasses． He said he was a friend of my brother． I didn't remember my brother had such friend， but I had to let him in． As we talked， I found that he knew something about my brother． I came to the conclusion （结论） that he was telling the truth． Just then my brother came out and the stranger was taken by surprise． I caught hold of the man while my brother rang up to the police． In fact he was only a thief from other town nearby． 56． ＿＿＿
57． ＿＿＿ 58． ＿＿＿ 59． ＿＿＿ 60． ＿＿＿ 61． ＿＿＿
62． ＿＿＿ 63． ＿＿＿ 64． ＿＿＿ 65． ＿＿＿
高考短文改错题的目的在于测试考生发现、判断、纠正语篇中语言错误的能力，兼顾考查考生在 语篇中综合运用英语的准确性。它往往选用一篇 100~130 个单词左右、内容鲜活、语言地道、通俗易 懂的短文，供考生在阅读中判断、纠正，从而检测学生综合运用英语的能力。
一般来说，短文的内容比较简单，结构也不复杂，但由于测试点覆盖面广、层次多、设计的问题又往 往是考生容易忽视或在写作中经常出错的地方，所以历年来，考生在这道题的得分都不高。高考短文 改错题目的形式有说明文、记叙文、应用文等，具有很强的实用性。 1．从选材内容、总词数和句子类型来看 ⑴高考短文改错选材内容贴近中学生日常生活实际，且以第一人称为主。
⑵高考短文改错文体主要以记叙文为主，兼顾说明文、议论文和应用文。 ⑶文章总体长度相对稳定，总词数在 100~130 之间。 ⑷句子结构以简单句为主，复合句有逐年增加的趋势。 2．从错误类型设置规律来看 ⑴无论全国卷还是地方卷，短文改错各大错误类型设置比较稳定。 ⑵大致上，错词占 6~7 行，多词和缺词共占 2~3 行，正确占 1 行。 3．从测试要点设置来看 ⑴测试要点词类涉及广泛，分布合理，每篇改错尽可能涉及多个考查点。 ⑵考查实词为主，涉及动词的时态、语态、非谓语动词、动词词义辨析、名词、形容词、副词等， 兼顾介词、代词、冠词等虚词。 ⑶对句法结构、行文逻辑的考查有呈逐年增加的趋势。
在短文改错试题中，冠词、名词、代词、动词、形容词、副词、连词和介词等都会涉及到。我个 人认为，相关性错误是短文改错考查的核心，考生一定要明确每个小题考查的知识点、命题者的命题 意图是什么。这就要求考生不仅要从语法角度分析短文中出现的错误，而且要理解上下文甚至全篇的 内容，才能做出正确判断。具体来说： 1．冠词 冠词考查分两个方面，一是冠词残缺或多余，考生要注意关于含有冠词(不含冠词)的用法以及加 冠词与不加冠词的区别，如：in charge of 与 in the charge of，out of question 与 out of the question 的区 别。二是冠词 the，a，an(定冠词和不定冠词)之间的相互误用。 【典例 1】As everyone knows, it's famous mountain with all kinds of plants and animals. 解析：mountain 是可数名词，所以 famous 前加不定冠词 a。 2．名词 名词主要考查单数名词变复数名词，这主要是受东西方文化差异的影响，英语中除了不可数名词 和单数名词用单数外，可数名词要用复数形式。 【典例 2】The airport bus leaves every 30 minute and will take you rightly to the Friendship Hotel. 解析：30 是数词，后接复数名词，因此 minute 应改为 minutes。every 30 minutes 每隔三十分钟。 3．代词 代词主要有人称代词、物主代词、关系代词、反身代词、疑问代词、复合疑问代词、指示代词， 要注意代词的各人称之间和单复数之间的误用，关系代词 which，that，as 之间的误用，关系代词 that 与疑问代词 what 之间的误用， 关系代词 which 与关系副词 when，where， 以及 what 与 how 的误用等。 【典例 3】On Thursday I will have to decide what I want myself to do over a weekend. 解析：want 可直接接不定式做宾语，所以应该去掉 myself。 4．动词 动词是短文改错的重点和难点，因为它涉及到动词的时态(主要是一般现在时变成一般过去时)和 语态误用(主要是缺少助动词)，非谓语动词的误用(主要是现在分词与过去分词之间的误用，动词不定 式符号 to 的添加， 动词原形变成动名词或现在分词的形式等)， 动词的动作、 结果与状态之间的误用(例 如：listen 与 hear，look 与 see，watch 与 notice 等)，以及动词的错用(came 与 went 的错用，此处涉及 行文逻辑问题)。 【典例 4】My parents love me dearly of course and will do all they can make sure that I get a good education. 解析：此句中 all they can 为 all that they can do 的省略形式，to make sure that...为动词不定式短语 作目的状语。因此应该在 make 前加 to。 5．形容词与副词 形容词与副词主要涉及它们之间的相互误用，另外考生应该注意形容词与名词或代词的搭配，副 词与动词的搭配，以及形容词与副词的修饰关系。
【典例 5】Unfortunate, there are too many people in my family. Some wanted to see one programme while others preferred another. 解析：结合语境，这里应用副词 Unfortunately 作评注性状语，“不幸的是”。 6．连词 连词主要有两类，即并列连词和从属连词，考查点主要是并列连词(分递进式、转折式、选择式 和因果式四种)之间的误用(主要是 but 与 so/and 之间的误用)，从属连词之间的误用以及并列连词与从 属连词之间的误用等。 【典例 6】It was almost noon we arrived at the foot of the mountain. 解析：这是“It was+时间点+when…”句型，因此应该在 we 前加 when。 7．介词 介词主要涉及到相关介词的误用， 例如： John went to school through (through→across) a bridge three times a day。 【典例 7】It was very kind for them to meet me at the railway station and drove me to their home. 解析：It is kind of sb. to do sth.是固定句型，因此应把 for 改为 of。
1．改错四大原则 尽管高考短文改错的错误有许多种改法,但多数情况下正确答案只有一个。 在做改错题时要把握以 下四条原则,对提高改错能力会有很大的帮助。 ⑴错误以改动最少为原则 这是指每行最多只能改动一处，即在一个词上进行改动。可以是增词、减词、改词，但无论是何种改 动， 只能是增加一词， 减少一词或把一个词改成另一个词。 没有错误的一行只需打勾表明正确而无需改动。 ⑵虚词以添加或者删除为原则 历年高考题需要添或删的地方差不多是 2-3 处。这些需要添删的词一般都应该是冠词、代词、介 词、关系词等;而动词、名词等轻易不添删，否则会改变句子的原意。 【典例 8】 Can you tell me about what I should do next? 解析：去掉 about。本题是从两种相似结构的区别角度命题：tell sb. about sth.意为“告诉某人某事 的一些情况”，about 后一般跟名词或代词。而 tell sb. sth.句型意为“告诉某人某事”，作直接宾语的 可以是名词，也可以是名词性从句。 【典例 9】But he was even more surprised to see few children near the tiger’s cage. 解析：few 前加不定冠词 a。因为从句意上看是“有几个孩子”，few 前加上 a 后，语法、语意都 完整无误，且无需大改。但不少考生把 few 改为 some 或 many，从语法上看，这样改虽然纠正了错 误，句子也非常通顺，但把“几个”变成“一些”或“许多”，与句子原意有了出入，所以不是正确 答案。 ⑶实词以改变形式为原则 在改错中，实词的处理一般只是改变它的形式，而不能改变其词义也不能改换成另一个实词，更 不能随便地添删。 【典例 10】 Would you mind do me a favour? 解析：do 改为 doing。但有些考生把 mind 给删去了，使原句成为 Would you do me a favour? 这样 改虽然纠正了语法错误，但是句子的语气却变得很不委婉，故不是正确答案。 【典例 11】 I’m sure we’ll have a wonderfully time together. 解析：wonderfully 改为 wonderful。wonderfully 是副词，不能作定语修饰名词 time。有些考生把 wonderfully 改为 good ,这样虽然意思上对了，但是却削弱了原句的语气。 ⑷原意以保持不变为原则 一般应遵循保持句子原意的原则(即不能改变文章或作者所表达的意思，包括其语气和上下文的 逻辑关系)，只对短文中的用词错误、语法错误、行文关系错误进行改正，且要小改而不大改。
【典例 12】Modern people know more about health, have better food, and to live in cleaner surroundings. 解析：去掉 to。因为 and 连接的是三个并列的谓语动词 know, have 和 live。部分考生误将 and 去 掉而保留了 to，这样 to live in cleaner surroundings 成了目的状语，这样改从语法角度看是正确的，但 是句子的结构和意思却变了。故这不是正确答案。 【典例 13】That’s why Americans get uneasy when a listener is silence and shows no change of
expression. 解析：silence 改为 silent。某些考生对 in silence 这一短语很熟悉，所以一看此处 silence 前无介 词 in， 即判断为少介词 in， 但忽略了介词短语 in silence 相当于副词 silently， “安静地， 表示 无声地” ， 多用作状语，修饰谓语动词，与此句意思不符。此处应把 silence 改为形容词 silent，与前面的系动词 is 构成系表结构，表示状态。 2．最佳解题步骤 ⑴通览全文，把握大意 正确理解短文内容，准确把握大意是识别和纠正错误的前提和条件。因此，有必要在动笔之前， 快速阅读全文，理清逻辑关系，形成整体印象后，再综合运用已有的语言基础知识着手改错。对短文 的首句或前几句所交代的时间、地点、背景以及全文的主体时态应予以特别重视。 ⑵逐行分析，分句判断 英语短文改错一般“题以行出，错从句生” ，因此必须以句子而不是以每行为意义单位来分析。 分析复合句查连词，分析主句、从句和简单句查句法和语法错误，最后分析组成句子的各部分查词法 错误。判断时务必要结合短文内容瞻前顾后，仔细斟酌，反复推敲，尤其要注意上下文之间是否连贯、 统一，行文逻辑是否符合习惯，结构搭配是否和谐等。 ⑶由易到难，各个击破 纠错时要从最简单最熟悉的项目入手，进行观察、分析、纠正。遇到不好改的难句时，既不要因 无从下手而被拦路虎吓倒，畏缩不前， 也不要因急于求成而草率行事，匆匆改就。 此时， 不妨将其“束 之高阁”，继续往下做。多数题目做完后，个别难题或许就能根据上下文提供的信息迎刃而解。实在 难以改正的，也许就是正确无误的行，可留待最后通盘考虑，再最后敲定。 ⑷复读全文，弥补疏漏 这是短文改错的最后也是关键的一步。上述步骤完成后，要继续本着“有错必改，有误必纠”的 原则复读全文，仔细检查语言是否规范，意思是否连贯，句子是否合乎逻辑，错误类型比例是否恰当， 答题是否规范等等，以确保每行每句正确无误。 3．备考注意事项 根据短文改错题的命题规律和考生作答时暴露出的问题，我们在复习中应注意以下几点： ⑴平时注意培养发现、判断文章中错误的能力 我们常常发现考生做题时不但没有改掉错题，反而将正确的题改成错误的了。主要原因是大脑中 缺乏正确语言的存储或对正确语言存储的不够深刻，因而也就失去了发现错误的基础，当然无法判断 对与错。因此我们建议考生平时要阅读英语国家原版文章来加大语言的输入量，扩大和加深它们在大 脑中的存储、训练的方法可以是让考生多听、多读原文篇章，最好能背诵一些语言地道，与短文改错 选文要求相似的百字短文，形成“语感”。同时我们还建议考生在输入时进行有针对性的自我训练。 如当考生阅读了一篇短文，“Yesterday evening, I went to see a film....”, 考生可模拟短文改错题的错 误类型对自己设问“如果在 yesterday evening 前加上介词 on 为什么不对?”这种办法可使考生多接触 正面的训练，避免造成记忆混乱，从根本上提高考生发现、判断文章中错误的能力。 ⑵平时加强语言基本功的训练，尤其是要培养和提高考生使用语言的准确性 加强语言基本功的训练， 就要注意英语词汇和语法的学习。 要求考生准确掌握动词的时态、 语态、 语气，名词的数、冠词的使用，介词的搭配，形容词和副词的级，各种连词的词义及功能等等。加强 语言基本功的训练，不仅要注意英语词汇和语法的学习，更要注意语篇知识的学习。要了解构成篇章 的结构、反映其内在的逻辑关系及文章的含义的各种手段。 ⑶在坚持平时以正面训练为主的基础上，适当地进行专题训练
临近高考，短文改错题的强化训练是必要的，但是方法要得当。建议不要一味地盲目做题。应在 做完一定量的强化题后，停下来对自己的错误进行认真的分析，找出对自己成绩提高影响最大的知识 点或其他问题。然后集中力量就此做更系统和深入的查漏补缺学习。最后，再返回来做题，以检验学 习效果。 ⑷坚持短文改错与书面表达相结合的原则，实现“双赢” 在书面表达训练时，渗透短文改错训练，即就地取材，将学生的书面表达作为短文改错的原始材 料，进行短文改错模拟训练，这样既能巩固学生书面表达中出现的重要知识点，又能够提高书面表达 和短文改错能力，实现“双赢”，何乐而不为呢？
重点 1 重点诠释
名词是英语中最常用词性之一，因此在历年高考试题中屡见不鲜，其中考查热点集中在特定语境 下名词词义辨析、含名词短语的习惯搭配、可数名词与不可数名词的区分、名词所有格以及相关冠词 的用法、主谓一致等。要在短文改错中准确辨别名词方面的错误，首先应对名词中容易出现错误的知 识点掌握清楚。
英语中名词分为可数名词和不可数名词，可数名词又分为单数可数名词和复数可数名词。那么名 词要求用复数形式常见于以下几种情况： 1．名词前有 two, ten, several, many 等表复数意义的限定词。 【典例 1】But one and a half year later I now think English is fun to learn. 解析：year→years。本题考查名词前限定词对名词单复数的限制。one and a half 表示“一个半”， 是复数概念，因此后边的名词应用复数形式。one and a half years 相当于 one year and a half。 2．名词用复数形式表示类属，即“一类人”或“一类物”。 【典例 2】All over the world men and woman, boys and girls enjoy sports. 解析： woman→women。 本题考查平行结构中名词单复数的确定。 本句中， men and woman 和 boys and girls 构成两对对称的短语，意思遥相呼应，“男女老少”，那么形式也要一致，因此都用复数形 式。同时注意以下常见名词变为复数时的不规则变化： 单、复数同形类：means, aircraft, deer, fish, Chinese, Japanese, sheep, works, cattle 等； 改变元音字母类： man—men, woman—women, foot—feet, tooth—teeth, goose—geese, ox—oxen 等； 完全不规则类：child—children, mouse-mice 等。 3． 某些名词， 只用复数形式， glasses 眼镜， 如 clothes 衣服， goods 货物， trousers 裤子， belongings 所有物,wages 工资，riches 财富, surroundings 环境，ashes 灰尘, congratulations 祝贺，have words with sb. 同某人吵架，in high spirits 以很高热情地，give one’s regards to sb.向某人问侯，in rags 衣衫破烂 good manners 有礼貌。 【典例 3】We offered our congratulation on his winning a gold medal at the 10th National Games. 解析：congratulation 用于口头上祝贺某人时，常用复数形式，因此应把 congratulation 改为 congratulations。 4．在特定语境下，只能用复数形式才能照应句子内在逻辑。 【典例4】Sometimes, we talked to each other very well in class, but after class we become stranger at once. 解析：stranger→strangers。本题考查特定语境下名词复数的判定，难度较大。stranger 是单数可 数名词，“陌生人”，结合语境，“有时我们课堂上愉快交谈，但课后立即变成陌生人了。”这里指 我和我的同学们，复数概念。
不可数名词误用主要有以下几种情况： 1． 英语中不可数名词一般没有复数形式， 不能直接与数词连用， 前边也不能用 a, an 等不定冠词。 【典例 5】Without enough knowledges, you can never learn well. 解析：knowledges→knowledge。本题考查不可数名词表示泛指的用法。该句表示“没有足够的知 识，你永远学不好。”这里 knowledge 泛指各种知识，属于常规用法。 2．一般说来抽象名词、物质名词为不可数名词，但当它们表示具体的东西时，可用作可数名词且词 义发生变化，主要类型如下： ⑴抽象名词表示具有某种特性、状态、感情情绪的人或事。如： 抽象名词（不可数） 具体化（个体名词，可数名词） in surprise 惊讶地 a surprise 一件令人惊讶的事 win success 获得成功 a success 一个(件)成功的人(事) win honor 赢得荣誉 an honor 一件引以为荣的事 by experience 靠经验 an experience 一次经历 youth 青春 a youth 一个青年人 with pleasure 乐意 a pleasure 乐事 have pity on sb.怜悯某人 a pity 可惜的事情 ⑵抽象名词与 a(an)连用，淡化了抽象概念，转化为似乎可以体验到的动作、行为或类别。如： A knowledge of English is a must in international trade. 英语知识在国际贸易中是必须的。 Would you like to have a walk with me? 你愿意和我一起散步吗？ It is a waste of time reading such a novel. 阅读这样的小说真是浪费时间。 She made an apology to her mother for her wrong doings. 因为自己的错误行为她向母亲道了歉。 ⑶物质名词也是不可数名词，但表示数量或种类之多时，可以用作可数名词。如： some coffee 一些咖啡，a coffee 一杯咖啡，three coffees 三杯咖啡 some drink 一些饮料, a drink 一杯饮料，three drinks 三杯饮料 his hair 他的头发，a few grey hairs 几根白发 glass 玻璃，a glass 一只玻璃杯 【典例 6】Oh, John. What pleasant surprise you gave us! 解析：pleasant 前加 a。本题考查抽象名词具体化的用法。surprise 作“惊讶”讲，是不可数名词， 但这里指具体的“惊讶的事情”，转化为可数名词，所以前边应用不定冠词 a。 3．不可数名词的修饰语与可数名词的修饰语应严格区分。 类别 单词或短语 只修饰不可数名词 much, little, a little, a great deal of… 只修饰可数名词 many, few, a few, a number of, a good many… 既修饰可数名词又修 some, a lot of, plenty of, a large quantity of, large quantities 饰不可数名词 of, masses of… 【典例 7】There’s so many traffic on the roads that driving is not a pleasure. 解析：many→much。本题考查不可数名词的修饰语。traffic 表示“交通流量”，是不可数名词， 应用 much 修饰。many 修饰可数名词复数形式。
1．名词作定语一般用单数，但 goods, clothes, sales, sports 等单词例外；boy, girl 作定语只用单数，
而 man, woman 作定语随中心词单复数变化而变化。 【典例 8】These girls students want to be women doctors when they grow up. 解析：girls→girl。本题考查名词复数形式及名词作定语。结合前边所讲，这里应用 girl（单数形 式）作定语。 2．在英语中有些名词可以加"s"来表示所有关系，带这种词尾的名词形式称为该名词的所有格，如：a teacher's book。名词所有格的规则如下： ⑴单数名词词尾加's，复数名词词尾没有 s，也要加's。如： the boy's bag 男孩的书包，men's room 男厕所 ⑵若名词已有复数词尾-s，只加'。如： the workers' struggle 工人的斗争 ⑶凡不能加"’s"的名词，都可以用"名词+of +名词"的结构来表示所有关系。如： the title of the song 歌的名字 ⑷在表示店铺或教堂的名字或某人的家时，名词所有格的后面常常不出现它所修饰的名词。如： the barber's 理发店 the doctor’s 医务室 ⑸如果两个名词并列，并且分别有's，则表示"分别有"；只有一个's，则表示“共有”。如： John's and Mary's room（两间）John and Mary's room（一间） 【典例 9】If the company wants to fire me, they have to give me three months notice. 解析：months→months’。本题考查名词所有格的用法。three months’ notice 指提前三个月通知。 该句意为：如果公司想解雇我，他们必须提前三个月通知我。 【典例 10】This is Anne's and Jane's bedroom. The twin sisters like it very much. 解析：Anne's→Anne。本题考查并列名词所有格的用法。后半句表示两人共有一个房间，因此只 能在后面的名词后加’s。 【好题调研】 1. Please read the instruction carefully before using the medicine. 2. It's such an important information that we should report it to the headmaster at once． 3. Are they going to have a picnic on Childrens Day? 4. To my surprised, I found we have much in common in our taste. 5. There are five shoes to choose from, but I’m at a loss which to buy. 6. The New York Times are read all over the United States. 7. The police is searching the city for a thief. 8. During my stay in London I visited many places of interests. 9. We study quite a few subject, such as maths, Chinese, English, and physics. 10. I take a quick at some of the headline on the front page. 【强化闯关】 1. We practice three times every week and often watch football match on TV together. 2. Carry your valuable with you, your money, jewelry, camera and so on. 3. The majority of doctors believes smoking is harmful to health. 4. After one year hard work, the Senior Three students have already prepared themselves for the entrance examination. 5. Today I visited the Smiths—my first time visit to an American family. 6. That is where the main difference between animals and human being lies. 7. She said she and my classmate all wished me success. 8. Professor White gave me one of the best piece of advice I’ve ever heard. 9. If you have troubles falling asleep, some people suggest breathing slowly. 10. I asked several passer-by, but unfortunately none of them knew the difference. 11. Remember that we will not always get so many time for our parent and other family members.
12. I saw your wife and children waiting for me with warm smile of welcome on their faces. 13. I told her not to use the office phone for personal call. 14. Looking back at my childhood experience, I think that three reason might explain the fear. 15.Many new homes have been built in helping you to get round London.
重点 2 重点诠释
由于汉语中没有冠词的概念，因此英语中冠词的使用成为中学生容易出错的地方，高考短文改错 也正是针对考生在思维上的误区设置错误。短文改错对冠词的考查集中在以下几方面： 1.该使用冠词的地方没有使用冠词或不需要使用冠词的地方却使用了冠词； 2.冠词的误用，如：该使用定冠词的地方使用了不定冠词，而应该使用不定冠词的地方却使用了 定冠词。 考查重点具体来说有：
冠词漏用的场合很多，主要见于以下情况： 1. 单数可数名词前漏用不定冠词 【典例 1】I was a high school student then, from low-income family. 解析：low-income 前加 a。这里是单数可数名词前漏用了不定冠词。a low-income family 表示一 个低收入家庭。不定冠词 a(n)的基本用法有： ⑴泛指一类人和物，相当于 any。如： A horse is a useful animal. 马是有用的动物。 A steel worker makes steel. 钢铁工人炼钢。 ⑵表示 one 或 every，表示“一”“每”。如： We have three meals a day. 我们一天吃三顿饭。 I’ll return in a day or two. 我一两天后回来。 ⑶指某人或某物，但不具体说明是何人、何物。如： A Mr. Wang is waiting for you outside. 有位姓王的先生在外边等你。 ⑷用在 quite, rather, many, half, what, such 等词后。如： Many a boy is swimming. 许多男孩在游泳。 The village is half an hour’s walk from here. 村庄距离这里步行有半小时的路程。 ⑸用在 so(as/too/how etc.) +形容词之后。如： How interesting a film it is! 电影真有趣！ He is not so /as good a driver as you. 他不是一位和你一样优秀的司机。 ⑹用 a/an + 抽象名词，表示“一件??的事”、“一个??的人”。如： As a writer she is a success. 作为作家，她是成功的。
⑺组成固定词组或成语。如： a little, a few, a lot, a type of, a pile, a great many, many a, as a rule, in a hurry, in a minute, in a word, in a short while, after a while, have a cold, have a try, keep an eye on, all of a sudden 等。 2. 抽象名词具体化时，前边没有用不定冠词 【典例 2】Many people agree that knowledge of English is a must in international trade today. 解析：knowledge 前加 a。 这里抽象名词具体化时， 前边漏用了不定冠词。a knowledge of 具体?? 方面的知识。 3. 固定搭配中漏用冠词 【典例 3】I hope you’ve had a pleasant journey home and will come to China again sometime in future. 解析：future 前加 the。in future 和 in the future 含义不同。结合语境这里应用后者表示“在将来”。 注意以下易混短语的区别： at table at the table in hospital in the hospital in place of in the place of go to prison go to the prison in future in the future on earth on the earth go to church go to the church 在进餐 在桌子旁 在住院 在医院里 代替 在??的地方 坐牢 到监狱去 从今以后，将来 未来 究竟 在地球上，在世上 去做礼拜 到教堂去 in front of in the front of out of question out of the question a number of the number of for a moment for the moment in charge of in the charge of by day by the day in possession of in the possession of 在（外部）前面 在（内部）前面 毫无疑问 不可能 许多 ??的数目 一会儿 目前，暂时 负责 由??负责 在白天 按日计算 拥有 为??所有
多余使用冠词的场合也很多，常见情况有： 1．物质名词或抽象名词表示泛指时前边省略冠词 【典例 4】Although we have been members for a short period of time, we have made a great progress. 解析：去掉第二 a。本题考查不可数名词不与不定冠词连用的用法。progress 作“进步”讲是不 可数名词，前边不能用不定冠词。make progress 取得进步。 2．三餐饭、球类运动、季节、月份、日期、星期、节日、学科名词前常省略冠词 【典例 5】He promised to come and see us after the supper. 解析：去掉 the。本题考查三餐饭类名词前常省略冠词的用法。after supper 晚饭后。注意这类名 词前有形容词修饰时，指具体某顿饭，转化为可数名词，如：We had a delicious dinner yesterday. 3．依据一些固定搭配或者句子逻辑不该用冠词 【典例 6】It has been too dry this year and there are a few apples on the tree. 解析：去掉 a。本题考查句子内在逻辑关系。既然天气干燥，果树结果实就比较少，因此逻辑上 表示否定意义，应用 few。不用冠词的场合概括如下： ⑴泛指的复数名词，表示一类人或事物时，可不用定冠词。如： They are all middle school teachers. 他们都是中学教师。 ⑵抽象名词表示一般概念时，通常不加冠词。如： Failure is the mother of success. 失败乃成功之母。
⑶物质名词表示一般概念时，通常不加冠词，当表示特定的意思时，需要加定冠词。如： Man cannot live without water. 人类离不开水。 ⑷在季节、月份、节日、 假日、日期、星期等表示时间的名词之前，不加冠词。如： We go to school from Monday to Friday. 我们星期一到星期五上学。 ⑸在称呼或表示官衔，职位的名词前不加冠词。如： The guards took the American to General Lee. 卫兵们把那位美国人带到李将军面前。 ⑹在三餐饭、球类运动和娱乐运动的名称前，不加冠词。如： have breakfast 吃早饭，play chess 下棋 ⑺当 by 与火车等交通工具连用，表示一种方式时，中间无冠词。如： by bus 乘汽车，by train 乘火车
冠词误用的情况比较复杂，但常见于以下几种情况： 1．根据特定语境逻辑需要表示特指而不是泛指或者正好相反 【典例 7】My father has two brothers and three of them are all Party members. 解析：three 前加 the。我父亲有两个兄弟，加上他本人是三人，因此后面 three of them 应指他们 三兄弟全体。故须在 three 前加定冠词 the，以表示总数。若不加 the 则指他们总数不止三人，这与前 句意思不符。定冠词 the 的基本用法如下： 定冠词 the 与指示代词 this，that 同源，有“那（这）个”的意思，但意义较弱，可以和一个名词连用， 来表示某个或某些特定的人或东西。 ⑴表示特定的或上文已提到的人或物。如： How did you like the report? 你认为这个报告怎么样？ ⑵表示世界上独一无二的东西。如： The sun is the centre of the world. 太阳是世界的中心。 ⑶表示江河、山川群岛、海峡海湾及国家、党派的名称是由几个普通名词构成的专有名词。如： the Dead Sea 死海, the People’s Republic of China 中华人们共和国 the People's Park 人民公园, the Golden Gate Bridge 金门大桥 ⑷定冠词+姓氏复数，表示夫妇或一家人。如： The Whites are spending their holiday in England. 怀特夫妇正在英国度假。 ⑸演奏的乐器名称前加定冠词。如： play the piano 弹钢琴, play the flute 吹笛 ⑹某些形容词前加 the 表示一类人或物，谓语动词用复数。如： The wounded are taken good care of in the hospital. 伤员们在医院得到很好的照顾。 ⑺用在单数名词前，表示一类人或一类物。如： The computer is a useful invention. 电脑是有用的发明。 ⑻用在序数词前、形容词最高级前或表示“两者之间较??者”时。如： He is always the first person to come. 他总是第一个来。 There are two buildings, the larger of which stands nearly a hundred feet high.
有两栋建筑，其中较大的几乎有 100 英尺高。 ⑼表示“几十世纪几十年代”之前。如： in the 1870s 十九世纪七十年代 ⑽表示发明物的名词词前。如： Alexander Graham Bell invented the phone in 1876. 亚历山大· 格来姆· 贝尔 1876 年发明了电话。 ⑾用在方位名词前或某些表示时间的词组中。如： on the left, in the west of in the day, in the morning, the day after tomorrow ⑿用在一些习惯用语中。如： in the day, in the morning (afternoon，evening), the day after tomorrow, the day before yesterday, the next morning, in the sky, in the dark, in the rain, in the distance, in the middle of, in the end, on the whole, by the way, go to the theatre… 2．混淆了与冠词相关的短语 【典例 8】He failed but wanted to try the second time. 解析：the→a。本题考查易混短语的用法。the second time 表示“第二次”，若表示重复，“又一 次”，应用 a second time。 【典例 9】After watching TV, she played the violin for an hour. 解析：violin 前加 the。乐器类名词前总要带定冠词 the，而球类运动名词前总省略定冠词 the。 3．因注意不到语境逻辑或者特殊句型的用法而造成的错误 【典例 10】I’m afraid I will have a little time to come and see you. 解析：去掉 a。本题考查根据句子逻辑关系判断能力。I’m afraid 表示自己委婉的担心，换句话说， 后边表示否定意义，因此应去掉 a。 【好题调研】
1. Besides, it’s waste of time and energy for my teacher to visit my home. 2. A new science museum was open to public in my city last month. 3. What a great fun it is to have a swim in the summer vacation! 4. Ten minutes later, the firemen came and put out fire. 5. I used to be a happy little girl but now I’m shy and say a few words. 6. I had not studied at all at the weekend as I had thought it would be a easy test. 7. Since he has no sense of humor, I’m sure he didn’t catch humor in your remarks. 8. A stranger stopped in the front of me and asked me the way to a new restaurant. 9. I began to feel worried because I didn’t have either a raincoat or umbrella about me. 10. She explained what her problem was to one of helpful shop assistants. 【强化闯关】 1. I was in such hurry that I burnt my hand when I was cooking breakfast. 2. Yes, why not give me a call or come for the get-together this weekend? 3. These cleaning women are paid by hour. 4. Helen was pleased with the offer and decided to start work next day. 5. Of all the students I made fewest mistakes in the exam. 6. Do you know who is in the charge of the children here? 7. He felt that somebody patted him on his shoulder. 8. The most important thing about cotton in history is a part that it played in the Industrial Revolution. 9. Each player must obey captain, who is the leader of the team. 10. As she didn’t want to spend much money, she chose cheaper of the two. 11. Please tell a good news to the rest of the family as soon as possible. 12. When sun was setting, he still didn't catch any fish.
13. Here is introduction to the Beech School of English. 14. In fact many people enjoy sports by watching the others play. 15. The Wilsons live in an A-shaped house near the coast. It is the 17th century cottage.
重点 3 重点诠释
高考短文改错题所考查的代词主要涉及人称代词、 物主代词、 不定代词、 指示代词和关系代词等。 由于代词主要用来代替上文提到的人或物，因而代词错误往往同上下文具有密切的联系，一般较为隐 蔽，不易被发现。大家在判断时可以从以下角度入手： 1.代词指代的是人还是物。 2.代词指代的是可数名词还是不可数名词。 3.代词指代的是特指还是泛指概念。 4.代词指代的概念是表示两者之间还是三者或三者以上。 5.代词所表示的是肯定还是否定概念。
代词误用在高考短文改错中所占比例较大，主要涉及以下考点： 1．易混不定代词由于含义、范围、搭配不同导致误用 【典例 1】We haven’t enough books for anybody; some of you will have to share. 解析：anybody→everybody。本题考查部分否定的用法。由于忽略后半句语境要求没有判断出前半句 考查否定的用法。not 与 all, both, very, each, often, always 以及 everyone, everywhere, everything 等连用 构成部分否定。 注意 every 和 each 的区别： ⑴every 强调全体的概念，each 强调个体概念。如： Every student in our school works hard. 我们学校的学生都很用功。 Each student may have one book.. 每个学生都可以有一本书。 ⑵every 指三个以上的人或物(含三个)，each 指两个以上的人或物 (含两个)。如： There are beautiful trees and flowers on every side of the square. 广场的每侧都有漂亮的树木和花卉。 There are green grass and red flowers on each side of the river. 河两岸都是绿草和红花。 ⑶every 只作形容词，不可单独使用，each 可作代词或形容词。如： Every student has to take exercise. 每个学生都得进行锻炼。 Each boy has to take exercise.
Each of the boys has to take exercise.
⑷every 有“每隔??”的意思，each 没有。如： She ccomes to see us every other week. 她每隔一周来看望我们一次。 The Olympic Games are held every four years. 奥运会每隔四年举行一次。
⑸every 与 not 连用，表示部分否定, each 和 not 连用表示全部否定。如： Every man is not honest. 并非每个人都诚实。 Each man is not honest. 这儿每个人都不诚实。 2．忽略特定语境要求，使用代词不当 【典例 2】We asked John and Jerry, but both of them could offer a satisfactory explanation. 解析： →neither。 both 本题考查不定代词所指代的范围以及基本意思。 句中 but 一词是解题的关键， 暗示前边所提“两人都没有”给出令人满意的解释，应用 neither。注意以下几个不定代词的用法区别： either “两者中任何一个”，可修饰或代替单数可数名词。 neither“两者中没有一个”的意思，修饰或代替单数可数名词。 none 既可以指人又可以指物，代替不可数或可数名词作主语时。 all 一般与复数名词连用时，表示“所有的”、“全部的”，指三个或三个以上的人或物。 both 表示“两者都”的意思，用作定语、宾语、主语和同位语，可以指人或指物。 Here are two pens. You may take either of them. 这里有两只钢笔。你可以拿其中任何一只。 Neither of us is a teacher. 我们俩都不是教师。 I want to drink some milk but there is none in the cup. 我想喝点牛奶，但杯子里一点也没有剩下。 Not all the ants go out for food. 并不是所有的蚂蚁都出去寻找食物。 He gave me all the money. 他把全部的钱给了我。 This maths problem can be worked out in both ways. 这道数学题可以用两种方法演出来。 3．代词的数、格、形与具体语境不协调造成错误等。 【典例 3】Let you and I promise not to quarrel about such an unimportant matter any more. 解析：I→me。本题考查人称代词作宾语的基本用法。let sb. do sth.意为“让某人做某事”，因此 这里人称代词作宾语，应用宾格。建议考生搞清楚人称代词和物主代词基本变化，见下表：
分类 目 人称 项
人称代词主格 单数 I you 复数 we you
人称代词宾格 单数 me you 复数 us you
形容词性物主代词 单数 my your 复数 our your
名词性物主代词 单数 mine yours 复数 ours yours
第一人称 第二人称 第三人称
代词漏用的情况并不是很多，考点相对集中在： 1．it 作形式主语或宾语时漏用 【典例 4】The chairman thought necessary to invite Professor Smith to speak at the meeting. 解析：necessary 前加 it。本题考查代词 it 作形式宾语的用法。结合语境，这里 it 作形式宾语，代 替后边的不定式短语。It 作引导词的几种常用句型： ⑴It is +形容词/名词+to do… It is necessary for us to master a foreign language skillfully. 我们有必要熟练掌握一门外语。
It is a pity for you to miss the film. 很遗憾你错过了这部电影。 ⑵It is +形容词/名词+that… It is necessary that all (should) be present at the meeting in time. 全体人员必须按时出席会议。 It is no wonder that he has passed the examination. 难怪他考试及格了。 ⑶It is +过去分词+that… It is requested that we (should) be ready to start out at any time. 要求我们做好随时出发的准备。 ⑷It+不及物动词+that… It doesn’t seem to me that we have been neglecting our duty. 我感觉我们对职责没有疏忽。 It happened that I wasn’t there that day. 恰好那天我不在那儿。 ⑸动词+it+形容词/名词+to do… We think it our duty to clean our classroom every day. 我们认为每天打扫教室是我们的责任。 ⑹动词+it+形容词/名词+that… I think it best that you should stay here. 我认为你最好呆在家里。 I used to feel it a terrible thing that my mother should have to toil so endlessly. 我曾经老觉得母亲不得不无休止地操劳是一件可怕的事情。 ⑺It takes sb. time to do sth. It took thousands of people many years to build the Great Wall. 数以千计的人们花费数年修建长城。 ⑻It is the first time that… It is the first time I have been here. 这是我第一次来到这里。 ⑼It is high time that… It is about time (that) the children went to bed. 孩子们该睡觉了。 ⑽It is…since/when/that… It will be not long before he finishes his job. 没过多久他会完成他的工作。 It is not help but obstacles that make a man. 使人成才的，不是助力，而是阻力。 It was in the park that Tom met your sister yesterday. 汤姆昨天是在公园见到了你妹妹。 ⑾It is no good/use…doing… It is no good learning English without speaking English. 学英语而不说英语是没有用的。 2．依据特定语境漏用部分词汇造成语义混乱 【典例 5】I don’t think we’ve met before. You’re taking me for someone. 解析：someone 后加 else。本题考查根据语境逻辑选用适当的代词。我想我们以前没有见过面。你是 把我当成别人了。take…for 把??误认为。someone else 别人；他人。else 是形容词，意为“其他的；另
外的”，常用在不定代词或疑问代词之后。如： Nobody else understands me as well as you do. 别人没有一个象你这样了解我的。 I've taken somebody else's umbrella. 我把别人的雨伞拿走了。 What else do you see? 你看到别的东西吗？ 3. 某些代词短语不够完整造成代词漏用 【典例 6】Mary and Jones have arrived, but other students in the class aren’t here yet. 解析：other 前加 the。本题考查 other, the other, others 等不定代词的用法。other students 只表示其 他部分学生，与语境不符，而 the other students 表示除了 Mary 和 Jones 以外所有的学生。请看相关不 定代词的用法： ⑴another 修饰或代替单数可数名词，意为"（三个或三个以上的）另一个"，不能指两者中的另一 个，在句中可作宾语和定语。another 表示"另外??"、"又??"，用于"another+数词+复数名词"结构。 如：
Have another piece of cake. 再吃一块饼吧。 Please fatch another cup for me. 请替我另拿一个杯子来。 This hat does not fit me; please show me another. 这顶帽子尺寸不对头，请再拿一顶给我看看。 He wants to buy another three books. 他想再买三本书。 ⑵other 是形容词，表示"其他的"，在句中作定语。如： There are some other people waiting to see you. 还有另外一些人等着要见你。 Have you any other book on this subject? 你还有别的关于这个题目的书吗？ ⑶the other 指"两者中的另一个"，常与 one 连用，构成"One?the other..."句型。the other 作定语修 饰复数名词，表示另一方中的"全部中其余的"，相当于 the others。如： Both my uncles are abroad, one in Paris and the other in New York． 我的两个叔叔都在国外，一个在巴黎，另一个在纽约。 One of them is yours；the other is mine. 一个是你的，另一个是我的。 Where are the other books? 其他的书在哪里？ ⑷others 泛指"其他的人或物（但不是全部）"，常用于 some?others?others?，意为"一些??一 些??一些"。如： Some like this, others like that. 有些人喜欢这个，自些人喜欢那个。 Some of us like singing and dancing, others go in for sports. 我们中有些喜欢唱歌跳舞，而另一些人则喜爱体育。 ⑸the others 表示"（特定范围内）其他的人或物"，是特指，后面不能跟任何名词。如： He came in time, but the others were late. 他按时来了，可是其他的人迟到了。
代词造成的主谓不一致的情况在短文改错中非常普遍，主要见于以下情况： 1.指代关系混乱造成主谓不一致 【典例 7】The students each has an English Chinese Dictionary. 解析：has→have。本题考查同位语的识别以及对主谓一致的影响。本句中，each 作同位语，真正 的主语是 The students，因此谓语用复数形式。当然本句可改写为：Each of the students has an English Chinese Dictionary. 相关提示：利用代词考查主谓一致，需要考虑：代替的名词是否可数、可数名词是否是单数等。 2．某些代词用法掌握不牢造成主谓不一致错误 【典例 8】 All that can be done have been done. 解析：have→has。本题考查不定代词 all 作主语主谓一致问题。all 指人作主语时，谓语用复数形 式，指物时，谓语用单数形式。 【好题调研】 1. There is a No.2 trolleybus and a No.24 bus; any will take you there. 2. Its your decision, of course, but I advise you to take it. 3. If you want to change for a double room you'll have to pay other $15. 4. We had to do the washing, cleaning and shopping by us. 5. If this dictionary is not yours, who else can it be? 6. The Smiths did his best to make me feel at home. 7. Tom’s mother kept telling him that he should work hard, but which didn’t help. 8. At once I apologized and controlled me at my best till the dinner started. 9. And I came to understand that was not easy to earn money. 10. Luckily, the teacher did not punish for cheating but instead gave me a second chance. 【强化闯关】 1. No progress was made in the trade talks as none side would accept the conditions of the other. 2. Staying with an English family it will provide you with a chance to practise your spoken English. 3. I need some blue ink today but there is nothing at hand. 4. The day before the speech contest English teacher talked to me. 5. The thieves fled the town separately, every carrying a bag. 6. Most of the housework was done by two members of the family, my sister and mine. 7. Cut the apple into halves so that the twins may each get other half. 8. Few pleasures can equal those of a cool drink on a hot day. 9. One day I wrote a little story and showed to my teacher. 10. Was you that I saw last night at the concert? 11. I prefer a street in a small town to that in such a large city as Shanghai. 12. There is a fact that English is being accepted as an international language. 13. The Parkers bought a new house but he will need a lot of work before they can move in. 14. I hope there are enough glasses for each guest to have it. 15. There’re so many kinds of tape-recorders on sale that I can’t make up my mind what to buy.
重点 4 重点诠释
介词属于虚词， 但是英语中用法非常灵活的词性之一， 因此在高考试题中经常以不同的形式出现。 其考点主要集中在：表示时间的介词的用法；介词与名词、形容词、动词的习惯搭配；介词的省略等。
1．介词固定搭配错误 【典例1】For example, you can find such information like how to kill people. 解析：like→as。介词固定搭配错误。such…as 是固定搭配，表示“诸如像??”。 2．介词习惯用法错误 【典例 2】At hearing the good news, they jumped with joy. 解析：At→On/Upon。介词习惯用法错误。On/Upon 后接名词或动词-ing 形式表示“一??就”。 该句意为：一听到这则好消息，他们高兴地跳了起来。 3．易混介词误用 【典例3】His father will be back from London after a few days. 解析：after→in。易混介词误用。after 和 in 都可以表示“在??之后”，区别有两点：若后接时 间点，只能用 after，如 after five o’clock；若后接时间段，起点又是现在，则应用 in，起点是过去，则 应用 after。本句中谓语是一般将来时，起点是现在，故用 in a few days。再如： The doctor will be with us in six minutes. 医生六分钟后将会和我们在一起。 She graduated in 1981,and eight years later she became the manager of the factory. 她 1981 年毕业，八年后成为公司经理。 He received her letter after four weeks. 他四周后收到她的来信。 He received her letter after four o’clock. 他四点钟后收到她的来信。 表示时间的相关介词用法如下： ⑴in 表示在某一较长时间内，如世纪、年、月、季、周等一般用介词 in。如： in the 1990s, in the year, in January, in(the) winter / summer / fall / spring, in the first week of May。 还可以用时段名词组成固定短语或词组。如： in a while, in no time, in the daytime, in a short while, in time, in the morning (afternoon, evening)。 ⑵在具体的某一天或某天上午、晚上、前夕，常用 on。如： on Sunday, on Tuesday morning on Christmas Day (但 at Christmas), on Christmas Eve, on Children’s Day on March 8, on the morning (afternoon, evening)of Oct.1 early on the morning of Oct.1 on a rainy night, on warm winter days ⑶表示某一时刻或某一点时间用 at，如小时、分钟等。如： at breakfast(supper, lunch),at six at noon (sunrise, sunset, midday, night, midnight, dawn) at the age of 15, at the time of war,但 in time of danger/ trouble。 【典例 4】Except John, three students also wento to see the film yesterday. 解析：Except→Besides。结合句子意思， “除了约翰，另外三个学生昨天也去看电影了。”except, besides 等易混介词（短语）的区别如下： ⑴besides 除??以外，（还有）。注意 besides 作副词时意思是“而且，更何况”。如： Well all went to the cinema besides Shaw. 除了肖外，我们都去了电影院。 It was too late to see a film, and besides, I was tired. 太晚了不能去看电影。另外，我也感到累了。 ⑵except 除去，除??之外（不再有）。如： We all went except John. 我们都去了，约翰没有。
注意：在否定句中，两词可以换用，如： He has no other hats except / besides this one. 除了这顶帽子，他没有其它的了。 ⑶except for 除了??（对句子主题进行细节校正或附加说明）后接名词、代词或动词-ing 形式， 此时与 except that + 句子意思相同。如： He was very clever except for carelessness 他很聪明，除了粗心这一点。 ⑷except that … 除了??一点以外，后接从句。如： He has not changed except that he is wearing dark glasses. 除了带着墨镜以外，他没有改变。 ⑸except what …除了??以外，后接从句，what 充当从句的主语或宾语。如： I know nothing about the accident except what I read in the newspaper. 除了从报纸上读到的以外，我对这个事故一无所知。 ⑹except when …除了??时候以外，后接从句，when 充当从句的时间状语。如： She never goes to work by bus except when it rains. 除非天下雨，她从来没有乘公交车去上班。 【典例 5】He survived the accident, but his car was damaged without repair. 解析：without→beyond。beyond repair 是习惯搭配，意为“无法维修”。 beyond 的主要用法如下： ⑴介词，表示位置，“在??的那边, 在??之外”。如： What lies beyond the mountains? 山的那一边有什么？ ⑵介词，表示时间，“迟于，到??以后”。如： Don't stay there beyond midnight. 不要过了午夜还留在那儿。 ⑶介词，表示范围，“为?所不能及；多于；超出”。如： The fruit is beyond my reach. 那个果子我够不着。 ⑷介词，常用于否定句和疑问句，“除...以外”。如： I know nothing of it beyond what he told me. 除了他告诉我的以外, 别的我什么都不知道。 ⑸副词，表示“较远处；再往前去；越过”。如： Men can travel to the moon and beyond. 人们能到月球或更远处去旅行。
介词漏用主要见于以下情况： 1. 固定搭配不完整 【典例 1】It is not surprising that the Silver Ghost was regarded “the best car in the world”. 解析：regarded 后加 as。固定搭配不完整。regard…as…意为“把??看作”，as 后接名词、代词、 形容词等。 【典例2】You can find all kinds information in just a few minutes on the Internet. 解析：kinds 后加 of。固定搭配不完整。all kinds of 意为“各种各样的”，后接复数名词。 2. 根据特定语境需要适当的介词但被忽略了 【典例 3】After she considered the problem, she got a tall box to stand. 解析：stand 后加 on。语境特殊用法错误。这里不定式短语 to stand 作定语，应与前边的宾语构成 动宾关系，所以动词后边需要加上适当的介词。
【典例 4】The girl cried just because what you said at the meeting. 解析：because 后加 of。这里 what you said at the meeting 引导宾语从句，相当于一个名词，因此应 用 because of。 表示原因的介词（短语）用法如下： ⑴because of 表示引起结果的直接原因，意义与连词 because 相同。如： He retired last month because of illness. 上个月他因病退休了。 ⑵for 表示内在的、心理上的原因，常与表示喜、怒、哀、乐等情感名词连用；还可表示某种动作 或结果的起因。而连词 for 则表示某种结果的补充理由或显而易见的原因。如： Thank you for your help. 谢谢你的帮助。 When he was still a young man, he was forced to leave his homeland for political reasons. 他还是青年时就因为政治原因离开了他的祖国。 ⑶by 表示外部的，尤其是暴力的或无意中造成某种结果的原因。如：
She took your umbrella by mistake. 她错拿了你的雨伞。 ⑷at 表示某种情绪或动作的起因，多与“喜，怒，哀，乐”等义的词连用，常译作“听到??”。 如： The whole nation was in deep sorrow at the news. 听到这个消息，全国人民极为悲痛。 ⑸with 指生理上或情感上的外界到内心的原因，意为“随着??。”如： Gessler turned red with anger. 盖斯勒气得脸都红了。 ⑹owing to,相当于 because of，多表示引起某种不良后果的原因。如： Owing to his lacking of experience, John failed this time. 因为经验不足，这次约翰又失败了。 ⑺thanks to 表示引起某种幸运结果的原因，常译为“幸亏??，多亏??”。如： Thanks to the timely rain, the farmer had a good harvest. 多亏那场及时雨，农民才有了个好收成。 ⑻out of 表示动机的起因，常译为“出于??”。如： He asked the question out of curiosity. 出于好奇，他提了这个问题。
多余使用介词情况在短文改错中屡屡出现，考点相对集中在： 1. 不符合固定搭配 【典例 1】In the experiment we kept a watchful eye on at the developments and recorded every detail. 解析：去掉 at。固定搭配多余使用介词。keep an eye on 是固定搭配，意为“注视着”、“紧密盯 着”。所以后边的 at 是多余的。 2. 部分易混短语中有无介词不一样 【典例 2】Will you join in the tourist group organized by our school? 解析：去掉 in。易混短语介词使用错误。join in 表示“参加（活动）”，而 join 表示“参加” （组 织）并成为其中一员，用法不同。这里 the tourist group 相当于一个组织，因此应去掉 in。 试比较： shoot sb.射中某人 shoot at sb.朝某人射击 Peter shot several birds last week.
彼得上星期用枪射死了几只鸟。 He shot at the bird but it flew away. 他朝那只鸟放了一枪，可是它飞去了。 tear sth. 撕开某物 tear at sth.撕扯某物 A nail tore a hole in his shirt. 钉子把他的衬衣撕破一个洞。 3. 某些特定结构中需要省略介词 【典例3】I went through the test for many times but I could only answer three out from the twenty questions 解析：去掉 for。特定场合介词没有省略。这里 many times 直接作状语，因此前边应省略介词。 省略介词的几种场合： ⑴表示时间的名词前有 this, that, next, last 等限定词时，前边常省略介词。如： Where are you going this afternoon? 你今天下午去哪里？ Do be careful next time. 下次一定要小心。 Last Sunday we dropped in on Professor Smith. 上周日我们顺便走访了史密斯教授。 ⑵time 前被 some, every, each 等词修饰时，前边往往省略介词。如： Every time I see him he seems to be very busy. 每次我遇见他，他看起来都很忙。 They go swimming three or four times a week. 他们每周游泳三、四次。 ⑶一些短语中的介词常被省略掉。如： spend …(in) doing 花费（时间/金钱）做某事 waste…(in) doing 浪费（时间/金钱）做某事 be busy (in) doing 忙于做某事 have trouble/difficulty (in) doing 做??有困难 have a hard time (in) doing 艰难地做某事 prevent…(from) doing…阻止某人做某事 The government spent a lot of money helping make this land better. 政府花了大量资金帮助改良这片土地。 He is busy getting ready for his journey. 他忙着准备去旅行。 I once asked him if he had any difficulty in keeping five children in school. 有一次我问他供五个孩子上学是否有什么困难。 She closed the gate to prevent the dog from going out of the garden. 她关上大门，免得小狗从花园里跑掉。 【好题调研】 1. The professor divided his spare time into walking and writing. 2. Holiday and birthday postcards can all provide you for stamps from all over the world. 3. The building was named a hero who laid down his life for the cause of the people. 4. The TV set was repaired but not quite with the owner’s satisfaction. 5. Except his wife, his daughter also went to see him. 6. What he said just now had little to do with the question in discussion.
7. Although Tom agreed with her on most points, here was one for which he was unwilling to give in. 8. As production up by 60%, the company has had another excellent year. 9. But for the most wonderful thing about Jack were his musical ability. 10. Luckily, the bullet narrowly missed the captain for an inch. 【强化闯关】 1. By 1929, Mickey Mouse was as popular by children as Coca-Cola. 2. There were fifty people on the board when the accident happens. 3. We hadn’t planned to meet. We met by a chance. 4. September 18, 1931 is the day on which we’ll never forget. 5. We show great respect Mr. Anderson, our new English teacher. 6. Have you been to the place where your father worked there? 7. The better use you can make up time, the greater contributions you will make to society. 8. Cancer is second only with heart disease as a cause of death. 9. The doctor told her not to eat anything among the three meals. 10. The child was lost in the forest, where he was with the mercy of wild beasts. 11. The library from that we borrow books will be rebuilt next year. 12. We offered him our congratulations for his passing the college entrance exams. 13. My uncle lives in116 Changhe Street. His room is on the sixth floor. 14. We know nothing about him except his son joined in the army. 15. It’s so nice to go out for a walk in a cool nice summer evening.
重点 5 重点诠释
高考短文改错形容词和副词的错误主要在于词性的误用，即该用形容词的时候用了副词或该用副 词的时候用了形容词。 比较级方面的错误主要是形容词/副词词级的误用， 以及比较级或最高级前面修 饰语的误用。
易混形容词副词错误在高考短文改错中所占比重较大，主要表现在： 1. 形容词化过去分词与-ing 形式使用不当 【典例 1】I found the game excited, and my dad explained the rules. 解析：excited→exciting。两种分词用法混淆。-ed 分词一般表示“感到??”，而-ing 形式则表示 “令人??的”，注意从逻辑主语和语境意义上进行推断。这里表示比赛是“令人激动的”，应用 exciting。再如： He was excited to hear the news. 他听到那消息很激动。 Is there anything surprising about it? I don't think so. 这难道还有什么可奇怪的？我认为没有什么可奇怪的。 He was surprised that his father had sold the farm. 他对父亲已卖掉农场一事感到惊讶。 2. 常见易混形容词、副词误用 【典例 2】I hope you will come to China again sometimes in the future . 解析： sometimes→sometime。 易混副词误用。 sometimes 意为 “有时” 多与一般现在时连用， sometime 意为“某时；有时”，多指过去或将来某个时间，因此常与一般过去时或一般将来时连用。另外，some times 意为“一些次数”在句中作状语，而 some time 是名词短语，意为“一段时间”。 【典例 3】The medicine had so a bitter taste that I took it mixed in orange juice.
解析：so→such。易混形容词、副词误用。so 和 such 都可表示“如此；一致”，但词性和用法不 同：so 是副词，修饰形容词、副词或谓语动词；such 是形容词，中心词须是名词（名词又分为单数可 数名词、复数名词或不可数名词），名词前可以加上适当的形容词；当形容词是 many, much, few, little 表示“多/少”概念时，应用 so 修饰。因此本句 such a bitter taste 相当于 so bitter a taste。 【典例 4】Frogs go deep under the mud. 解析： deep→deeply。 deep 和 deeply 都可以用作副词， 但含义有别： 前者强调本义， “深地； 深度地” ， 后者强调比喻义，“深深地”。 应学会区分-ly 结尾的单词词性： ⑴大部分-ly 结尾的单词是副词，但有些单词是形容词而非副词，像：lively, lonely, lovely, deadly, friendly, ugly, silly, likely, brotherly, timely 等。如： I like him, he is a very friendly person. 我喜欢他——他是一个很好的人。 Her deadly appearance was due to long illness. 她死一般的外貌是由于长期患病所致。 (2)有些单词有无-ly，意义大不相同。如： late 迟；晚（句末或动词后） pretty 相当；十分 lately 近来；最近（句首，句末） prettily 漂亮地；有礼貌地 hard 努力地；猛烈地；紧紧地 just 正好；正要；刚才 hardly 几乎不；简直不 justly 正当地；公正地 dead 的确；完全；突然 dear 昂贵地；高价地 deadly 非常；极其；死了似地 dearly 深深地；非常 deep 深地（本义） most 最；非常 deeply 深入地；深深地（比喻义） mostly 大多数；大部分地；主要地 high 高高地 close 接近；靠近 highly 高度地；非常地 closely 仔细地；紧密地；严密地 sharp 突然地；急剧地；准时地 wide 广大地；广阔地 sharply 严厉地；机警地 widely 到处地；广泛地 near 在附近；临近；接近 free 自由地；免费地 nearly 几乎；差不多 freely 自由地；随便地 Your work is pretty good, but it could be better! 你的工作不错，但是还可以再好些！ The road turns sharp to the right. 路突然向右转个弯。 The teacher spoke sharply to the boy. 教师严厉地对那个男孩说话。 重点二：形容词、副词词类混用 形容词副词词类混用也是高考短文改错一大热点，即：该用形容词的时候用了副词或该用副词的 时候用了形容词。 【典例 4】It was complete dead, and I was a few miles away from anywhere on a cold, wet night. 解析：complete→completely。修饰关系错误。一般来说，修饰动词、形容词、副词应用副词。这 里表示“车完全不能启用”。 【典例 5】We often played a trick on him. We'd throw a coin as far as possibly. 解析：possibly→possible。词类混用。as far as possible 是 as far as it is possible 的省略，显然 it is 后边应用形容词。 【典例 6】I would describe myself as shy and quietly. 解析：quietly→quiet。词类混用。shy and quiet 是平行结构，因此词性应保持一致。该句意为：我
会把自己描述为害羞文静之类的人。 重点三：形容词、副词比较等级错误 形容词副词比较等级错误在短文改错中复现率极高，常见错误表现在： 1．比较结构不完整 【典例 7】John plays football as well, if not better than, David. 解析：well 后加 as。副词原级比较结构不完整。本句中 if not better than 相当于插入语，这样原句 变为： John plays football as well David. 很明显， 副词原级比较结构不完整， 应用 as well as 表示 “和?? 一样好”。 形容词、副词原级重要用法： ⑴基本句型：as+原级形容词/副词+ as，表示双方在程度、性质、特征等某方面相当，否定句用 not so/as…as…句型。如： I think science is as important as maths. 我认为理科和数学一样重要。 It is not as (so) warm today as yesterday. 今天不如昨天暖和。 ⑵句型拓展：as many/few/much/little +名词+as；as +形容词+a(n)+单数可数名词+as；倍数词+ as +原级形容词/副词+ as。如：
You may borrow as many books as you can.
你想借多少书就借多少。 She is as able a girl as her sister. 她和她妹妹一样能干。 This tree is three times as tall as that one. 这棵树是那棵树的三倍。 2．原级与比较级结构混用 【典例 8】Paper produced every year is three times as heavier as the world's production of vehicles. 解析：heavier→heavy。形容词原级使用不当错误。as…as…是形容词、副词原级进行比较，因此 中间应用其原形。 形容词、副词比较级常用句型如下： ⑴“比较级+ than”表示一方超过另一方，“比??更”。如： This picture is more beautiful than that one. 这幅画比那副更漂亮。 ⑵“less+原形+than”的结构表示一方不及另一方，“不如??更”。如： This room is less beautiful than that one. 这个房间不如那间更漂亮。 ⑶“比较级+and+比较级”结构不与其他事物相比，表示本身程度的改变，“越来越??”。如： The weather is getting colder and colder. 天气变得越来越冷。 ⑷“The +比较级+…, the +比较级+…”表示一方随另一方的程度而变化，“越??，越??”。 如： The harder he works, the happier he feels. 他越是工作，越感到高兴。 ⑸“the+比较级+of 短语”表示两者间“较??的一个”。如： Who is the older of the two boys? 这两个男孩，哪个年龄最大？
3．比较级、最高级修饰语错误 【典例 9】Both the diet and the exercise will help me to lose weight and feel more better. 解析：去掉 more。比较级修饰语重复错误。more 和 less 后边不能再用比较级，否则就造成重复。 关于比较级、最高级的修饰语，注意以下几点： ⑴ 可在比较级前加表示程度的状语，如 even, a lot, a bit, a little, still, much, far, yet, by far 等，表示 一方超过另一方的程度或数量。如： He is taller by far than his brother. 他比他哥哥高得多。 He works even harder than before. 他学习比以前更努力了。 ⑵ 最高级可被序数词以及 much, by far, nearly, almost, by no means, nothing like 等词语所修饰。 如： How much did the second most expensive hat cost? 仅次于最贵的帽子值多少钱？ This is the very best chocolate cake I've ever tasted. 这是我品尝过的味道最好的巧克力蛋糕。 【好题调研】 1. Some people are trying to steal person information for bad purposes. 2. Some people are against the plan, but much more support it. 3. Betty stood closely to her teacher and watched closely what he was doing. 4. We decided not to climb the mountains because it was raining hardly. 5. However, we seldom felt lonely or helplessly. 6. I’ll also do plenty of exercise, which won’t do me any harm too. 7. It is a good way for us to memorize new words by seeing them repeated. 8. In examinations, it is dishonest and foolishly to help or to ask help from others. 9. You won’t be able to get any farther information until tomorrow. 10. Many students signed up for the 800-metres-long race in the sports meeting. 【强化闯关】 1. He knew such little French that he couldn't make himself understood. 2. John was so sleepy that he could hardly keep his eyes opening. 3. The Mississippi River is longer than any river in the U.S.A. 4. How beautiful she sings! I have never heard a better voice. 5. I had invited 50 guests to the party, but actually twice as much came. 6. It is generally true that the lower the stock markets fall, higher the price of gold rises. 7. He is as tall fellow as his elder brother. 8. It is a beautiful car, but it is not worthy the price that I paid for it. 9. Mr. Smith owns a large collection of coins than anyone I have ever met. 10. He is possible to come to help us if he doesn’t have to attend the meeting. 11. From his satisfying voice on the phone I know everything is well under way. 12. The houses in the village are most built of wood and hay. 13. Attention please, everybody! Please keep silent for a moment. And let me take a photo. 14. Good ways of doing things mean saving time, and besides it is important for us to find them. 15. The number of people present at the concert was much more than expected. There were many tickets left.
重点 6 重点诠释
高考短文改错中时态的使用错误主要是时态的不一致，如全篇用的都是现在时态，而在某一个地方却 出现了不合逻辑的过去时，或全篇使用的是过去时，而在短文的某一个地方却出现了现在时。有时前 面用的是过去时，后面却出现了现在时；前面用的都是现在时，后面却出现了过去时。这些情况多出 现在说明几个连续动作的句子中。 重点一：并列句谓语动词时态不一致 英语中并列句谓语动词时态和语态应保持一致，这一点已经成为高考短文改错一大命题热点，高考复 现率达 100%，务必引起注意。 由两个或两个以上的简单句并列连接起来的句子叫并列句。 并列句的基本句型：简单句+ 并列连词 +简单句。基本用法如下： ⑴并列关系 连接词有：and, not only?but(also), neither?nor 等。如： I help him and he helps me. 我帮助他，他也帮助我。 Not only did we write to her but also we telegraphed her. 我们不仅给她写信而且还给她发了电报。 Neither I would consult him nor he would ask me for advice. 我不想与他商量，他也不会征求我的意见。 ⑵转折关系 连接词有：but, yet, still, while, however, when 等。如： He failed many times, but he didn’t despair. 他失败多次但并没有气馁。 She has difficulty in learning English, however, she works hard and is making rapid progress. 她学习英语有困难，然后她学习努力，进步很快。 注意：①yet 和 still 是连接副词，也叫半连接词。它们是副词。又起连接作用，但不如 and, but, or 等强，用了 yet 或 still，前面还可加 and 或 but。如： He is tired, (but) still he will make another experiment. 他很累，但他仍然要做另一个实验。 I got up very early, (and) yet I failed to catch the first bus. 我起得很早，然而还是没有赶上头班车。 ②while 意义相当于 at the same time 表示相反和对照，常用来连接两个意义对立的分句。如： I like football, while my sister likes basketball. 我喜欢足球，而我姐姐喜欢篮球。 ⑶选择关系 连接词有：or, otherwise or else, either?or 等。如： We must hurry, or we’ll miss the train. 我们必须快点，否则会赶不上火车。 Either you come to my place or I go to yours. 或者你到我这儿来，或者我到你那去。 ⑷因果关系 连接词有：for, so, thus, therefore, and so 等。如： We had better stay at home, for it was raining. 我们最好呆在家里，因为天正在下雨。 He didn’t work hard, therefore he failed in the examination. 他学习不努力，因此这次考试不及格。 【典例 1】My sister found a bird on the roadside. We named him Jack and keep him for about three years.
解析：keep→kept。根据上下文语境，这里讲述过去发生的一系列事件，所以后一个并列分句谓 语动词与前边一致。 【典例 2】Charles Rolls, a car maker, was very interested in Royce’s car, and soon Rolls arid Royce go
into business together. 解析：go→went。这里同是描述过去发生的诸多事情，应与前一个分句时态一致，即用一般过去 时。 【典例 3】 Sometimes, we talked to each other very well in class, but after class we become strangers at once. 解析：talked→talk。本句是并列句，but 表示前后逻辑上转折关系。根据前边 Sometimes 和整个 语境推断这里表示一个学生的烦恼，即现状。换句话说，应用一般现在时来表示。
动词语态错误主要表现在： 1．忽视语境要求该用被动语态没有用或者不该用却使用了 【典例 4】By the end of next July this building will have completed.
解析： have 后加 been。 根据句子意思， “到下个七月底为止， 这栋建筑将已经完工。 this building ” 与 complete 构成被动关系，因此这里用一般将来完成时的被动语态。 被动语态的基本用法有： 构成方式：be + 过去分词，有时用“get / become +过去分词”表示。不知道或没必要提到动作的 执行者是谁时用被动语态。强调或突出动作的承受者常用被动语态（by 短语有时可以省略）。 ⑴常见句式是：主语（受动者）＋be＋过去分词＋（by＋施动者）。如：
He was scolded by the English teacher. 英语老师批评了他。 ⑵带有双宾语（直接宾语和间接宾语）的主动句变为动句，其主语可以是直接宾语，也可以是间 接宾语。如： My friend gave me an interesting book on my birthday. →An interesting book was given to me (by my friend)on my birthday. →I was given an interesting book (by my friend) on my birthday. 过生日我的朋友送给我一本有趣的书。 ⑶复合宾语结构主动变被动时，宾语补足语变成主语补足语（位置不变）。注意不定式前需加 to。 如： The boss made him work all day long. →He was made to work all day long (by the boss). 老板让他整天工作。 ⑷短语动词变被动语态时，勿要丢掉“尾巴”。如： The children were taken good care of (by her). 孩子们得到她很好的照料。 Your pronunciation and spelling should be paid attention to. 你应该注意你的发音和拼写。 ⑸情态动词和 be going to, be to, be sure to, used to, have to, had better 等结构变被动语态，只需将它 们后面的动词原形变为 be +过去分词。如： This problem must be worked out in half an hour. 这个问题必须半小时内解决。 The sports meet is to be held on Saturday. 运动会将于星期六举行。 ⑹当句子的谓语为 say, believe, expect, think, know, write, consider, report 等时，被动语态有两种形
式：谓语动词用被动语态，动词不定式作主语补足语或者用 it 作形式主语，真正的主语在后面用主语 在后面用主语从句来表示。如： People say he is a smart boy.
→It is said that he is a smart boy.
→He is said to be a smart boy. 人们说他是一个聪明的男孩。 People know paper was made in China first. →It is known that paper was made in China first. →Paper was known to be made in China first. 众所周知，纸首先由中国制造的。 类似句型有：It is said / known / suggested / believed / hoped/ thought that … 2．部分不及物动词或短语不能用于被动语态 【典例 5】We have sometimes accidents on this line, but no accidents have been occurred since last winter. 解析：去掉 been。occur, happen, take place, break out, come about 等均可表示“发生；出现”，但 无一例外都不能用于被动语态，因此这里的 been 是多余的。如： Something has happened to the train. 火车出事故了。 Great changes have taken place since 1976. 一九七六年以来发生了巨大的变化。 A fire broke out near here yesterday. 昨天此地附近发生了一场火灾。 The accident comes about in this way. 这事故就是这样发生的。 3．忽视主动形式表示被动意义的特殊用法 【典例 6】This cloth you bought is cheap, but it is wears well. 解析：去掉 is。wear, write, wash, sell, last 等动词与副词连用，主动形式表示被动意义。该句意为： 你买的这种布料很便宜，但很耐穿。再如：Her new novel sells well both at home and abroad. 她的新小 说国内外都很畅销。 主动形式表示被动意义的基本用法如下： ⑴有些及物动词，如 act, add, burn, close, compare, cook, cut, digest, draw, feel, keep, last, lock, open, pay, pull, read, sell, shut, smoke, spread, strike, teach, tear, wash, wear, write 等，在某些情况下用作不及 物动词，后接副词，其形式上是主动的，意义是被动的。如： The shop opens from 9 a.m. to 10 p.m. 这家商店从上午九点到下午十点营业。 This kind of cloth washes well. 这种布很耐洗。 The books sell well. 这些书很畅销。 ⑵一些表示状态特征的动词的主动形式表示被动意义，这种动词可分为如下几类。 ①表示感官的动词：appear, look, seem, sound, smell, taste, feel 等。如： The music sounds beautiful. 音乐优美动听。 ②表示保持某种状态的动词：keep, remain, stand, sit, lie, last 等。如：
The house has stood empty for months. 那房子空了几个月了。 ③表示变成某种状态的动词：become, get, turn 等。如： Seeing them, the young woman got so excited. 看到这些，这位年轻妇女变得那样地激动。 ④表示证明和结果状态的动词：prove, turn out 等。如： As time went on, Einstein’s theory proved to be correct. 随着时间的推移，爱因斯坦的理论被证明是正确的。 ⑤表示适合状态的动词：fit, suit 等。例如： The shoes don’t fit me. 这双鞋我穿不适合。 ⑥表示拥有状态的动词：belong to, have 等。如： This dictionary belongs to me. 这本词典是我的。 ⑶一些表示“开始、结束、移位、运转”意义的动词。如 begin, start, end, stop, drive, ride, remove, run, change 等的主动形式可以表示被动意义。如：
The meeting will begin at nine.
会议将在九点开始。 The machine has been mended and runs very well. 机器修好了，运转得很好。 ⑷“be+形容词+动词不定式”结构中，不定式用主动形式表示被动意义，而且与主语构成逻辑上 动宾关系。如： This sentence is rather difficult to understand. 这个句子很难理解。 The new comer is very easy to get along with. 新来的人很容易相处。
1．使用现在完成时的几种情况 ⑴与时间段连用，表示一个持续的动作。如： How long have you kept this MP3 player? 你这个 MP3 播放器买多久了？ ⑵与 since 连用，表示“自从??以来”。如： England has not won the World Cup in football since 1966. 英格兰 1966 年以来就没有赢得过世界杯。 ⑶与 so far, in the past few years, up to now, ever since 等短语连用。如： Three buildings have been set up in our school in the past few years. 过去几年里我们学校已经盖了三栋建筑。 ⑷用于 This is the first time that…句型，表示“这是??第一次??”。如： This is the first time that you have been here. 这是你第一次来这里吧。 【典例 7】I am very pleased to say that all of us greatly improved our spoken English so far. 解析：greatly 前加 have。so far 表示“到目前为止”，常与现在完成时连用。 【典例 8】It was five years since we graduated, but those memories are as sweet as ever before. 解析：was→is。It is/has been…since…是常用句型，意为“自??以来”，since 常与现在完成时
连用。 2．主句是一般将来时或祈使句，if, unless, when, before, as soon as 等引导的状语从句常用一般现 在时代替一般将来时 【典例 9】We will go outing together if it won’t rain tomorrow. 解析：won’t→doesn’t。显然这里没有考虑到状语从句时态的替换用法造成失误。 【好题调研】 1. You don’t need to describe her. I met her several times. 2. After the drive, it was cost just over ￡2 to put the car back into perfect condition. 3. All the tickets had sold out when I got to the cinema. 4. Great changes have been taken place in the city since 1990. 5. The teacher caught me cheating. I don't know what to say. 6. Hardly did the doctor gone to bed when there was a knock on the door. 7. The harder you will work, the better results you will have. 8. Yesterday we were playing basketball while they are playing football. 9. I should very much like to have gone to the party, but I am not invited. 10. I don’t think she’ll be upset, but I’ll see her in case she does. 【强化闯关】 1. Every possible means has tried, but none proves successful. 2. We were told not to go that way because the bridge was repaired. 3. The pen I thought I lost is on my desk, right under my nose. 4. I spent two weeks in Paris last year. Had you gone there before? 5. I'm really discouraged, I didn't expect there will be so much trouble in finding a job here. 6. I have been studying computer for several years and I still have. 7. Last Sunday, he went to the library, borrowing two books and then left. 8. Neither side was willing to give in at all, as a result no agreement has reached. 9. Mr White works as a lawyer now, but he has worked in a company for several years. 10. She was so interested in the book that she read it for three hours before she realized it. 11. When I saw her smiling face, I knew she is writing good news of her daughter. 12. Remember to send me a photo of us next time you will write to me. 13. I can guess you were in a hurry. You were wearing your sweater inside out. 14. I know Mr. Brown; we are introduced to each other at an international conference. 15. I want to buy that kind of cloth because the cloth is washes well.
介词和名词的固定搭配错误在高考短文改错中所占比值最大，主要表现在： 1．介词和名词搭配中冠词误用 【典例 1】Though the young couple got to know each other quite by a chance, they had a lot in common. 解析：去掉第一个 a。by chance 是固定搭配，意为“碰巧；偶然地”。 请注意以下“介词+名词”搭配中均省略冠词：
“by+名词”类：by airplane 乘飞机 by birth 生来 by comparison 比较起来 by day 在白天 by design 故意地 by force 强迫地 by turns 轮流 by weight 按重量计算 “in+名词” ： general 大体上;一般而言 in store 贮藏着； 类 in 保存着； 准备着 in detail 详细地 in particular 特别地 in charge 负责；主管 in case 一旦；万一 in brief 简而言之 in cash 用现金（支付）in conclusion 总之 in control 控制中 in danger（处境）危险 in debt 负债 in place 在原来位置；在适当位置 in reality 事实上 in return 作为回报 in short 简而言之 in total 总共；总计 “on+名词”类：on duty 在值班 on business 在出差 on guard 在站岗 on end 连续；竖立 on fire 着火 on show 在展示 on holiday 在度假 on time 准时 on average 平均 on board 在（车、船）上 on earth 根本； 地球上 on foot 步行 on sale 出售 “at+名词” at dawn 在黎明 at ease 自由自在 at hand 在手边, 在附近 at large 未被捕, 详尽 at length 类： 最后, 详细地 at peace 处于和平状态 at sea 在大海上, 迷茫 at sunrise 日出时 at table 在餐桌边吃饭 at war 交战 “under+名词” ： 类 under arrest 被捕 under discussion 在讨论 under control 控制住 under way 进行中 2．一些固定搭配中介词误用 【典例 2】The car went to the direction of the post office. 解析：to→in。in the direction of 是固定搭配，意为“朝??方向”。 请注意以下常用且易混淆的短语： with one’s help 在??的帮助下 under the leadership of 在??的领导下 to one’s surprise 令某人惊讶的是 in surprise 惊讶地 take…by surprise 使??大吃一惊；突然袭击 thanks for 感谢?? thanks to 多亏?? in the sunshine 在阳光下 under the bridge 在桥下 at a time 每次；同时 at the time 当时；目前 at times 有时，不是 at all times 总是；一直 at that time 那时侯 at one time 过去；曾经有段时间 at no time 从不，从来没有 The town was taken by surprise. 城市被突然攻陷。 I stopped the car very quickly thanks to the good brakes. 由于闸好，我很快煞住了汽车。 Thanks for your help. 谢谢您的帮助。 She spoke half an hour at a time. 她一次讲了半个小时。 In 1969 the first men landed on the moon--I was twelve at the time. 一九六九年人类第一次登上月球——那时我十二岁。 3．固定搭配中可数名词与不可数名词混用等。 【典例 3】Parents often have troubles in finding restaurants that welcome young children. 解析：troubles→trouble。have trouble in doing sth.是固定搭配，意为“在??方面有困难”，trouble
是不可数名词，前边用 much, little, a little, no 等修饰。 请注意以下常见短语中名词的用法： on a visit to 对??的访问 with pleasure 乐意地 for fun 为了乐趣 in comfort 舒适地 of value 有价值的
动词与介词或副词的搭配在短文改错中所占比重比较大， 主要围绕常见动词如 look, keep, take, get, hand, turn 等所构成的短语动词中。考生平时应加强基本训练，牢记常见短语的基本含义和延伸意义， 做到既要知其一，还要知其二。 请注意以下常见“动词+介词/副词“搭配的含义： “add +介词/副词”短语：add to（在原来基础上）增加, 加到；add…to 把?添加到；add up 加 起来；add up to 总计（不能用于被动结构） “break +介词/副词”短语：break away from 突然逃掉；脱离 break down（谈判）破裂；（机器、 车辆）抛锚；（身体）累跨；分解 break in 突然进来；打岔（不接宾语）break into 破门而入；勉强动 用 break off 中断（谈判）；解除（婚约）；突然停止 break out 突然发生（争吵、疾病）；突然（大 声）break through 突破；取得重大成果 break up 驱散（人群）；（中小学）学期结束；分开 “call +介词/副词”短语：call up 召唤；回忆；应征入伍；使想起 call for 需要；要求；值得 call off 取消 call on 拜访；呼吁；邀请 call at (a place)访问（某地）；停泊 call back 召回；收回；回忆； 回电话 call in 叫来；召集 call out 大声喊叫 “die+介词/副词”短语：die away 意思是“渐弱”，多指声音、光线、风等 die down（火、风暴、 兴奋）渐渐平静下来 die for 为??而牺牲 die from 意为“死于（吸烟、事故）”，侧重外部原因 die of 意为“死于（饥饿、悲伤）”，侧重内部原因 die off 相继死去 die out 通常指“（动植物及风俗习 惯）灭绝；消失” “get +介词/副词”短语：get across 讲清楚；被理解 get ahead 比人强；得到成功 get along with 在??方面有进展；与??相处 get away from 走开；避开 get down to 开始认真干（某事）get in touch with 与??取得联系 get in 进站；收（庄稼）get off 下车；脱下；使不受惩罚；使入睡 get over 克服； 摆脱（情绪）get on 上车；取得进展 get round 传播；蔓延 get through 做完；通过（考试）；接通电话 get together 欢聚 get up 起床；举办；化装 “give +介词/副词”短语：give away 泄露(秘密)；赠送 give back 归还；报复；后退 give off 发出， 放出(蒸汽、气味等) give out 分发；公布（及物动词短语）；（力气、食物）用完，用尽（不接宾语） give in 屈服；投降；退让(接宾语时后加 to) give up 放弃；停止 “go +介词/副词”短语：go about 到处走动 go against 违背 go ahead 继续（说、做）go at 冲向； 努力去做 go by 遵照；凭?判断；经过 go down 下降；下跌；被接受 go far 够分配；成功 go for 冲向； 责备；想获得 go in for 参加（考试）；酷爱 go off（爆竹、铃等）响；失去知觉 go on 发生；前进； 继续 go out 出走；熄灭 go over 视察；复习；（表演）很受欢迎 go through 经历；经受；批准 go up 涨 价；爆炸 go with 同意；调和 go without 没有??也忍受过去 “hand +介词/副词” 短语： hand down 传给后代 hand in 上缴 hand out 交出; 分发 hand over 移交； 让与 “leave +介词/副词”短语：leave about 把东西丢下不管; 乱丢 leave…alone 不理会 leave aside(把 某事)搁置一边 leave behind 留下；遗留；超过 leave out 遗漏; 省略；忽略 leave over 把...留待以后处 理 “make +介词/副词”短语：make for 移向；走向；攻击 make off 匆匆逃走 make out 理解；写（支 票、账目等）；把?说成 make up 和解；化妆；化装；虚构；组成 make up for 补偿 make out of 用?? 制造出 make over 修改；移交
“put+介词/副词”短语：put about 散布（消息）；宣称 put across 解释；表达 put aside 节省（钱、 时间）；储蓄；撇开；put away 储存（钱）；储存?备用；put back 拨回；向后移；放回原处 put down 写下；击败；平定 put forward 提出（意见、建议）；推荐 put off 延期；使?气馁 put on 假装；上演 （戏剧）；穿戴 put out 熄灭；出产 put through 接通电话 put together 商量；累加 put up 举起；公布； 为?提供食宿 put up with 忍受 “set +介词/副词”短语：set about(doing) sth.开始做，着手处理 set aside 留出；拔出；废止 set back 使受挫折；拨回(钟表的针) set down 放下；记载 set free 释放 set off 出发；使爆炸；使引起（情绪变化） set out 出发；开始做；阐明 set up 建立（事业） “take +介词/副词”短语：take off 成功；脱掉（衣服）；（飞机）起飞 take after 相似 take for 当 作；误认为 take in 收留；理解；欺骗 take on 雇用；开始显现 take over 接任；接管 take up 开始从事； 继续；占(地方); 费(时间) “turn +介词/副词” 短语： turn against(使)和??敌对 turn away 把??打发走； 转过脸去 turn down 减弱，降低（力量、声音等）；拒绝 turn in 拐进去；上缴 turn off 关(自来水、灯、收音机等) ；岔开 (话题) turn on 打开（煤气、自来水、灯等）；以??为转移 turn out 生产；出产；结果是（后接形容 词、to be 或 that 从句） turn over 翻阅(书刊)；营业额达到 turn to 向?求助 turn up 发现；被找到；露面； 把声音开大 【典例4】When I walked into the classroom, the teacher was handing in the tests. 解析：in→out。hand in 表示“上缴”，而 hand out 表示“分发”，符合语境逻辑要求。 【典例 5】The final examination is coming up soon. It’s time for us to get down our studies. 解析：down 后加 to。get down to 意为“着手干某事”，to 是介词。 【典例 6】I'm sure they will laugh to me and see me as a fool. 解析：to→at。laugh at 是习惯搭配，意为“嘲笑；取笑”。该句意为：我相信他们会取笑我并把 我当成傻瓜。
动词与非谓语动词的搭配错误主要见于以下几种情况： 1．英语中一些结构常与动词不定式连用，这些结构有：would rather do…than do…, prefer to do…rather than do…, do nothing but do…, have no choice but to do…等。如： She prefers to stay at hoe rather than go fishing. 她宁愿呆在家里而不愿去钓鱼。 Then the animals have no choice but to lie down and sleep. 然后这些动物别无选择，只好躺下来睡觉。 【典例 7】To enjoy the scenery, Irene would rather spend long hours on the train to travel by air. 解析：to→than。would rather do...than do sth.是常见句型，意为“宁愿??而不愿”。 2．一些结构常与动词-ing 形式连用，如：prefer doing…to doing, can’t help doing, spend time/money doing…等。如： Hearing the story, we couldn’t help laughing. 听了这个故事，我们禁不住大笑起来。 She preferred watching TV to listening to music. 她宁愿看电视而不愿听音乐。 【典例 8】According to a recent U.S. survey, children spent up to 25 hours a week watch TV. 解析：watch→watching。spend time (in) doing sth.是常见句型，意为“花费??时间做某事” 3．某些动词，如 want, need, require 等常用动词-ing 形式作宾语，主动形式表示被动意义。 【典例 9】In my opinion, your clothes badly require wash. 解析：wash→washed。这里 require washing= require to be washed。再如： The flowers want watering. 这些花需要浇水。
I think your composition needs rewriting. 我想你的作文需要重新写一遍。 【好题调研】 1. Please drop in on my home when you are free. 2. Helen always helps her mother even though going to school makes up most of her day. 3. Her fluency in English gives her an advantage on other girls for the job. 4. We wanted to get home before dark, but it didn’t quite turn up as planned. 5. They kept in touch with each other through writing. 6. John is leaving for London tomorrow and I will see him out at the airport. 7. It was a pity that the great writer died from his works unfinished. 8. They are staying with us at the time being until they find a place of their own. 9. Everybody in the village likes Jack because he is good at telling and making for jokes. 10. What shall we use for power when all the oil in the world has given up? 答案与解析： 1. on→at。易混动词短语误用。drop in on sb. 顺便走访某人；drop in at a place 顺便走访某个地方。 2. makes→takes。动词短语使用错误。make up 编造，乔装打扮，take up 占据（时间、空间）。 3. on→over。 介词使用错误。 give sb. an advantage over 给某人优势。 固定搭配。 注意 advantage 的搭配： have the advantage of sb.较某人有利， 比某人强 take advantage of sb.欺骗某人， 捉弄某人， take advantage of sth 利用某事。 4. up→out。动词搭配错误。turn out 证明是；结果是；turn up 出现，露面。根据句意事情结果并不像 计划的一样，可知此处应为 turn out。 5. through→by。介词使用错误。表示使用某种方法，手段用介词 by。 6. out→off。 动词搭配错误。 “John 明天要去伦敦， 句意 我要去机场送他” 表示送行用 see…off, see…out ； “送出”，不符合句意。 7. from→with。固定结构介词使用错误。本句是一个 with 复合结构，with his works unfinished 作结果 状语。 8. at→for。for the time being 是固定搭配，意为“暂时；目前”。 9. for→up。动词搭配错误。make up jokes 意为“编笑话”；make for 则意为“走向；移向；促成”。 10. up→out。动词搭配错误。give out 这里作“用尽，耗尽”讲。 【强化闯关】 1. Thanks for the rich farmland, we are growing more crops. 2. The forest guards often find campfires that have not been put up completely. 3. Many kinds of new cars were on the show in Beijing on June 10. 4. We'll talk with our plan for the weekend over dinner. 5. He thought the jar made of earth with little value and let me have it for only one dollar. 6. Rose was wild with joy as the result of the examination. 7. We are now short for fresh water. Something must be done to stop people from polluting it. 8. I am writing to thank you with your kind help. 9. There is no such perfect solution of all problems. 10. I can hardly hear the radio. Would you please turn it on? 11. It is no use try to solve problems by force. Dialogue is the only solution. 12. If you don’t know what to do, you can turn to your friends on advice. 13. You should take more exercise. It’s good at your health. 14. He got to the station early, for fear missing his train. 15. I’d like to buy a house—modern, comfortable, and after all in a quiet neighborhood.
热点 2 热点诠释
由于自身的特点和复杂性，非谓语动词是中学生较难掌握语法项目之一，也是高考短文改错命题 的一个热点。非谓语动词内容繁杂，因此命题的考点也有很多。短文改错除了考查非谓语动词的基本 功能外，还考查非谓语动词不同形式之间的细微区别、一些动词后接不定式和动词-ing 形式的区别以 及与非谓语动词有关的典型搭配等。
热点一：不定式符号 to 还是介词 to
不定式符号 to 还是介词 to 的考查是高考短文改错一道亮丽的风景线，每年必考，复现率百分之 百，考生务必高度重视。考点主要集中在： 1．部分易混短语中需要界定是不定式符号 to 还是介词 to。 【典例 1】Bamboo is used to building houses in some places. 解析：building→build。这里 to 是不定式符号。该句意为：在一些地方，竹子被用来盖房子。注 意以下三个短语的搭配和用法区别： used to do 意为“过去常常”，暗示现在不是这样。to 是不定式符号。 be used to do 意为“被用来做某事”，属于被动语态用法。to 是不定式符号。 get used to doing 意为“习惯于做某事”，to 是介词。 You must get used to getting up early. 你必须习惯于早起。 He used to come to see us by bus. 他过去常乘公共汽车来看望我们。 另外，下列短语中都包含动词不定式符号 to： be able to 能够 tend to 倾向于 be likely to 很可能 be about to 即将做 ought to 应该 have to 不得不 have got to 必须 Boys tend to be bigger than girls. 男孩往往比女孩个子大。
She is not likely to come next month.
她很可能下个月不来。 He was about to leave when the phone rang. 他正要离开这时电话响了。 As a Party member, you ought to give the lead. 作为党员，你应当带头。 2．部分短语中 to 是介词，后接名词、代词或动词-ing 形式。 【典例 2】I am looking forward to see all of you again in the near future! 解析：see→seeing。look forward to 是固定词组，意为“盼望；期待”，后接名词、代词或动词-ing 形式。 【典例 3】He left government to devote more time to care for his family. 解析：care→caring。devote time to doing sth.意为“投入时间做某事”，to 是介词。
请注意下列常见含有介词 to 的动词短语： devote oneself to (doing) sth. 致力于 get down to (doing) sth.着手干 lead to (doing) sth.通向，导致 object to (doing) sth.反对 pay attention to (doing) sth.注意 look forward to (doing) sth.盼望 stick to (doing) sth.坚持 However, others strongly object to developing private cars. 然而有人强烈反对发展私人汽车。 Let’s get down to repairing the used computer. 让咱们着手维修旧电脑吧。 Attention must be paid to developing education in mountainous areas. 必须注意发展山区教育。 If you stick to the truth, you've nothing to fear. 你要是坚持真理就可以无所畏惧。
过去分词和动词-ing 形式的区别在高考短文改错中出现几率很大，考点集中在： 1．过去分词与动词-ing 形式作定语的区别： 及物动词的过去分词作定语表示一个被动的、已完成的动作而动词-ing 形式作定语表示一个主动 的、正在进行的动作。如： a well dressed woman 衣着讲究的女士 a car parked at the gate 停在门口的小汽车 a piece of disappointing news 使人失望的消息 the rising sun 冉冉升起的太阳 After hearing the exciting news, he gave a speech in an excited voice. 听了这则激动人心的消息，他激动地发表了演讲。 2．过去分词与动词-ing 形式作表语的区别： 过去分词作表语表示主语所处的被动状态或完成某动作的状态， 常译为 “被??的” “感到?? 、 的”，动词-ing 形式作表语表示进行与主动的，常译为“令人??的”。如： They are very tired after a long walk. 散步久了，他们感到疲惫。 The village is surrounded by high mountains. 这个村庄被高山包围着。 The joke is amusing. 这个笑话真逗！ The problem is puzzling. 这个问题令人困惑。 3．过去分词与动词-ing 形式作状语的区别： 过去分词和动词-ing 形式都可以在句中作状语，表示时间、原因、条件、伴随状况等。其逻辑主 语应与句子主语保持一致。其根本区别在于过去分词与句子主语之间逻辑上是被动关系，而动词-ing 形式作状语，与句子主语之间逻辑上是主动关系。如：
Seen from the top of the hill, the town is beautiful.（条件状语） 从山顶上看，这个镇很漂亮。 He went into the house, followed by some children. （伴随状语） 他进入屋内，后边跟着一些孩子。 Coming into the room, he found his father angry.（时间状语） 他进入房间，发现父亲生气了。 Having been hit by the big boy on the nose, the little boy began to cry.（原因状语） 被那个大点男孩打住鼻子，这个小孩开始哭起来。 He put a finger in his mouth, tasted it and smiled, looking rather pleased. （伴随状语） 他把一个手指放进最里，尝尝，微笑着，看起来很高兴的样子。 4．过去分词与动词-ing 形式作宾语补足语的区别： 及物动词的过去分词作宾语补足语，表示与宾语之间的被动意义，而动词-ing 形式表示与宾语之 间的主动意义。如： We have heard the song sung twice. 我们听到这首歌唱了两次。 I found the window broken. 我发现窗户破了。 When I came in, I saw her dancing happily. 我进来时，看见她正高兴地跳着舞。 They had the lights burning all night long. 他们让灯亮了整个通宵。 【典例 4】Most of the students, surprising at the way the question was put, didn’t know how to answer it. 解析：surprising→surprised。过去分词 surprised…作原因状语，相当于原因状语从句 because they were surprised...。 【典例 5】Having passed all the tests, she felt a great weight taking off her mind 解析：taking→taken。此句的意思是“通过了所有的测验，她感到去掉了一块心病”。weight 与 take off 是动宾关系，所以用过去分词形式，taken off 在句中作宾语补足语。 【典例 6】Comparing with you, we still have a long way to go. 解析：Comparing→Compared。compared with/to 意为“与??相比”，常用作插入语。 类似作插入语的特殊句型还有：to be honest, to make matters worse, to begin with, to tell the truth, generally speaking, judging from 等。如： We can't go. To begin with, it's too cold. 我们不能去。首先，天太冷。 Judging by what he said, it's very unlikely that he'll support your plan. 根据他说的话来判断，他不大困难会支持你的方案。 Three of our players were ill, and to make matters worse, our main scorer had broken his ankle. 我们三个队员生病，更糟糕的是，
【典例 7】I should say sorry to him. I regret refuse to help him that day. 解析：refuse→refusing。根据语境这里应用 regret doing sth.表示 “后悔已做过的事情”。 该句意为： 我该向他道歉。我后悔那天拒绝去帮助他。 【典例 8】If we want to catch the 7.30 train, that will mean leave the house at 6.00. 解析：leave→leaving。根据语境这里应用 mean doing sth.表示“意味着”，起解释说明的作用。 下列动词后既可跟不定式，也可跟动名词，但含义明显不同：
forget to do 忘记去做 forget doing 忘了干过的事情
She forgot to post the letter. 她忘记去寄信了。 I shall never forget hearing her singing that song. 我将永远不会忘记听到她的唱那首歌。
regret to do 遗憾地做某事 regret doing 后悔做了某事 I regret to say I cannot come tomorrow. 很抱歉，明天我不能来。 I regret spending so much money on a car. 我后悔买这辆车花费那么多钱。 mean to do 打算做 mean doing 意味着 I meant to give you this book today, but I forgot. 我原打算今天把这本书给你，但是我忘记了。 Missing the train means waiting for a
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