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2013语法填空技巧与方法课件


广东高考语法填空题究竟考什么? 怎么考?

真题典例 [2011· 广东卷] One Sunday morning in August I went to a local music festival. I left it early because I had an appointment__1__ (late) that day. My friends

walked me to the bus stop and waited with me__2__ the bus arrived. I got on the bus and found a seat near the back, and then I noticed a man__3__ (sit) at the front. He__4__ (pretend) that a tiger toy was real and giving it a voice. He must be__5__ (mental) disabled. Behind him were other people to__6__he was trying to talk, but after some minutes__7__ walked away and sat near me, looking annoyed. I didn’t want to be laughed at for talking to him but I didn’t like leaving him__8__ his own either. After a while I rose from my seat and walked to the front of the bus. I sat next to the man and introduced myself. We had__9__ amazing conversation. He got off the bus before me and I felt very happy the rest of the way home. I’m glad I made the choice. It made__10__ of us feel good.

真题典例
(2012· 广东高考)Mary will never forget the first time she saw him.

He suddenly appeared in class one day,__1__(wear)sun glasses. He walked in as if he __2__(buy)the school. And the word quickly got around that he was from New York City. For some reason he sat beside Mary. Mary felt __3__ (please), because there were many empty seats in the room. But she quickly realized that it wasn't her,it was probably the fact that she sat in __4__ last row. __5__ he thought he could escape attention by sitting at the back,he was wrong. It might have made it a little __6__(hard)for everybody because it meant they had to turn around,but that didn't stop the kids in the class. Of course whenever they turned to look at him,they had to look at Mary, __7__made her feel like a star. “Do you need those glasses for medical reasons?” the teacher asked. The new boy shook his head. “Then I'd appreciate it if you didn't wear them in class. I like to look at your eyes when I'm speaking to you.” The new boy looked at the teacher __8__ a few seconds and all the other students wondered __9__ the boy would do. Then he took __10__ off, gave a big smile and said “That's cool.”

1.考什么? (Ⅰ)纯空格形式的考点如下表:
测试内容
内 冠词 介词 代词 容

2011年
题号
9 8 7 10 2(状从) 6(定从)

2012年
答案
an on they both Till/until whom 10 5(状从) 7(定从) 9(宾从) them If which what

题号
4 8

答案
the for

连词

从属连词
并列连词





(II)用所给词的适当形式填空的考点如下:
测试内容 内 容 2011年 题 号 答案 2012年 题号 答案

动 词

非 谓 语 动 词

不定式 -ed分词 -ing分词
3 Sitting/sit
was pretending later mentally

1

wearing

谓语动词的时态,语 4 态 形容词或副词的比较级
1 5

2 6

had bought harder

词性转换

3

pleased

根据此表,我们知道,语法填空的考 点或考查内容是: (1)纯空格题:通常考冠词、介词、 代词和连词等四类词。 (2)用括号中所给词填空:通常考谓 语动词的时态和语态、非谓语动词、 形容词和副词的比较等级、词类转换 等。

特别提醒:倒装句中的助动词和强 调谓语动词的助动词(do, does, did),以及情态动词、强调结构 中的it, that等都可能在纯空格题 中进行考查,名词的数和所有格 也可能在用括号中所给词填空中 进行考查,同学们千万不可忽视。

特别提醒:尽管两年高考中“使用括号中 词语的正确形式填空”的答案只填一个或 两个单词,但是我们在平时的训练中应当 不局限于此,要训练填一个、两个或多个 单词的情况。非谓语动词中,带to的不定 式、现在分词的完成式都可能填两个单词; 谓语动词的将来时、进行时和完成时等也 都可能填两个单词,而现在完成进行时等 就可能填三个单词,被动语态至少都要填 两个单词。

解题高招
1. 通读全文,把握大意。 既然是通过语篇在语境中考语法,那么, 我们在解题前,应快速浏览短文,把握全 文大意,这一步非常重要。 2. 结合语境,试填空格。 读懂短文之后,要结合短文所提供的特定 的语言环境,从句子结构的完整性去分析 思考空格所缺单词的词性,再根据句子的 结构和意义,以及句子之间的逻辑关系来 确定具体要填的单词和所给词的正确形式。 具体来说,可按设题类型分为三类情况:

(1)纯空格试题的解题技巧。 首先,分析句子结构,确定填哪类词。 然后,再根据句子的意思,确定具体填 什么词;或根据两句间的逻辑关系确定 具体用哪个连词。确定填哪类词有以下 7个技巧:

技巧1:缺主语或宾语,一定是填代词或名词 (多考代词)。 [例1]I can send a message to Kenya whenever I want to, and ____38____ gets there almost in a second. (2007年茂名一模) 解析:and连接前后两个句子,and后面的句 子缺主语,应填名词或代词;结合前一分句, 不难推知,“马上可到达那里”的是the message,替代the message用代词it。

技巧2:名词前面,若没有限定词(冠词、形容 词性物主代词、不定代词),很可能是填限定词。 如: [例2]It is said that a short-tempered man in the Song Dynasty (960—1279) was very anxious to help ___33___rice crop grow up quickly. (2008年广东高考) 解析:名词rice crop前还没有限定词,应当填 限定词;根据句意,这个急性子人当然是急于 使“他的”禾苗长得快,故填形容词性物主代 词his。

[例3]…the head of the village was tying up his horse to my car to pull it to___35___small town some 20 kilometers away where there was a garage. (2007年广东高考) 解析:因单数可数名词town前还没有限定词, 应填限定词;根据句意,是指将车拉到离那里 大约有20公里远的一个小镇上去修理,表示 “一个”,用不定冠词,故填a。

技巧3:句子不缺主语、表语、动词后不缺宾 语的情况下,名词或代词前面,一定是填介词。 [例4]… who should have the honour of receiving me ___33___a guest in their house. (2007年广东高考) 解析:因a guest在句中不作主语、表语、动词 的宾语,前面一定是填介词,使其成为该介词 的宾语;又由句意可知,他们“把我当作客人” 来接待,表示“当作”,用介词as。

技巧4:若两个或几个单词或短语之间没有连词,可 能是填连词。 [例5]…two world-famous artists, Pablo Picasso 34 Candido Portinari, which are worth millions of dollars. 解析:因与Pablo Picasso (毕加索)与Candido Portinari (坎迪多· 波尔蒂纳里)这两个名词之间没有 连词,一定是填连词;两者是并列关系,应填and。 [例6]…all I saw was this beautiful girl, whose smile just melted me 36 almost instantly gave me a completely new sense of what life is all about. (2008年深 圳一模) 解析:因melted me和gave me两个动宾短语之间没有 连词,一定是填连词;两者是并列关系,故填and。

技巧5:若两句(一个主谓关系算一个句子)之间 没有连词,也没有分号或句号,一定是填并列连 词或从属连词。 [例7] I wanted to see as much of the city as possible in the two days 32 I was to return to Guangzhou. (2008年广州一模) 解析:因I wanted to…是一个句子,I was to return…也是一个句子,这两个句子之间没有连 词,也没有分号或句号,一定是填连词;根据 句意和两句之间的逻辑关系,可知“参观这个 城市的尽可能多的地方”应是在“返回广州” 之前,故填before。

[例8] He was very tired after doing this for a whole day, ___37___he felt very happy… (2008 年广东高考) 解析:因He was very tired…是一个句子,he felt very happy…也是一个句子,这两个句子之 间没有连词,也没有分号或句号,一定是填连 词;根据句意和两句之间逻辑关系,可知“干 了一整天活累极了”与“感到非常高兴”是转 折关系,故填but。

技巧6:若结构较完整,空格后的谓语动词是原 形,特别是与上下文时态不一致或主谓不一致时, 很可能是填情态动词或表示强调或倒装的助动词 (do, does, did等)。 [例9]What is acceptable in one country 31 be considered extremely rude in another. (2007珠三 角五校联考) 解析:句中What is acceptable in one country是 主语从句,空格后的be considered是谓语;因其 中的be是原形,故空格处必定是填情态动词或助 动词does(由语境可知是一般现在时,主语是第三 人称单数);由句意及作者的语气可知,需填表示 “可能”的情态动词may。

[例10] He had no time or energy to play with his children or talk with his wife, but he ________ bring home a regular salary.
解析:这是一个由but连接的并列句,由前一 分句的谓语动词had是一般过去时可知,后一 分句的谓语动词bring也应用一般过去时;可是, bring却用的是原形,既与语境的时态不符,也 与主语he不一致,该句不是倒装句,因此,此 处必定是填情态动词或表示强调的助动词did; 由句意和作者的语气推测,应当填对谓语动词 表示强调的助动词did(的确)

技巧7:由特殊的句式结构来判断空格应填的 词。 (1)由it is…that…强调结构的形式,判断填it 还是that。 [例11] …and 40 was only after I heard she became sick that I learned she couldn’t eat MSG (味精)! (2007年广州一模) 解析:由句式结构可知,本句为强调句,应 填it。

(2)由倒装句式判断,是填构成倒装的条件的 only, so, neither, nor, never, hardly, seldom, not, until, had等,还是填do, does, did等。 [例12] _______with hard work can you expect to get pay rise.
解析:由can you expect to…可知,这是倒装句, 根据构成倒装的条件可知,应填副词only,因 为“only +状语(with hard work)”放在句首,句 子要用倒装。

(3)由it作形式主语或形式宾语的句式判断,空 格处是否填it。 [例13] …as 32 took them just three minutes to steal paintings by two world-famous artists… (2008年佛山二模) 解析:由句式结构可知,这是it takes sb. some time to do sth.句型,本句的不定式to steal paintings是真正的主语,空格处填形式主语it。

[例14]Dating sites also make 36 easy to avoid someone whom you are not interested in. (2008年惠州二模) 解析:由句式结构可知,to avoid…是真正的宾 语,easy是宾补,空格处应填作形式宾语的it。 (4)so /such…that…句型。如: [例15] This made the goat so jealous___34___it began plotting against (谋划对付) the donkey. (2007年惠州二模) 解析:由句式结构可知,这是so…that…句型, 应填that。

(5)more…than… (与其说……不如说……, 比……更……)句型。如: [例16]Cynthia’s story shows vividly that people remember more how much a manager cares ___40___ how much he pays. (2007深圳宝安期 末)
解析:由句式结构可知,这是more…than…句 型,故填that。句意是与经理所给的报酬相比, 雇员更铭记于心的是他的关心。

(2) 给出了动词的试题的解题技巧 首先,判断要填的动词是谓语动词还是非谓 语动词。然后按以下两点进行思考。 技巧8:若句中没有别的谓语动词,或者虽 然已有谓语动词,但需填的动词与之是并列关 系时,所给动词就是谓语动词;若是谓语动词, 就要考虑时态语态。

[例17]His fear of failure ____36____(keep) him from classroom games that other children played with joyous abandon. (2008年深圳一模)
解析:因主语His fear of failure后没有别的谓语 动词,需填的动词应为谓语动词;因主语与 keep是主动关系,应用主动语态;由从句谓语 动词played可知,要用一般过去时,故填kept。

[例18] That was definitely not an attractive idea so I politely declined her invitation, 40 (close) my book and walked away. (2008年广州一模)
解析:虽然句中已有谓语动词declined, 但由and walked可知,所填词与declined 和walked是并列关系,所以也用一般过 去式closed。

[例19] In Logan, three people ___38___ (take)to a hospital, while others were treated at a local clinic. (2007梅州二模) 解析:因主语three people与take是被动关 系,即三个人被送进医院,故用被动语态; 由were treated可知,要用一般过去时, 故填were taken。

技巧9:若句中已有谓语动词,又不是并列谓 语时,所给动词就是非谓语动词。若是非谓语 动词就要确定用—ing形式、—ed形式,还是用 不定式形式,确定的方法主要有: (1)作主语或宾语,通常用—ing形式表示习惯 或一般情况,用不定式表示具体的情况。如: [例20] …but it is not enough only 35 (memorize) rules from a grammar book. (2007 年佛山一模)
解析:因it是形式主语,后面用不定式作真正的 主语,故填to memorize。

[例21]________ (speak) out your inner feeling won’t make you feel ashamed, on the contrary…

解析:句中已有谓语won’t make,所以 speak应为非谓语动词;谓语前面应为主 语,作主语,表示一般情况,要用动名词 短语,故填Speaking。

(2)作目的状语或者在形容词后作状语,一般用不定式。 [例22] _______ (complete) the project as planned, we’ll have to work two more hours a day.
解析:因句中已有谓语will have to work,所以complete 应为非谓语动词;因“(为了)按计划完成这项工程”是 “我们每天不得不额外多工作两小时”的目的,作目的 状语,用动词不定式,故填To complete。

[例23] Some people say that oldest children, who are smart and strong-willed, are very likely ___33 (succeed). (2008年佛山一模)

解析:因在形容词likely后作状语,要用动词 不定式,故填to succeed。

(3)作伴随状语,常用分词,与逻辑主语是主动关系, 用现在分词,是被动关系,用过去分词。如: [例24] He saw the stone, 37 (say) to himself: “The night will be very dark.” (2008年东莞一模)

解析:句中已有谓语saw,所给动词与saw不是 并列关系,应当是非谓语动词;又因He与say是 主动关系,故填saying作伴随状语。
[例25] The headmaster went into the lab, ________ (follow) by the foreign guests.

解析:句中已有谓语went,而follow又不是与之 并列的,故为非谓语动词;又因the headmaster 与follow是被动关系,故用过去分词作伴随状语。

(4)不论非谓语动词在句中作何种成分,若判断 需要用分词,与逻辑主语是主动关系用—ing形 式,是被动关系用—ed形式。如: [例26] There will be a meeting, __40__ (start) later this year to review the film. (2008年广州二模) 解析:因a meeting与start是主动关系,用现在 分词短语作定语,补充说明a meeting,故填 starting。 [例27] Lessons 39 (learn) in sports can help us in our dealing with other people. (广东考试说明) 解析:因句中已有谓语can help,所以learn应为 非谓语动词;又因lesson与learn是被动关系,要 用过去分词短语作定语,故填learned。

(3)、词类转换题的解题技巧 根据该词在句子所作句子成分确定用哪种形式。 具体方法有: 技巧10:作表语、定语或补语,通常用形容词 形式。 [例28] The youngster immediately fell ________ (silence) as tears flew down from his big blue eyes.
解析:因在系动词felt后作表语,用形容词, 故填silent。

[例29] In a ________ (danger) part of the sea off the coast of New Zealand, they learnt to… 解析:在冠词与名词之间,要用形容词,作定 语,故填dangerous。 [例30] Teachers must try their best to make most of their students ________ (interest) in the subject 解析:因所填词在句中作宾语most of their students的补足语,用形容词;表示“感兴趣 的”,填interested。

技巧11:作主语,或在及物动词或介词后作宾 语,用名词形式。如: [例31] When China’s ancient scientific and technological ________ (achieve) are mentioned, the nation will generally refer to the Four Great Inventions.

解析:在时间状语从句中,要求填的词作主语, China’s ancient scientific and technological是主 语的定语;作主语要用名词,又由are可知,主 语是复数,故填achievements。

[例32] These people have made great ___39 (contribute) to China with their work. (2007年茂 名二模) 解析:在句中作及物动词have made的宾语,要 用名词形式;表示“作贡献”,其前面没有不 定冠词时,习惯上用复数,故填contributions。

[例33] …instructors expect students to be familiar with ___32___ (inform) in the reading… (2008年三校联考) 解析:因with是介词,在介词后作宾语,要用 名词,故填information。

技巧12:在形容词性物主代词后,或者在“冠 词(+形容词)”后,用名词形式。如: [例34] …the remains date from this period because of their __38__ (similar) to those found elsewhere. (2008年广州二模) 解析:在形容词性物代词(their)后应当用名词, 故填similarities。 [例35] With the large numbers of students, the ________ (operate) of the system does involve a certain amount of activity. 解析:在冠词后,要用名词,故填operation。

技巧13:修饰动词、形容词、副词,或整个句子,作 状语,用副词形式。如: [例36] As I looked 32 (close) at this girl, I fount that… (2008年深圳一模) 解析:修饰动词looked,作状语,用副词,故填 closely。 [例37] There must be something ____40___(serious) wrong with our society. (2008潮州期末) 解析:要求填的词修饰形容词wrong,作状语,用副 词,故填seriously。 [例38]Singles are flocking(涌向) to the Internet 33 (main) because their busy lifestyles leave them little time… (2008年惠州三模) 解析:修饰because引导的原因状语从句,修饰整个句 子,作状语,用副词,故填mainly。

技巧14:括号中所给词有可能是要求词义转换,词类 不一定要变,主要是考查具有与词根意义相反的派生词, 需根据句子意思及前后逻辑关系,在词根前加un—, im—等,在词根后加—less等。如: [例39] People certainly have a variety of reasons for going back to school but one important thing to know is, no knowledge is ________ (use). 解析:作表语要用形容词;又由句意可知,作者是表达 “没有什么知识是无用的”,故填useless。 [例40] Your mistake caused a lot of ________ (necessary) work in the office. 解析:在名词前作定语,仍用形容词形式;但根据句意 可知,错误是引起不必要的麻烦事,故填unnecessary。

技巧15:括号中所给动词也不一定是考动词的时态语 态或非谓语动词,而是考词类转换;若是形容词或副 词,有可能是考查其比较等级。如: [例41]…there was a lot of information about the city’s well-known tourist 34 ___ (attract)… (2008年广州一 模) 解析:尽管attract是动词,但这是考查词类转换的; 在句中作介词about的宾语,用名词,故填 attraction。 [例42]The other frog went on jumping as hard as he could…He jumped even ___36___ (hard) and finally made himself out. (2008年期末)

解析:联系前句,又有even(更加)的提示,可 知这里用比较级,故填harder。

[例43]Storms which produced at least 13 tornadoes swept along New Mexico’s border with Texas on Friday, destroying homes and other buildings and injuring at least 16 people, several critically, authorities said. The ___33__ (bad) damage was reported in the towns of Logan and Clovis, which are about 80 miles apart, police said. (2007梅州二模) 解析:结合前段内容,特别是the的提示,可知 要用bad的最高级worst,表示“最严重的”。

3. 重读全文,解决难题。 在解题过程中要先易后难,难题在大 部分空格填好后,再经过仔细推敲, 难题也就不会再难了。所有空格填好 后,把整篇文章从头至尾复读一遍。


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