分词前置 We can see the rising sun.
我们可以看到东升的旭日。 He is a retired worker.
他是位退休的工人。 分词后置 (i 分词词组；ii 个别分词如 given, left； iii 修饰不定代词 some
thing 等) There was a girl sitting there.
有个女孩坐在那里。 This is the question given.
这是所给的问题。 There is nothing interesting.
过去分词作定语，与其修饰的词是被动关系，相当于一个被动语态的定语从句。 Most of the people invited to the party were famous scientists. Most of the artists invited to the party were from South Africa.
典型例题 1) The first textbook ___ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. A. have written B. to be written C. being written D. written
答案 D. 书与写作是被动关系， 应用过去分词做定语表被动， 相当于定语从句 which is written 2）What's the language ____ in Germany?
A. speaking B. spoken
C. be spoken D. to speak
答案 B. 主语 language 与谓语动词之间有被动的含义。 spoken 是动词 speak 的过去分词形式， 在句中作定语， 修饰主语 language, spoken 与 language 有被动关系。该句可以理解为： What's the language (which is) spoken in German?
分词作状语 As I didn't receive any letter from him, I gave him a call. -> Not receiving any letter from him, I gave him a call.
由于没有收到他的信，我给他打了电话。 If more attention was given, the trees could have grown better. è Given more attention，the trees could have grown better. è 假如多给些照顾，那些树会长得更好。
典型例题 1）_____ some officials, Napoleon inspected his army. A. Followed B. Followed by C. Being followed D. Having been followed
答案 B. Napoleon 与 follow 之间有被动的含义。being followed 除表达被动之外，还有动作 正在进行之意。 followed by （被…跟随） 本题可改为:With some officials following, Napoleon 。 inspected his army. 2）There was a terrible noise ___ the sudden burst of light. A. followed B. following C. to be followed D. being followed 答案 B. 由于声音在闪电后，因此为声跟随着光，声音为跟随的发出者，为主动。用现在分 词。 3）_______, liquids can be changed into gases. A. Heating B. To be heated C. Heated D. Heat
答案 C. 本题要选一分词作为状语。现在分词表主动，正在进行的；过去分词表被动的，已 经完成的。对于液体来说是加热的受动者，是被动的，因而选 C。它相当于一个状语从句
When it is heated，…
注意： 选择现在分词还是过去分词，关键看主句的主语。如分词的动作是主句的主语发出， 分词就选用现在分词，反之就用过去分词。 (Being) used for a long time, the book looks old.
由于用了很长时间，这本书看上去很旧。 Using the book, I find it useful.
通常在感官动词和使役动词之后，如： I found my car missing.
我发现我的车不见了。 I'll have my watch repaired.
过去分词： 表示被动，已经完成 She looked tired of cooking.
她由于忙着做饭，看上去有些疲倦。 He remained standing beside the table.
分词语态 1、通常，现在分词表示主动，过去分词表示被动，例如： He is the man giving you the money. (= who gave you…)
他就是给你钱的那个人。 He is the man stopped by the car. ( = who was stopped by…)
他就是那个被车拦住的人。 2、不及物动词的过去分词表示动作已经发生： gone, fallen, retired, grown-up, escaped, faded, returned a well-read person. a much-travelled may a burnt-out match
分词的时态 1、与主语动词同时： Hearing the news, he jumped with joy.
听到这一消息，他高兴得手舞足蹈。 Arriving there, they found the boy dead.
典型例题： The secretary worked late into the night, ___a long speech for the president. A. to prepare B. preparing C. prepared D. was preparing 答案 B. 此处没有连词，不能选 D，否则出现了两个谓语动词 worked 和 was preparing。 只 能在 B，C 中选一个。又因前后两个动作同时发生，且与主语为主动关系，应用现在分词。 2、先于主动词： While walking in the garden，he hurt his leg.
分词作时间状语，如果先与主动词的动作，且强调先后， 要用 having done。 Having finished his homework, he went out. =As he had finished his homework, he went out.
典型例题： ___ a reply, he decided to write again. A. Not receiving B. Receiving not C. Not having received D. Having not received
答案 C. 本题考查分词的时态与分词的否定式。根据题意判断，分词的动作（接信）发生在 谓语动词的动作（决心再写信）之前，因此用分词的完成式。分词的否定式的构成为 not + 分词，故选 C。该句可理解为：Because he had not received a reply, he decided to write again.
其结构是固定的，意思上的主语并不是句子的主语。 generally speaking 一般说来 talking of (speaking of) 说道 strictly speaking 严格的说 judging from 从…判断 all things considered 从整体来看 taking all things into consideration Judging from his face, he must be ill.
Generally speaking, dogs can run faster than pigs. 总的来说，狗比猪跑得快。 (speaking 并不 是 dogs 的动作)
有时为使分词短语与主句关系更清楚，可在分词前加连词。 连词有： when，while，if though，after, before, as.
While waiting there, he saw two pretty girls come out of the building. waiting 和 saw 的主语相同。
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