高考英语语法学案 2013/7/26 专题四——状语从句 英语中的状语从句用来修饰谓语或者整个主句按照功能可以分为：时间状从，地点状从，原因状从，结果状从，条件状从， 目的状从，让步状从，方式状从，比较状从。 1、时间状语从句 （1）when、while、 as 用法一览表。 类别 作 用 例 句
(at or during the time that )既
可以表示在某一 点的时候，又可表示在某一段时间内，主句 when 与从句的动作或事情可以同时发生也可以先 后发生。 while 意思是“当??的时候”或“在某一段 时间里”。主句中的动作或事情在从句中的 while 动作或事情的进展过程中发生，从句中的动 词一般要用延续性动词。在 when 表示 a period of time 时，两者可以互换。 as 表“当??的时候”和 when/ while 通用， 但它着重强调主句与从句的动作或事情同时 as 或几乎同时发生。还表示“一边一边”“随 着” （2）引导时间状语从句的连接词除上述外还有： ①as soon as ，
It was raining when we arrived.(指时间点) When we were at school, we went to the library every day.(在一段时间内) 注意：when 表“突然”
Please don’t talk so loud while others are working. He fell asleep while/when reading. Strike while the iron is hot. (用 as 或 when 不可， 这里的 while 意思是 “趁??” )
She came up as I was cooking.(同时) The runners started as the gun went off.(几乎同时)
directly, immediately, the moment, the minute … 一??就
As soon as I have finished it , I’ll give yu a call. He made for the door directly he heard the knock. ②hardly / scarcely … when, no sooner … than, 表示“一??就” We had hardly got / Hardly had we got into the country when it began to rain. No sooner had he arrived / He had no sooner arrived than she started complaining. ③till, not … until …, until, before, since before 用法 not until 强调，倒桩 since 用法
Don’t get off the bus until it has stopped. He waited for his father until(till)it was twelve o’clock.
Not until years later could I realize the value of that kind of giving. It was not until years later that I could realize the value of that kind of 1
高考英语语法学案 2013/7/26 giving She has been ill since she came back.\谓语非延续， It is/ has been +一段时间+since 从句非延续，自。。。以来，已经有。。。年。
区分：It is two years since he began to smoke.
It is two years since he smoked
It will be five years before he returns from England. Before :1
和 we waited along ime ,before he came out.
.否定句一段时间、距离+ before 过不了多久就 It won’t be five years before he returns from England.
还没有，还没来得及 ，免得 he died before he wrote a wil l.I must write it down before I forget,. ④each time, every time, by the time Each time he came to my city, he would call on me.
注意：表示未来情况，主句用将来时，从句用现在时。 2、地点状语从句：where, wherever Make a mark wherever you have any questions. We will go where the Party directs us. 3、原因状语从句：because,, as, since=now that （1）表示不知道的原因时用 because,即说话人认为听话人不知道，因此 because 从句是重要的部分，通常它被置于主句之后。 You want to know why I’m leaving? I’m leaving because I’m full. for 虽然表示不知道的原因，但其语气较 because 要弱得多，是可说可不说的话，它只能置于主句之后，这时，for 是并列连词。 如：It’s morning now, for the birds are singing.（很显然，鸟叫不可能是“现在已是早上”的原因。） （2）表示已经知道的原因时用 as 或 since,即某种原因在说话人看来已经很明显，或已为听话人所熟悉，因此它是句中不很重 要的部分。since 要比 as 正式一些，它们通常被置于语句之前。 Seeing all of the children already seated, he said,“Since everyone is here, let’s start.” Nowthat/Since no one is against art,, let’s carry out the plan. 4. 条件状语从句：if, unless, so (as) long as, on condition that. in case, once 一旦 In case anything important happens，please call me up. My parents don't mind what job I do as long as I am happy. You can go swimming on condition that you don't get too far from the river bank. 注意 if 与 unless 的区别
_______ you start eating in a healthier way, weight control will become much easier. A. unless B. Although C. Before D. Once
5、结果状语从句： so that, so … that, such … that … 注意：so + 形容词/副词 + that 从句；such + 名词 + that 从句。 6、目的状语从句： so that, in order that, for fear that in case 注意：目的状语从句的谓语动词常与情态动词连用，否则可能是结果状语从句。不可置于句首。 He studied hard so that he might succeed. Come early In order that you may see him. I dare not go out for fear that he might see me. 7. 让步状语从句 （1）although 与 though 可以引导让步状语从句，不能与 but 连用。 Although they are poor, they are warm-hearted. （2）even if 或 even though 引导让步状语从句，表示“即使”，“纵然”. I’ll get there even if(though)I have to sell my house to get enough money to go by air. （3）while 虽然 While he is very young, he knows a lot of knowledge . (4)whether…or…; whether(….).or not
Whether or not he agreed with John’s views, many of them thought deeply. Whether we go to your place or stay here, we’ve still got to find something to eat. （5）no matter+who、what、where、how 等疑问词，=该疑问词+ever 构成 whoever、whatever、wherever、however 等。 Don’t trust him, no matter what / whatever he sa ys. Whoever breaks the law will be published. No matter how hard the work is, you’d better try to do it well. （6）as 也可以引导让步状语从句。要用倒装。 Child as(though)he is, he knows a lot. Much as I like it, I won’t buy. Try as he would, he couldn’t lift the heavy box. 7、方式状语从句：as, as if(though) I’ll do as I am told to. It looks as if it is going to rain. 9.比较状语从句：than, as 注意：状语从句中从句的省略现象 3
高考英语语法学案 2013/7/26 （1）连接词 + 过去分词 Don’t speak until spoken to. Pressure can be increased when needed. Unless repaired, the washing machine is no use. （2）连词 + 现在分词
Look out while crossing the street. （3）连词 + 形容词/其他 常见的有 if necessary、if possible、when necessary、if any 等。 高考真题探究（2006—2011 年）
时间状从〖08 辽宁〗I used to love that film______I was a child, but I don’t feel it that way any more.
?A.once B.when C.since D.although
【2011 浙江卷 4】One Friday, we were packing to leave for a weekend away ______my daughter heard cries for help. A. after B. while C. since D. when
〖06 湖南〗I had just stepped out of the bathroom and was busily drying myself with a towel____I heard the steps. A.while B.when C.since D.after
〖07 江西〗He was told that it would be at least three more months______he could recover and return to work. ? A.when B.before C.since D.that ______we meet them again.
〖07 安徽〗The field research will take Joan and Paul about five months; it will be a long time A.after B.before C.since D.when _______he is ready for his new job. C. before D. since
〖10?陕西〗John thinks it won’t be long A. when B. after
〖09 上海〗You can’t borrow books from the school library ______ you get your student card. A. before B. if C. while D. as
〖06 四川〗--Why didn't you tell him about the meeting？ --He rushed out of the room____I could say a word. A.before B.until C.when D.after
〖07 天津〗It is difficult for us to learn a lesson in life______we’ve actually had that lesson.? A.until B.after C.since D.when
【2011 上海卷 36】If a lot of people say a film is not good, I won’t bother to see it, or I’ll wait ____ it comes out on DVD. A. whether B. after C. though D. until
〖06 广东〗“You can’t have this football back_____you promise not to kick it at my cat again.” the old man said firmly. 4
高考英语语法学案 2013/7/26 A.because It was A. C. B.since C.when D.until
back home after the experiment. B. until midnight that he didn’t go
not until midnight did he go not until midnight that he went
D. until midnight when he didn’t go
As is reported, it is 100 years _____________Qinghua University was founded. A. when B. before C. after D. since
【2011 辽宁卷 29】He had no sooner finished his speech _____ the students started cheering. A. since B. as C. when D. than
原因状从〖08 北京〗—Did you return Fred’s call?
A. though B. unless
—I didn’t need to ____ I’ll see him tomorrow. C. when D. because
〖06 广东〗Jenny was very sad over the loss of the photos she had shot at Canada, ____this was a memory she especially treasured. A.as B.if C.when D.where
条件状从〖07 上海〗Small sailboats can easily turn over in the water______they are not managed carefully.
?A.though B.before C.until D.if
〖08 全国Ⅰ〗—Have you got any idea for the summer ? —I don’t mind where we go______there’s sun, sea and beach. A.as if B.as long as C.now that D.in order that
〖09 陕西〗My parents don’t mind what job I do ______I am happy. A. even though B. as soon as C. as long as D. as though
〖08 天津〗We’ll have a picnic in the park this Sunday _____ it rains or it’s very cold. A.since B. if C. unless D. until]
〖08 全国Ⅱ〗A small car is big enough for a family of three______you need more space for baggage. ? A.once B.because C.if D.unless
〖06 江苏〗_____environmental damage is done, it takes many years for the ecosystem（生态系统）to recover.? A.Even if B.If only C.While D.Once B. whether C. as D.
让步状从【2011 全国卷 II 19】It was a nice meal, _______a little expensive. A. though
【2011 四川卷 4】Frank insisted that he was not asleep _____ I had great difficulty in waking him up. A. whether B. although C. for D. so
【2011 天津卷 5】____ regular exercise is very important, it’s never a good idea to exercise too close to bedtime. A.It B. As C.Although D.Unless 5
高考英语语法学案 2013/7/26 〖10 湖南〗Tim is in good shape physically _______ he doesn’t get much exercise. A. if B. even though C. unless D. as long as
〖07 浙江〗Many of them turned a deaf ear to his advice, _____they knew it to be valuable. A.as if B.now that? C.even though D.so that
【2011 北京卷 29】__________ volleyball is her main focus, she’s also great at basketball. A. Since B. Once C. Unless D. While
【2011 陕西卷 19】__________all of them are strong candidates, only one will be chosen for the post. A. Since B. While C. If D. As B.Since C.If D.While
〖07 山东〗_____I really don’t like art, I find his work impressive.? A.As
〖08 湖南〗______the Internet is of great help, I don’t think it’s a good idea to spend too much time on it. ? A.If B.While C.Because D.As
〖08 全国Ⅰ〗The lawyer seldom wears anything other than a suit______the season.? A.whatever B.wherever? C.whenever D.however
【2011 江西卷 29】Please call my secretary to arrange a meeting this afternoon, or ______ it is convenient to you. A. whenever B. however C. whichever D. wherever
〖08 辽宁〗______hungry I amI never seem to be able to finish off this loaf of bread. ? A.Whatever B.Whenever C.Wherever D.However
〖10 上海〗_______you may have, you should gather your courage to face the challenge. A. However a serious problem C. However serious a problem B. What a serious problem D. What serious a problem
36. A37. A38. B39. D40. A41. B42. D43. D44. C45. B46. D47. C48. A49. C50. B51. A52. C 53. D54. B55. D
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