△ 现在分词： 主动形式
一般式 完成式 doing having done
being done having been done
二、 功 能
2．作定语 3．作状语 4．作宾语补足语 5. 现在分词的完成 形式和被动形式 6. 独立结构
1．作表语。现在分词多表示主语所具有的特征或属性；过去分词 多表示主语所处的状态，如： The news was exciting.
The situation is encouraging.
She looked disappointed. He appeared satisfied with my answer. He seemed quite delighted at the idea. Don’t get excited. 注①：已经成为形容词的分词，可以用 very 修饰；没有完全成为 形容词的分词宜用 much 或 quite，有时也可用very much，如： I’m very much pleased.
He’s very much worried about his health.
注②：过去分词作表语时，应注意与被动结构的区别。 系表结构说明主语的状态或具有的性质、特点；被动结构强调 谓语动作，指主语所承受的动作。此外还有：
系表结构：a. 常用一般现在或一般过去时态；b. 一般不带状语；
c. 可以有不及物动词的过去分词。 被动结构：a. 有多种时态，常与主动语态的时态一致；b. 可以带时
间、方式或 by 短语作状语；c. 必须是及物动词。
The small village is surrounded by trees. (状态) The small village was soon surrounded by enemy soldiers. (动作)
I’m interested in chess.
I was interested by what you told me. The sun is risen. This novel was written by Lu Xun in 1921.
2．作定语： ① 单独作定语，应放在被修饰的名词之前，如： touching story / leading cadres / shining example / coming week / skilled worker / armed forces / boiled water / steamed bread Barking dogs seldom bite. Soon our respected and beloved leaders entered the banquet hall. 注：分词作定语时，意义上接近于一个定语从句，如： developing countries = countries that are developing a growing city = a city that is growing liberated areas = areas that have been liberated ② 在更多情况下，可以用分词短语作定语，这时分词短语应放在 被修饰的名词之后，在意义上也相当于一个定语从句，如： Who is the man standing (= that is standing) by the door? They built a highway leading (= which leads) into the mountains. They are problems left (= which have been left) over by history. Have you read any short stories written by Lu Xun?
③ 作定语的现在分词所表示的动作发生的时间有两种情况： a. 表示正在进行的动作, (变为从句时要用进行时态), 如： Tell the children playing there (who are playing there) not to make so much noise. Did you see the man talking (who was talking) to the manager? b. 表示经常性的动作, 或现在 (或当时) 的状态, (变为从句时, 用一般 时态), 如： They lived in a room facing (= that faced) the south. The house standing (= that stands) at the corner of the street was built in 1955. ④ 过去分词作定语时，过去分词所表示的动作可以在谓语所表示 的动作之前发生，也可以是没有一定的时间性，如： Is this the book recommended by our teacher? The meeting held last week is very important. He is a man loved by all. I hate to see letters written in pencil.
注①：如果所表示的动作现刻正在发生，或是与谓语所表示的动作 同时发生，可以用现在分词的被动形式来表示，如： The meeting being held is very important. We must keep a secret of the things being discussed here. 注②：如果所表示的是一个未来的动作，可以用一个不定式的被动 形式来表示，如： The meeting to be held next week is very important. Please tell me the subjects to be discussed at the next meeting.
⑤ 分词还可以作非限制性定语（相当于一个非限制性定语从句）， 这时，它和句子的其他部分用逗号隔开，试比较： All my brothers living in Shanghai are scientists. All my brothers, living in Shanghai, are scientists. All the letters in the drawer written in pencil are from my sister. All the letters in the drawer, written in pencil, are from my sister.
⑥ 本节值得注意的问题：现在分词短语作定语时，所表示的动作 不能先于谓语所表示的动作，也不可以表示将来。另外，一般不用 现在分词的完成式作定语，所以，下列句子都是错的： Here is Mr. Li coming from Beijing. (应改为who has come from Beijing) Those having finished their work can go home now. (应改为who have finished) The man giving us a lecture last week left for Shenzhen this morning. (应改为who gave us) ⑦ 系动词的现在分词形式不可用作后置定语，此时要用从句来表 示，如： Those being busy don’t have to go. (应改为Those who are busy don’t have to go.) His brother being a PLA man is 18 years old. (应改为who is) ⑧ 不及物动词的过去分词不可用作后置定语，若要表示这个意思 要用从句，如： The lion died in this zoo the other day was a mother lion. (应改为 which/that died)
3．作状语： ① 现在分词作状语，表示陪衬性的动作或伴随情况，如： The children ran out of the room, laughing and talking merrily. They stood there for an hour watching the game. She sat at the desk reading a newspaper. 注意：a. 分词表示的必须是主语的一个动作；b. 分词表示的动作和 谓语表示的动作（或状态）是同时发生的；c. 分词表示的是比较次 要的动作，对谓语表示的动作或状态加以说明；d. 大部分放在谓语 之后；e. 分词有时可以与句子的其他部分用逗号隔开。 ② 现在分词作状语，表示行为方式或手段（这类状语可以放在句 首，也可以放在句末，有时还可以放在句中。其他参考上述a-c）， 如： Following the guide, they started to climb. Working this way, they greatly reduced the cost. Travelling by jeep, we visited a number of cities.
③ 现在分词作状语，表示原因或理由，如： Seeing nobody at home, she decided to leave them a note. Not knowing her address, we couldn’t get in touch with her. Being so poor in those days, we couldn’t afford to send the boy to hospital. 注：如果分词表示的动作在谓语所表示的动作之前发生，则要用完 成形式，如： Having worked among the peasants for many years, he knew them very well. Not having received an answer, he decided to write another letter. Having lived in Berlin many years, he knew the city well. ④ 现在分词作时间状语（相当于 when 引导的从句），如： Turning around, she saw a police car driving up. Hearing the news, they all jumped with joy. Seeing those pictures, he couldn’t help thinking of those days in Yan’an.
注①：这里分词表示的是一个极短暂的动作，这动作一发生，谓语 动词所表示的动作立即发生。这类分词一般放在句首。如果两个动 作是完全同时发生的，多用 when 或 while + 分词这种结构，如： Be careful when crossing the street. Don’t mention this while talking to him. 注②：如果要强调谓语动词的动作发生时，分词的动作已经完成， 这个分词要用完成形式，如： Having arrived at a decision, they immediately set to work. Having heard this, the woman astronaut expressed her satisfaction. ⑤ 现在分词作状语还可以表示结果、条件和让步，如： Her husband died in 1942, leaving her with five children. (结果) The bus was held up by snowstorm, thus causing the delay. (结果) Working hard, you will succeed. (条件) Turning to the left, you will find the path leading to the site. (条件) Weighing almost one hundred jin, the stone was moved by him alone. (让步)
⑥ 过去分词短语作状语，可以修饰谓语，说明动作发生的背景或 情况，如： Built in 1192, the bridge is over 700 years old. Led by the party, the people have improved their living conditions greatly. Surrounded by a group of pupils, the old teacher walked into the room. The trainer appeared, followed by six little dogs. ⑦ 过去分词短语表示原因（相当于一个原因状语从句），如： The children, exhausted, fell asleep at once. He soon fell asleep, exhausted by the journey. (= as he was exhausted…)
United, we stand; divided, we fall. (=When / If we are united …) Heated, water changes into steam. (=When / If water is heated …) Seen from the hill, the park looks very beautiful. 注：过去分词短语作状语时，前面有时可以加上when, if, while, though, as if 等连词，这种结构可以看作是一种省略的状语从句 （省略部分多为 “主语 + be 的多种形式”）。需要注意的是，省 略的主语必须和主句的主语相同，如：
If / When heated, water changes into steam.
Even if invited, I won’t go. We will not attack unless attacked.
The girl is very shy, and never speaks until spoken to.
① 现在分词做宾语补足语，如： I’m sorry to have kept you waiting for so long. I could feel the cold wind blowing on my face. He tried to start the engine running. The words immediately set us all laughing. 注：现在分词做宾语补足语表示动作与谓语同时发生或正在进行， 强调动作过程。 ② 过去分词做宾语补足语，如： He watched the TV set carried out of the room. Last year they had the house rebuilt. When you speak English, be sure to make yourself understood. You’d better have your shoes mended. 注：过去分词做宾语补足语表示动作完成结果，并有被动意义。
语补足语一般为宾语所做的动作；过去分词做宾语补足语时，与宾 语有着动宾关系，宾语是过去分词所表示的动作的承受者，如： He saw an old man getting on the bus. An old man was getting on the bus. I once heard this song sung in Japanese. This song was once sung in Japanese. I don’t want the children taken out in such weather. The children were taken out in such weather. ④ 以上句子可以变为被动结构，这时，宾语补足语就成了主语补 足语，与谓语一起称为“复合谓语”，如： We were kept waiting for quite a long time. She was never heard singing that song again. One of the glasses was found broken.
⑤ 有些动词既可以用不定式作宾语补足语，又可以用现在分词作 catch, keep, mind, prevent, remember, stop, start, smell, excuse, spy, send 等，例如： She caught her son smoking a cigarette. We’d better keep the fire burning. I don’t mind you joking. I like it. The heavy rain prevented us coming here on time. I don’t remember him ever saying anything like that.
We must try to stop them getting into trouble.
His words started me thinking seriously. Can you smell something burning?
The earthquake sent the china and glass crashing to the ground.
① 现在分词的完成形式主要用在状语中，表示动作在谓语动作之 前发生，如： Having been there many times, he offered to be our guide. The delegates, having fulfilled their mission, arrived back in Shanghai. 注：在独立结构中，也可以用现在分词的完成形式，如： His comrades having all left for the front, he didn’t want to stay in the rear.
② 在表示一个被动的动作时，如果这个动作是现刻正在进行的， 或是与谓语表示的动作同时发生的，就可以用现在分词的被动形式。 这种形式可以作定语、状语或构成复合宾语，如： That building being repaired is our library. （定语） He asked who was the man being operated on. （定语） You’ll find the topic being discussed everywhere. （宾语补足语） As we entered the village, we saw new houses being built. （宾语 补足语） Being asked to give a performance, she couldn’t very well refuse. （状语） Being protected by a thick wall, they felt they were quite safe. （状语） △ 有时还有完成被动形式，如： Having been given such a good chance, how could she let it slip away?
在用分词短语作状语时, 它逻辑上的主语一般必须与句子的主语一 致, 但有时它也可以有自己独立的逻辑上的主语, 这种结构称为:
独立结构可以表示伴随动作或情况, 表示时间、原因、条件等, 例如： He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat. (伴随情况) The shower being over, we continued to march. (时间) So many students being absent, we decided to put the meeting off. (原因) Weather permitting, we’ll have an outing tomorrow. (条件) All things considered, her paper is of greater value than yours. The job done, we went home. The composition written, he handed it to the teacher.
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