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Better英语高一人教版必修1Unit-4考点精讲


Book 1
Unit 4 Earthquake

Better Miss Huang

重点单词
? express express 1. vt.表达;表示→ n. 快车;速递→ expression ____ n. 表达;表情;词句 2. nation n. 民族;国家;国民→ national adj.国家的 →

nationality ___ n. 国籍 3. ruin n. 废墟;毁灭→ ruin vt. 毁灭;使破产 → in ruins 严重受损; 破败不堪(短语) 4. sufferingn. 苦难;痛苦→ suffer v. 受苦;遭受 5. injure vt.损害;伤害→ injured adj.受伤的→ injury n. 扭伤;损害;损伤 6. destroy vt.破坏;毁坏;消灭→ destruction ____ n. 毁坏;毁灭 7. shock vt.& vi.(使)震惊;震动→ shock n. 休克;打击;震惊 8. trap vt.使陷入困境→ trap n. 陷阱;困境 9. frighten vt.使惊吓;吓唬→frightened adj.受惊的;受恐吓的 frightening adj.令人恐惧的 →

1.burst vt.& vi.(使)爆裂;(使)裂开;(使)炸开;突然出现;爆



n. 突然破裂;爆发

用法拓展 burst out 突然迸发;爆发 burst out doing sth.=burst into+n. 突然……起来 burst in/into 闯进;突然破门而入 burst with anger/grief/joy 勃然大怒/心痛欲绝/乐不可支

2. wound, injure, harm与hurt (1)wound 一般指外伤, 如枪伤、刀伤,尤指在战争、战斗中

受伤。
(2)injure 一般指由于意外或事故造成的损伤。 (3)hurt 可以指肉体上的伤害,也可以指精神上的伤害,特指 伴有疼痛的肉体上的伤害;还可作不及物动词,意为“疼痛” 。 (4)harm用于指肉体或精神上的伤害均可,有时可指引起不 短语do harm to sb. / do sb. harm / harm sb.对某人有危害。

安或不便,还可用于抽象事物,尤其是指不道德的事情。

(用injure,hurt,wound,harm的适当形式填空)

1. How many people were ________ injured in the accident?
hurt 2. What he said ________ me deeply. wounded during the war. 3. The soldier was __________ harm marine life. 4. Pollution can ________

4. a number of 与the number of 1. 他犯的错误的数量非常令人惊讶。 The number of mistakes made by him is surprising. 2. 我们学校图书馆有大量的书,但是五分之四的已经很旧 了。 There are a large number of books in our school library. However, four fifths of them are old.

5. at an end 结束;终结 用法拓展

在……尽头/在……末端(指时间或空间的一个 终点) at the end of
到……结束时;到……时候为止 by the end of (使)结束;中止 bring sth. to an end =put an end to sth. 结束 come to an end

最后;终于;最终 in the end 结束,告终 end up
以……结束/结尾 end in

1. I must warn you that my patience is almost ___________. at an end 我必须警告你,我已经忍无可忍了。 2. I am determined to ______________ put an end to all these rumors. 我决心要制止这些流言蜚语。 ended in failure. 3. Their struggle __________ 他们的斗争以失败告终。 came to an end at last. 4. The war which lasted eight years ______________ 持续8年的战争最终结束了。

6. judge n. 裁判员;法官;评判员 v. 断定;判断;判决; 估计 judgement n.判断,审判,意见,判断力 judge sb./sth.from/by...评判,从……来评价 judging by/from 从……来看,根据……来判断, 用在 句首时,为一个独立成分,不受句子主语和时态影响, 只用现在分词作状语,而不采用过去分词的形式。 1. 从他的话判断,他非常失望。 Judging from/by what he said,he was very disappointed.

2. 不要以貌取人。
Don't judge a man by his looks.

Unit4 Earthquake Grammar

1.burst vt.& vi.(使)爆裂;(使)裂开;(使)炸开;突然出现;爆



n. 突然破裂;爆发

用法拓展 burst out 突然迸发;爆发 burst out doing sth.=burst into+n. 突然……起来 burst in/into 闯进;突然破门而入 burst with anger/grief/joy 勃然大怒/心痛欲绝/乐不可支

2. wound, injure, harm与hurt (1)wound 一般指外伤, 如枪伤、刀伤,尤指在战争、战斗中

受伤。
(2)injure 一般指由于意外或事故造成的损伤。 (3)hurt 可以指肉体上的伤害,也可以指精神上的伤害,特指 伴有疼痛的肉体上的伤害;还可作不及物动词,意为“疼痛” 。 (4)harm用于指肉体或精神上的伤害均可,有时可指引起不 短语do harm to sb. / do sb. harm / harm sb.对某人有危害。

安或不便,还可用于抽象事物,尤其是指不道德的事情。

定语从句
The Attributive Clause

带定语从句的谚语:
1.

God helps those who help themselves.

自助者天助之。 2. He who laughs last laughs best. 谁笑到最后,谁笑的最好。 3. He who doesn’t reach the Great Wall is not a true man. 不到长城非好汉。

定语从句的相关概念
1.定义: 在复合句中修饰名词或代词的从句 2.先行词: 被修饰的名词,代词或整句话 There was an earthquake which happened in Tangshan in 1976. 3.引导定语从句的词 关系代词、关系副词:
关系代词: who, whom, whose, which, as, that等

关系副词:

when, where, why等

关系代词或是关系副词的作用:
?连接主从句 ?指代先行词 ?在从句中作句子成分

关系代词的用法 关系代词在从句中可以:
指人 that which who whom whose 指物 subject (主语) object (宾语) attribut e(定语)

√ √ √ √ √ √

√ √

√ √ √ √





? ?

.1.限制性定语从句:从句与主句关系密切,去掉从句,主 句意义不完整,甚至不合逻辑。 This is the telegram which he refers to. Is there anything (that) I can do for you? (注 意that) 2.非限制性定语从句只是对先行词作补充说明,没有限定 作用,它与先行词的关系比较松散,因而不是关键性的,如 果省略,原句的意义仍然完整。这种从句在朗读时要有停顿, 在文字中通常用逗号与主句隔开。如: This note was left by Tom, who was here a moment ago. 引导非限制性定语从句的关系词有:who, whom, whose, which, when 和 where,不可以用that和 why。

?

?

1.The man _________came to our school is Mr. Wang. who, that
2.The girl whom, _________________ that, who, / I met is Lucy.

3.A child _______parents are dead is called Tom. whose
4.I like the book ____________ that, which, / you bought yesterday.

5. We shall never forget the days ____________we that, which, /
spent together.

6.I like the person _________you just talked. to whom
7. I have a room ________window faces south. whose

一、that和which用法的区别
1、只能用that不用which的情况
(1) 先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything, little, much 等不定代词时。

(that) you can borrow. I am sure she has something _____
Do you have anything _____ (that) you don’t understand? (2)先行词被all, every, no, some, any, little, much等 修饰时。 I’ve read all the books _____ that you lend me. Please send us any information _____ that you have about the subject.

(3)先行词被序数词或最高级修饰时。
This is the first book _____ (that) he has read. that I’ve ever It is the most beautiful city _____ seen. (4)先行词被the only, the very, the same, the last修饰 时。 that belongs to him. This is the very book _____ that was present at the He is the only person _____ time.

(5)先行词既有人又有物时。 The famous writer and his works _____ that the radio broadcast are popular to the students. (6) 先行词是who或which引导的主句。 Who is the girl _____ that drove the car? (7) 主句以there be 引导时。 There are more than 400,000 people _____ that died or were injured in the earthquake.

2、只用which不用that的情况
(1) 关系代词在限制性定语从句中紧跟介词作宾语 (介词提前)。 under which they can There are many trees __________ have a rest.

This is the ring __________ she spent 1000 on which dollars.
(2) 在非限制性定语从句中。 which is a very popular game, is Football, ______ played all over the world.

3. 表所有关系及整体中的一部分或全部时,用介 词of, 有时可用whose转换。 of which is 1) I’m painting a house, the roof _________ round. I’m painting a house __________ whose roof is round. 2) They live in a house, _______ whose windows face south. They live in a house, the windows of which face south. _________

介词+关系代词(宾语)
?

?

?

?
?

若介词放在关系代词前,关系代词指人时用whom,不可 用who或者that;指物时用which,不能用that;关系代词 是所有格时用whose (1) The man with whom you talked is my friend. (T) The man with that you talked is my friend. (F) (2) The plane in which we flew to Canada is very comfortable. (T) The plane in that we flew in to Canada is very comfortable. (F) 1)介词后面的关系代词不能省略。 2)that前不能有介词。

二、只用who的情况
who has nothing to fear dares to tell One ____ the truth. who laugh at the disabled are The ones ____ not good students. Anyone ____ who fails to finish the task should be punished. who want to go to The Great Wall Those ____ sigh up here.

先行词是one, ones, anyone, those时用who.

关系副词
?

?

?

when指时间 在定语从句中做时间状语也可做连接词用 (1) I still remember the day when I first came to the school. (2) The time when we got together finally came. where指地点 在定语从句中做地点状语 (1) Shanghai is the city where I was born. (2) The house where I lived ten years ago has been pulled down. why指原因 在定语从句中做原因状语 (1) Please tell me the reason why you missed the plane.

关系副词=介词+which结构:
?

when = on (in, at, during…) + which; where = in (at, on…) + which; why = for which.

如: ? I was in Beijing the day when (=on which) he arrived. ? The office where (=in which) he works is on the third floor. ? This is the chief reason why (=for which) we did it.
?

P课本91

介词的选用
与先行词有关 I was in Beijing the day when (=on which) he arrived. ? 与句意有关 ? He was educated at the local high school, after which he went on to Beijing University. (2007江苏卷33题) ? 与动词有关 The teacher for whom you are waiting is coming.你等的那位老师来了。
?

?

当先行词是表时间的time, day等和表地点的 place, house等时,一定要注意分析从句的结构, 如果缺少主语或宾语时,关系词应该用which或 that, 缺少时间状语或地点状语时,才能用when 或where,试比较: I’ll never forget the day when my hometown was liberated. I’ll never forget the days which/that we spent together last summer.

?

as引导定语从句
?

通常用于the same … as, such … as结构中。

e.g. I want the same shirt as my friend’s. 我要一件跟我朋友一样的衬衫。 ? Such machines as are used in our workshop are made in China. 我们车间使用 的这种机器是中国制造的。
?

such...as用于引导定语从句,such...that用于引导 结果状语从句。 ? 试比较: He is such a good teacher as we all respect. 他是一位我们大家都尊敬的好老师。(as引导的是定 语从句,as在该定语从句中用作respect的宾语)
?

such…as与such…that

He is such a good teacher that we all respect him.他是那样一位好老师,以致于我们大家都尊敬他。 (that引导的是结果状语从句,that在该状语从句中不 充当句子成分,另外注意句中的respect带有宾语him)


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