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Argument 逻辑错误攻击方式


Argument 逻辑错误攻击模版 攻击无效调查模版句(规模、数量、方式、时间等)
这类错误最常见也十分简单。应该做到对 survey/study/report/poll 等字眼很敏 感,一看到这些单词就一定说明它有问题,在分析 argument 题目时要养成这样 “良好”的习惯。请按照如下模版操作
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攻击采访对象模版句
Model1 a)
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To begin with,the validity of the survey is doubtful. b)
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Lacking information about the number of employees surveyed and the number of respondents, it is impossible to access the validity of the resuls. c) For example, if 200 employees were surveyed but only 2 responded, the conclusion that… would be highly suspect. d) Because the argument offers no evidence that would rule out these interpretations, the results of the survey are insufficient to support the conclusion. Model2 a) The poll cited by the author is too vague to be informative/reliable. b)
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The claim dose not indicate who conducted the poll, who responded, or how the poll was conducted. c) Until these questions are answered, the results are worthless as evidence for… Model3 a) We are not informed that how many people were surveyed but did not responded. If, for instance 500 subjects were studied, but no more than 50 echoed, the conclusion would be highly susceptable. b) The author fails to point out that when the survey was conducted. If the change
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is very recent, it is possible that insufficient data have been gleaned to draw such a conclusion, an unconvincing one. c) The author fails to point out that how the survey was conducted. If who conducted it by themselves, and the question is…, it is obvious that if… Or if these questions were leading, people might echo with expected answers, thus the results would be greatly unconvincing.

攻击样本不足模版句
Model1
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The evidence that the author provides is insufficient to support the conclusion drawn form it.(One example is rarely sufficient to establish a general conclusion.) Unless it can be shown that A1 is representative of A, the conclusion… is completely unwarranted. In fact in face of such limited evidence, it is fallacious to draw any conclusion at all. Model2 Samples for the survey should be statistically reliable. Unfortunately, from the survey we find little sign of such procedures for sampling, thus doubting whether the respondents constitute a sufficiently large sample so as to be representative of the overall population of the nation.

攻击随机性模版句
Model1
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Since the arguer makes a claim about…, in general, samples for the survey should be able to represent all.... However, from the survey quoted in this argument, we find no sign of such procedures for random samplings, and have good reasons to doubt if the sample is representative enough to reflect the general altitude of… as a whole. Model2
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Form the survey we find little sign of such procedures for random sampling, thus doubting whether the respondents are representative of the overall population of the nation. If the subjects are only limited to a certain city or geographic region, the results of the survey will be unconvincing.
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攻击无理假设模版句
Model1 a)
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The author assumes that… will…,/A is necessary to B. b)

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However, this is not necessarily the case, /no evidence is stated in the argument to support this assumption. c) It is possible that…../Perhaps…. Model2 a) The author falsely depends on gratuitous assumption that… b) c)
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In fact/Actually, this is not necessarily the case..
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For example, it is most likely that +… d) Therefore, this argument is unwarranted without ruling out such possibility.
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攻击因果关系模版句
Model1 a)
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The author commits the “After Of This, Therefore, Because Of This” fallacy. b) c)
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The author assumes that A caused B. The line of the reasoning is that because A before B, the former event causes the latter. d)
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But this is fallacious reasoning unless other possible causal explanations have been considered and ruled out. e) For example, perhaps A1 is the cause of these events or perhaps B is caused by A2 a) The author uses the statistical relationship//positive correlation between A and B to establish causality. b)
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Model2

However, the fact that A coincides with B does not necessarily prove that A causes. c)
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There may be other factors that could have caused B/contributed to B. d)
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Such as A1, A2, and A3. Model3 a)
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The author fails to establish a causal relationship between the fact A and the claim B. b) This argument is unacceptable if there is no compelling evidence to support the connection between these two events. c)
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Perhaps, for example,… Model4 The author attempts to establish a causal/positive relationship between the fact that… and the claim that… between two matters… and…. This argument, nonetheless, is based on an oversimplified analysis of the cause of… and the presumptuous correlation accordingly is unacceptable. Actually, it is equally possible that… or it is possible that…. Without ruling out such alternative explanation(s) the author can not convince me that… necessarily results in…
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攻击错误类比模版句
Model1 a)
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The reason/argument rests on the assumption that A is analogous to/similar to B in all respects. b) This assumption is weak, since although there are points of comparison between A and B, there are many dissimilarities as well. Model2 a) The author also commits the fallacy of “all things are equal”. b) The fact that happened two years ago is not a sound evidence to draw a
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conclusion that…. c)
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The author assumes without justification that the background conditions have remained the same at different times or at different locations. d) However, it is not clear in this argument whether the current conditions at A are the same as they used to be two years ago. e)
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Thus it is impossible to conclude that….

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攻击急于概括模版句
Model1 There is no thorough lost-benefit analysis in the argument. If the increase of cost overweighs that of benefits… will fall in trouble of losing rather than gaining money. Also, the author neglects the fact of competition. Model2 The author commit a fallacy of hasty generalization. Even if…, it does not follow that… It is highly possible other factors may have contributed to… For instance, … Besides, the arguer does not provide any solid information concerning… Unless…, which is unknown for this argument, there is guarantee that… Without ruling out these and other possible factors, the author cannot confidently conclude that…
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攻击言行不一模版句
比如一些承诺、倾向性行为。 Model
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The author appreciates who’s strong commitment to something to some extent. However, we know the fact that to make a commitment is one thing, to keep it is far more difficult. There is no indication that they might fulfill their promise. As a consequence, the author could not make any prediction.

攻击非此即彼模版句(二选一,忽略其他同类)
Model
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The author’s recommendation rests on the unlikely assumption that the company has only two alternatives… and … In all likelihood… can engage one of

many other… instead. Thus, to some extent the author recommends… over not just… but over any other… the recommendation is unwarranted.

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比如一些承诺、倾向性行为。 Model

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The author appreciates who’s strong commitment to something to some extent. However, we know the fact that to make a commitment is one thing, to keep it is far more difficult. There is no indication that they might fulfill their promise. As a consequence, the author could not make any prediction.

攻击非此即彼模版句(二选一,忽略其他同类)
Model
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The author’s recommendation rests on the unlikely assumption that the company has only two alternatives… and … In all likelihood… can engage one of many other… instead. Thus, to some extent the author recommends… over not just… but over any other… the recommendation is unwarranted.


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