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英语书面表达
English Composition Writing

The essay

What makes a good essay?

A good essay is usually made up of a topic paragraph, some supporting paragraphs

and a concluding paragraph. Topic paragraph

Supporting Paragraph 1
Supporting Paragraph 2 Supporting Paragraph 3 Concluding paragraph

Topic paragraph (Introduction paragraph) General statement Topic statement
general statement

To many students, school life is boring and tiring. However, I find my school life meaningful and colourful.
topic statement

Supporting Paragraphs (Body) Paragraphs
TS SS SS SS SS
Firstly, ... Secondly, ... Moreover, ... Finally, . . .

However, ... In addition, … Furthermore, ...

Conclusion
Personally,… in conclusion, in brief, From what has been discussed above, we may draw the conclusion that ... In summary, it is wiser ...

The paragraph

What makes a good paragraph?

A good paragraph is one that consists of a topic sentence and supporting sentences.
There are different kinds of bee. Some live in large groups like the honey bee, and make theirtopic sentence in the rocks. Other nests in trees or holes species make their nests in holes in the ground. There are also varieties that do not live in groups at all…

Topic sentence:________________

Wherever you go in our school, you see green lawns and trees and beautiful flowers. Dotted among these trees and flowers are many buildings of different styles. A stream runs through our school and you always see everything reflected in the water. Our school is just like a garden.

A good paragraph is one \that contains proper linking words.
I believe English is more important than other foreign languages for many reasons. First of all, English is spoken by a large number of people, and these people are the most widely spread across the world in a great many countries. Secondly, English is the most widely used language on the internet. It has become an on-line language. Thirdly, the 2008 Olympic Games will be held in our country and English will be very useful. Lastly, …

正确使用有关连接词
时间先后: first, then, later, in the end, eventually,
since then, after a while

转折关系:but, however, on the contrary, nevertheless 因果关系:because, since, as, thanks to, owing to, as a result of, for the reason that 让步关系: though, although, even if, even though, in spite of the fact that 递进关系: what’s more, in addition, furthermore
on the one hand …on the other hand, 条件关系: if, unless, as long as, on condition that … for example / instance, take…for example, 表 列 举: that’s to say, in other words, as follows

表 总 结: in short, in brief, in conclusion, in a word,
on the whole, as has been stated

丰富的句式:(常用到的句型结构) 利用不同的句型来表达同一个意思, 能增加文章的文采。 感叹句 e.g. What a kind boy he is! How disappointed he A good paragraph is onewas ! helped the old granny. I do hope you can come if possible.

强调句 e.g. It was this young boy that with varied sentence patterns.

倒装句

省略句

e.g. Only in this way can you solve this problem. There comes the police car. Hardly had they got to the station when they met the young man. e.g. They read while walking or riding on a bus. Come to me if necessary.

with短语 e.g. I saw a young lady walking slowly in the street with a handbag in her hand.

定语从句 e.g. In my opinion, cyber cafes

should be a place where we can find much useful information. Let’s come to the main teaching building, at the back of which stands the school library.
各种名词性从句

e.g. That’s what I should do. We should do a favour to whoever needs help at present.

各种状语从句

e.g. Time passed quickly before we knew it. The moment we reached the farm, we got down to harvesting. So long as we work harder at our lessons, we’ll catch up sooner or later.

应用了较多的词汇
这里所说的“词汇”,可以从高级词汇的使用、同 义词的使用、短语的使用等方面去理解: (一) 高级词汇的使用 评分标准第五档次的要求中提到,“词汇方面有 些许错误,但为尽力使用较复杂结构或较高级词 汇所致”。这里所说的“高级词汇”,指的是大 纲中没有列入或没有识记要求,但在实际运用中 却出现比较频繁的词汇,比如frustration, awkward, awfully, concern等词,都可以算作 是“高级词汇”。考生若能够适当地运用一些高 级词汇,定会给评卷老师留下深刻的印象。

? 1. I can’t find any way to solve the problem. (换作高级 词汇: I can’t find any solution to the problem .) 2. The pet dog is so lovely that almost everybody likes her. (换作高级词汇:) The pet dog is so cute that almost everybody likes her. 3. The question is really difficult to understand. (换作高 级词汇: The question is really confusing .) 4. He had to face all the possible difficulties. (换作高 级词汇: ? He had to cope with all the possible difficulties )

(二) 同义词的使用
?
英语中有些词的使用频率非常高,比如 interesting, clever等,在表达时大家都很 喜欢用,这样很容易令文章入千人一面的 窘境中。但如果我们能够使用它们相应的 同义词,就可以做到与众不同,给评卷者 带来清新的感觉。例如:

? 1. It will be very interesting. ? (换作同义词:It will be a lot of fun.) ? 2. He was so clever that he could count all the way up to 100 at one year old. ? ( 换作同义词:He was so smart that he could count all the way up to 100 at one year old.) ? 3. Last summer I visited New Jersey with my parents. ? (换作同义词:Last summer I toured New Jersey with my parents.)

(三) 适当利用短语取代单词 总体而言,使用短语的难度比单词要大一些, 因此适当运用短语更能显出作者的功力。例 如: ?
? 1. Suddenly I had a good idea. (换作短语:Suddenly I came up with a good idea.) 2. Take a moment to see what is happening around you. (换作短语:Take a moment to see what is going on around you.) 3. Everyone should do his or her best. (换作短语:Everyone is supposed to do his or her best.)

?
? ?

Practice 怎样使用较丰富的句式和高级词汇
1. To his surprise, the little girl knows so many things.(使用名词 性从句) What surprises him is that the little girl knows so many things.

2. Though I’m weak, I’ll make the effort. (使用倒装句)
Weak as I am, I’ll make the effort. 3. He did not know what had happened until he had read the news in the newspaper.(使用强调句型) It was not until he had read the news in the newspaper that he knew what had happened. 4. I passed the physics exam because of your help.(用虚拟语气) I couldn’t have passed the physics exam but for your help.

5. She walked out of the lab and many students followed her. (使用过去分词) Followed by many students, she walked out of the lab. 6. They sang and laughed as they went back to school.( 使用 V-ing形式) Singing and laughing, they went back to school. 7.I won’t believe what he says. (no matter what状语从句) No matter what he says, I won’t believe.

8.If you study hard, you will make rapid progress. (祈使句 +and…)
Study hard and you’ll make rapid progress.

9.He had no sooner come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad. (使用倒装句)
No sooner had he come back from Beijing than he was sent abroad.

10.We all think he is a great man. (think highly of)
We all think highly of him .

11.As a result the plan was a failure. (turn out)
The plan turned out to be a failure. 12. When he spoke, he felt more and more excited. (the more…the more)

The more he spoke, the more excited he felt.

Summary:

A good essay is usually made up of a topic paragraph, some supporting paragraphs and a concluding paragraph.

A good paragraph is one that consists of a topic sentence and supporting sentences. A good paragraph is one that contains proper linking words. A good paragraph is one with advanced vocabulary and varied sentence patterns.

Let’s improve it:
ASSESSMENT Is the essay divided into parts? structure Does each part have a topic sentence? Are all the details stated?

content

Is everything to the point(切题)?

Does the writer use any linking words?
Are there any mistakes? Language Is there any advanced vocabulary(高级词汇)? Are there any good sentence patterns(句式)?

Good afternoon, everyone! The topic of my speech today is “My Attitude to Pursuit of Fashion in School”. Now in our school there is a hot pursuit of fashion. Some students live a very expensive life … _______. _______, they hope to look smart and special. A B F _______, they want to win others’ admiration and respect. In addition, it makes them feel cool . _______, we students should hold the right sense of E D values. We should practice thrift in our daily life . _____ , it is advisable for us to donate some pocket money to the Hope Project so that those poor children in rural areas can return to school.______, it is the inner beauty rather than C our appearance that makes us respectable. Thank you for listening! A. the reasons why they do so are as follows B. firstly C. last but not least D. what’s more E. as far as I am concerned F. Secondly

【作文答题技巧、答题方法】
? STEP1:确定文章框架,包括:时态、语 态、格式、展开方式、开头结尾等。 ? STEP2:确定内容要点,包括:主要人物、 时间地点、重要细节、合理发挥等。 ? STEP3:正式开始写作,整理思路成篇, 行文连贯。 ? STEP4:检查全文,主要检查语法以及粗 心犯下的错误。

高考英语写作高分策略
1. 作文的卷面; -----整洁的卷面 2. 文章的语言; -----丰富的词汇 3. 行文的流畅; -----流畅的结构 4. 文章的思想; -----独到的见解

考场作文TIPS
? 取悦评卷人
有清晰的整体脉络 有自然的段间衔接 经典的用词用句 有整齐美观的书写

? 润色文章原则
用词“老辣” 用句经典: 倒装、强调、虚拟 名人名言

苏州市2009届高三教学调研测试 最近,国家教育部要求中小学生参加冬季长跑活 动:建议小学生每天跑1000米,初中生1500米, 高中生2000米。对此,有些人表示支持,有些人 表示反对。请你根据以下材料,写一篇以 “Should we give more attention to students’ health or grades?”为题的短文,谈谈你的看法。
支持方的理由
1.可以促进对体育的重视; 2.可以增强学生的体魄; 3.更有利于提高学习效率。

反对方的理由
1.学生以学习为主,考试成绩决 定个人前途; 2.过高的要求学生难以达到; 3.长跑可能引起感冒或伤害。

你的看法及理由
(考生自行发挥2—3点)

注意:1.词数150左右。短文的开头已为你写好,不计入总词数; 2.对所给要点,逐一陈述,设当发挥,不要简单翻译。

Suggestions:
1.A good beginning makes a good ending. 2.Your composition should be divided into paragraphs. 3.You’d better use some linking words.

4.Handwriting is of great importance.

第一段: 1.Some people agree to NO. One, because they usually think that ...In the meantime , ... In addition... 2. Some people think that A is right because ... 3. Some people suggest / say that ... At the same time they point out the fact that...What’s more... 4. Some people prefer NO. One. In their opinion A ... In addition ...

第二段:

1. On the other hand, some people hold that B is right. They think ... 2.But many more people don’t agree with them. They prefer B. They say that...The reason is that... 3.On the contrary, some people hold that ...
4.Some people think that B is better. It is clear that... What’s more, ...Also... 在第一段和第二段中一定要用原因或列举等方式 展开段落。

第三段:提出自己的见解并且加以论证
1.In my opinion B is better than A. There is no doubt that ...

2.I support A. The reason goes as follows...
3.As far as I am concerned, I agree to the latter. First...Second... Finally... 4.It is likely that people will go on arguing over these questions. I think that everything has both its positive and negative sides. We should keep an open mind.

5.People will continue to argue over the questions, I think we’d better keep an open mind because everything has two sides. It all relies on... 6.Of these two ways of ...I prefer...First of all,... Second,...

The Ministry of Education of China has urged all the students to participate in the winter longdistance running activity. It is suggested that primary school students should run 1,000 meters a day, junior school students, 1,500 and senior school students, 2,000.Different people always offer various views. Some people say "yes" to this activity. They think, for one thing, it can make people pay more attention to physical education; for another, running can improve students’ health and help them study efficiently so they can have good grades. However, others hold opposite opinions about the activity. They believe that learning is the most important task for students and their future depends on their grades in their subjects. Meanwhile, many can’t meet the high requirements. What’s worse, some will suffer cold and injuries. In my opinion, it’s all right for schools to care about students’ health and carry out the activity step by step. Remember a good body helps make high efficiency.

Should we give more attention to students’ health or grades?

In my opinion, it’s all right for schools to pay more attention to students’ health and carry out the activity step by step. Remember a good body helps make high efficiency.
What do you think about the concluding paragraph? Is it a good one? If not, how can you improve it?

In my opinion, it’s better for schools to pay more attention to students’ health and carry out the activity step by step, because a good body helps make high efficiency. What’s more, it not noly helps students get relaxed, but also will benefit them in their future life.


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