过 去 分 词
2.作表语 3.作宾补 4.作状语
The Past Participle used
as Attribute and Predicative
1.English is a widely used language
2.He threw away the broken cup. 3.This is one of the schools built in 1980s.
4.Prices of daily goods bought through a
computer can be lower than store prices.
单个过去分词作定语，常放在被修饰词的 前面;过去分词短语作定语，常放在被修饰 词的后面。
spoken English = English which is spoken ? terrified people = the people who are terrified ? an organized way = a way that is organized ? affected area 灾区 = the area which is affected
stolen culture relics
= culture relics that had been stolen the book recommended by the teacher
= the book which was recommended by
= articles that are printed
Discovering Useful Structures P4
Find more examples in the reading passage where the past participle is used as attribute and predicative. 1) Doctor John Snow was a well-known doctor in London. (Attribute) 2) John Snow told the astonished people in Broad Street. (Attribute) 3) He got interested in the two theories. (Predicative) 4) Neither its cause, nor its cure was understood
Past Participle as the Attribute
1. terrified people 2. reserved seats 1. 2.
Past Participle as the Predicative
3. polluted water
4. a crowded room 5. a pleased winner 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
4. 5. 6. children who look astonished 7. a vase that is broken 8. a door that is closed 9. the audience who feel tired 10. an animal that is trapped
Past Participle as the Attribute
1.terrified people 2.reserved seats
Past Participle as the Predicative 1.people who are terrified 2.seats that are reserved
3.polluted water 4.a crowded room
5.a pleased winner
3.water that is polluted 4.a room that is crowded
5.a winner that is pleased
6.children who look astonished 7.a vase that is broken 8.a door that is closed 9.the audience who feel tired
6. Astonished children 7.a broken vase 8.a closed door 9.the tired audience
10.a trapped animal
10.an animal that is trapped
There are many fallen leaves on the ground. = There are many leaves which had fallen on the ground. (地上有许多落叶)
Some of them, born and brought up in rural villages, had never been to Beijing. = Some of them , who had been born and brought up in rural villages, had never been to Beijing. (他们中的一些人，在农村出生并长大， 从没去过北京)
polluted water = water which is polluted ? reserved seats = the seats which were reserved ? trapped animal = the animal which was trapped
及物动词的过去分词表示“结束了的被 动动作”或者没有一定的时间性,只表示 “被动关系”。
boiled water = water which has boiled ? fallen leaves = the leaves which have fallen ? risen sun = the sun which has risen
不及物动词的过去分词不表被动， 只表示动作发生在谓语动词之前，含 有“动作完成，动作结束”之含义。
过去分词作定语也可用作非限制性定 语，前后用逗号隔开。 The books, written by Guo Jingming, are very popular with teenagers.
Some of them, born and brought up in rural villages, had never been to Beijing.
written by the farmer (一本农民 The book ___________________ 写的书) is very popular. built last year The building __________________( 去年建 的楼房) now collapsed in the Wenchuan earthquake. discussed at the meeting yesterday The problem __________________________ (在昨天会议上讨论的) was very difficult to solve. broken by that naughty boy The window _________________________ 被那个顽皮男孩打破的) is being repaired.
The children ________________________昨 天在医院检查的) were seriously ill. exposed to the sun 暴露在阳光 The people _________________( 下的) got sunburnt. The boy punished severely by the teacher 受到老 _____________________________( 师严厉惩罚的) is now a college student. The water delivered to his home ___________________________(送到他家 的水) carried disease.
examined in the hospital yesterday
The English today is quite different from the English spoken ________________________(300 in the past 300 years 年前所说的). invited to the party (被 Most of the artists___________________ 邀请去参加聚会的) were from South Africa. inspired by the teacher 受到 The students ____________________( 老师鼓舞的)worked harder than ever before.
A in 776 B.C. did not The Olympic Games,___ include women players until 1912. A. first played B. to be first played C. first playing D. to be first playing
③不定式作定语表示将要发生的动作。 first played in 776B.C. = which was first played in 776 B.C.
B 1. Prices of daily goods ____ through a computer can be lower than store prices. A. are bought B. bought C. been bought D. buying
2. With a lot of different problems ____, C the newly-elected president is having a hard time. A. settled B. settling
C. to settle
D. being settled
3. Don’t use words, expressions or phrases ____ D only to people with specific knowledge. A. being known B. having been known C. to be known D. known
4. When I got back, I saw a message ____ to the door____ “Sorry to miss you; will call later.” A. pin, read C. pinned, reading B. pinning, reading D. pinned, read
2）作表语 表示主语的心理感觉或所处 的状态。许多动词的过去分词已经被 当作形容词使用。如：disappointed, excited, moved, puzzled, pleased, surprised, lost等。 The window is broken. 窗户碎了。 Don’t get so excited. 别这么激动。
1.用作表语的过去分词被动意味很弱，主要表示 动作的完成和状态，此时相当于一个形容词。 2.被动语态的过去分词动词意味很强,句子主语为 动作的承受者，后面常跟by短语。 ① The glass is broken. The glass was broken by Tom.
② The windows are closed. The windows are closed by Jack.
3.表示“感觉流露”的一些过去分词(如:interested, surprised, excited, frightened, shocked)和一些过去 分词(如dressed, drunk, devoted, lost, known)常用 作表语,表示状态.其中有些仅表示状态,毫无被动 意味。 ① How did the audience receive the new play? They got very excited. ② How did Bob do in the exams this time? Well, his father seems pleased with his results. ③ She was very disappointed to hear the result. ④ He’s quite experienced in teaching beginners.
Cleaning women in big cities usually get C ________by the hour. A. pay B. paying C. paid D. to pay
pay sb. by the hour” 计时给某人报酬。 此题被动结构作表语。类似的有：get burnt, get hurt , get wounded.
1. The rooms are ____, C so you can’t move in. A. painted B. painting C. being painted D. to be painted
D 2. As soon as he entered the city, he ____. A. was losing B. got losing C. grew lost D. got lost 3. What he has done is really ____.Now C his parents are _____ him. A. disappointing; disappointed at B. disappointing; disappointed about C. disappointing; disappointed with D. disappointed; disappointing by
a moving movie a moved audience boiling water boiled water developing countries developed countries falling leaves fallen leaves
感人的电影 被感动的观众 正在烧(煮沸)的水 已煮沸的水 反展中国家 发达国家 落叶(正在进行) 落叶(已经完成)
The child standing over there is my brother. The room facing south is our classroom. The book written by Lu Xun is very good. The road completed yesterday is leading to Tibet.
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