1. develop: verb 发育,发展
几种工业正在这个地区发展。 Several industries are developing in this area. 有的儿童比其他儿童发育得慢。 Some children develop more slowly than others.
2) 制定出, 规划出
的政策来处理这个问题. We must develop a new policy/strategy to deal with the problem.
They're planning to develop the whole site into a shopping centre.
我还没有把我度假的照片冲洗出来呢. I haven't had my holiday photos developed yet.
n. development adj. developed发达的 developing发展中的
他起得如此早以致于赶上了早班车. He got up so early that he caught the early bus.
注意和其他几个短语的区别： so that: （1）以便，引导目的状语从句； （2）以致于，引导结果状语从句
他起得非常早以便他可以赶上早班车。 He got up very early so that he could catch the early bus.
He got up very early so that he caught the early bus.
补充：so as to?以便，表示目的；相当于
in order to?，但不能置于句首；可以和 so that?句型相互转化，但从句的主语必须和 主句的主语一致；其否定形式为：so as not to?
He got up very early so that he could catch the early bus. = He got up very early so as/in order to catch the early bus. Several books have been bought so as to follow his teacher. （误）
Several books have been bought so that he can follow his teacher. （正） He has bought several books so that he can follow his teacher. =He has bought several books so as to follow his teacher.
He got up so early that he caught the early bus. =He got up so early as to catch the early bus.
1.（2005北京）I?d like to arrive 20 minutes early ____ I can have time for a cup of tea. A. as soon as B. as a result C. in case D. so that 2. (2003安徽) Sally worked late in the evening to finish her report ___ her boss could finish it first thing next mornibg. A. so that B. because C. before D. or else 3.（2002全国）John shut everybody out of the kitchen _____ he could prepare his grand surprise for the party. A. which B. when C. so that D. as if
3. beyond: prep. / adv. (1) further away in the distance (than something) 在(到)...较远的一边
What lies beyond the mountains?
Men can travel to the moon and beyond.
(2) be later than 晚于；超过
不要过了午夜还留在那儿。 Don't stay there beyond midnight.
(3) outside or after (a stated limit):为…所不能及； 多于；超出
这件工作非我力所能及。 This work is beyond my ability. 那个果子我够不着。 The fruit is beyond my reach.
beyond comparison 无可比拟的
beyond one’s imagination 超出某人的想象
beyond one’s power 某人力所不及 beyond one’s praise 难以赞扬
beyond one’s description 难以形容无法描述
beyond one’s reach 某人够不着
beyond one’s grasp/ capacity力所不及，难以理解
1. (2004上海) I?m sorry it?s _______ my power to make a final decision on the project. A. over B. above C. off D. beyond
2.(2005武汉) ---What do you think of Lu Shan Mountain? ---The scenery is beautiful ___description.
A. for B. with C. over D. beyond
1. A recent announcement by scientists that they have successfully cloned the first human embryo… announcement (n.) 宣告，通知，声明 (短语)make/ issue an announcement 发表声明 announce（vt.）宣告，通知，声明 (短语) announce sth. to sb. (不能用announce sb. sth.) (比较) announce/ declare announce 指对公众或特定的一群关心的人进行宣布； declare指官方的正式宣告
2. On the one hand, some scientists point out that if you clone an embryo, you can … ①on (the) one hand…on the other (hand)…一方 面…另一方面…（单独使用on the other hand时， hand不能省略，但与on the one hand连用时，可省略） On one hand, rapid development of the economy will improve the living conditions of the people. On the other hand, it will speed up environmental destruction.
表示“一方面……，另一方面……”的词组： for one thing, for another (thing) besides as well as apart from in addition to
give sb. a hand ： help sb/lend (sb.) a hand 帮某人一个忙 at hand 在手边，近便；临近 in hand 手头现有的，正在进行，在处理中 by hand 用手工 hand in 上交 hand out 分发
hand down 传下去
1.If you’re driving to the airport. Can you give me a ________? A. hand B. seat C. drive D. lift 2.It is certain that he will ____ his business to his son when he gets old. A.take over C. hand over B. think over D. go over
②point out 指出 He pointed out my mistake. 他指 出我的错误。 point at/point to 指着，指向某人或某物（两个词组 可互换使用）He pointed at/ to a picture. point at 对准，瞄准(某人用枪对准某人某物等) They pointed at her head but she was not afraid. point to 表明，指向(主语为证据、时针以及宾语为 某一方向时) The evidence points to him as the criminal. The hands of the clock pointed to half past three. The compass needle points to the north.
1.There are some mistakes. Would you mind my _______? A.pointing them out B.pointing out them C.knocking them out D.pointing at them 2.It’s bad manners to sit with your feet _______ others. A.pointing at B.pointing to C.pointed at D.pointed to
3. …they may be on their way to producing a real-life Frankensrein?s monster. on one?s (the) way to doing sth. “正在做某事的过 程中”. to是介词，后接名词、代词或动名词短语 (短语) on one?s (the) way to 在去…的途中 by the way 顺便问问，顺便说说 by way of 途经 in a way 在某种意义上，在某种程度上 in one?s (the) way 挡路 in this way 用这种方式
(练习) I?ve just heard a warning ______ the radio that a storm may be ______ its way. a. on, on b. over, in c. on, above d. from, on
…if mankind interferes with nature in this way. (L6)
Don?t interfere with the machine.
Don’t interfere with the teacher while she is reading.
Noise interferes with our lives.
4. However, in general the scientists were praised for their wonderful scientific breakthrough. ①in general 一般说来，从总体上看，大体上 In general, red is the most popular color this season.
(短语) in a general way 一般，通常 as a general rule 在一般情况下
…some scientists are now considering cloning human beings. (L15)
1) consider sb./sth. (to be)/as... : think of... as.../think ...+to be +adj./n.
consider it +n./adj.
2) consider (doing) sth.
consider +疑问词+ to do sth.
我认为他是一个诚实的男孩. I consider him (to be ) honest/as an honest boy. 我认为在这儿和你在一起是很荣幸的.
I consider it honourable to be here with you. 他们认为在将来的某一天克隆人类是个好主意. They consider that it would be a good idea to clone humans some day.
I am considering going abroad.
一切都考虑了,你应该把它投入使用. All things considered, you should put it into use. 他正在考虑怎样处理这些旧书. He is considering how to deal with the old books. n. consideration
②praise (vi.&vt.&n.)表扬，赞扬，表彰 (短语)win high praise 受到高度赞扬 in praise of 赞扬（某人） beyond all praises 赞美不尽的，赞不绝口的 praise sb. for sth. 因某事而赞美/称赞某人
in praise of (练习)He gave a speech ____ ____ ____school life. 他做了一个赞美学校生活的演讲。 is highly praised ___his for He __ ____ ______ research on genes. 他的基因研究受到了高度赞扬。
5. However, some people consider that cloning human embryos with the intention of destroying them shows no respect for human life. with the intention of 为了，以…为目的或意图 He has decided to go abroad to study with the intention of improving his English and finding a better job when he returns. intention (n.) 目的，打算，意图 （词组）without intention 无意地 make one?s intension clear 说清楚自己的目的 state/ announce one?s intention 声明自己的意图 (练习) I began reading with the ____ of finishing the book, but I never did. a. interview b. intention c. help d. consideration
6. I don?t want to adopt someone else?s child and I don?t want to use another woman?s egg—I want a child that is generically related to me. ①adopt (vt.) 收养，领养；采用，采纳(议案、意见等) Can you adopt my new idea? They adopted a neighbour?s boy. (词组) adopt measures/ new methods/ an idea 采取措施/ 采用新办法/ 采纳意见 adopt a resolution 通过一项议案 an adopted son 养子 adopted words 外来词
(比较) adopt/adapt adopt 收养，领养；采用，采纳（议案、意见等）； adapt使适合，使适应 adapt…to…；改编 adapt…for… She had to adapt herself to local conditions. 她 必须使自己适应当地的情况。 This English novel was adapted for the stage. 这部小说被改编成了剧本。 (练习) The couple decided to _____a boy because they had three girls. a. adapt b. adopt c. receive b. keep
②be related to 与…有关联；与…有联系 She is related to a rich neighbour by marriage.
relate (v) 和…相关，把…与…关联起来 relation (n.) 关系，联系，家属，亲属 relative (adj.) 有关系的，相对的；(n.) 亲戚，亲属
7. While cloning human embryos is illegal in many countries, some scientists are already pushing ahead with research so as to deliver a cloned human baby. ①while (conj.) 当…的时候，和…同时（while引导 的从句要表示一段时间） John came in while I was typing a letter. 当我正在用打字机打一封信时，约翰进来了。 (conj.) 然而，虽然，尽管 While he was hated by others, I liked him. 他虽受人恨， 但我却喜欢他。 (练习) ______ English can be difficult to learn, it is a very useful tool for communication. a. Because b. As c. Once d. While
②push ahead with 推进，推行，毅然继续做某事 It is hard to push ahead with such an unpopular policy. 这样一个不得人心的政策很难推行下去的。
(词组) push ahead/ forward/ on with sth. 毅然继续做某事 push sth. forward 提出某事， 迫使他人考虑或注意某事 push sb./ sth. over 使某人/某物倒下；推倒某人/某物
8. China has succeeded in producing clones of cows and goats, and continues to research ways in which cloning can benefit mankind.
①succeed in doing sth. 成功地做某事 (反义词组)fail to do sth. After practicing more, he succeeded in passing the driving test. success (n.) successful (adj.) successfully (adv.)
②benefit (n.) 利益，好处；(pl.)救济金 (词组) be of benefit to 对…有裨益 for the benefit of…为了…的利益 It is said Yoga is of great benefit to human health.
(vt.& vi.) 有益于 (词组) benefit sb./sth. 有益于某人/某物 benefit from/by 从…中获益 Such foolish behavior will not benefit you. We all benefited from her success.
9. We could produce a monster, or even a superhuman race that could one day end up replacing us. end up: 以…告终
end up with/ in end up doing end up+adj. end up 以…而告终，后接现在分词；end up with/in/as 后接名词 At first he refused to accept any responsibility but he ended up apologizing. The party ended up with a song. If you continue to steal, you will end up in prison.
10. Human life would no longer be unique; it would just be a product for sale. for sale 待售，出售的 The land is now for sale at that price to anyone.
on sale （英）出售，（美）廉价出售 Tomato soup that is usually sold at twelve cents a bowl is now on sale for ten cents.
11. I would like to comment on your article ?The perfect copy?.
comment (n.& vi.) 评论，评注 (词组) make (a comment) comments on sb./sth. 同comment on/ upon/ about sb./sth. 评论某人（某事） He made several comments on the book. We would like the audience to comment on our new play.
12. After all, scientists have been challenging questions of morality for centuries. after all 毕竟，终究，别忘了 We all though that he would fail, but he succeeded after all.
(短语) above all 首要，特别是 first of all 首先，首要的 in all 总共，总计 not…at all 一点儿也不 all the same 仍然，还是 not at all 一点也不，不用客气 all the best 万事如意 all the time 一直
13. When reading articles related to science, we often come across difficult or unfamiliar words.
come across (偶尔)碰到，遇见，发现; 同义词组 run across, run into, meet with (短语)come about 发生 come to 达到，总计,谈到， come on 加油，快点 come over 过来 come up 走上前，走过来 come out 出来, (花)开放，出版, (消息)传出 (练习) Jim was very happy yesterday because he ____ the book that he wanted. a. came to b. came across c. came about d. came out
1.At first they hated each other, but they ended up ________getting married. pushing ahead with 2.The government is __________________ its reform regardless of people’s objection figure out 3.I can’t ____________ why he quit his job Showing respect for old and taking 4.__________________the care of the young is the Chinese tradition. use up all the glue. I need some. 5.Don’t________
Fill in the blanks with the phrases below push ahead with; in general; benefit from figure out; for sale; point out; show respect for; deal with; end up; use up
deal with 6.She is used to ______________all kinds of people in her career. point out 7.I should ___________that none of the paintings is original. benefit from 8.Of course you will ______________daily exercise. In general 9.___________her work has been good, but this essay is dreadful. 10.All the new products on exhibition is for sale not___________.
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