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英语语法大全之句子的转换与合并


济南沃尔得国际英语

句子的转换与合并 Ⅰ.简单句之间的转换 句型的转换是指一个句子由一种语法结构变为另一种语法结构,而不改变其原来的意 义。这是一种有用的练习,可以学会许多不同的说法,能从几个句子中挑选出最适当的 句子形式。 A.主动语态与被动语态之间的转换 一个句子可以由主动结构变为被动结构,也可从被动结构变为主动结构(参阅1207— 1209): He has finished his university studies. His university studies have been finished. They put him to death. He was put to death. An Englishman teaches him English. He is taught English by an Englishmen. B.肯定句与否定句之间的转换 一个句子可以由肯定形式变为否定形式,也可由否定形式变为肯定形式: I am doubtful of his honesty. I am not sure of his honesty. Few understand it. Not many understand it. He is sometimes silly. He is not always clever. It is tidy. It is not untidy.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

He always objected. He never agreed. He failed to come. He did not come. She told the story with tears. She told the story not without tears. Only he knows it. Nobody else knows it. He lacks courage. He is without courage. He is very tired. He is not a little tired. He will always remember your kindness. He will never forget your kindness. C.反问型问句与陈述句之间的转换 反问型问句(Rhetorical Questions)可以转变为陈述句: Is that the way to treat your wife? That is not the way to treat your wife. Can I say anything? I cannot say anything. Where can you ever see a ghost? You can never see a ghost anywhere.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

Who cares about you? Nobody cares about you. Why should I apologize? I should not apologize. D.不同词类之间的转换 几乎任何词类都可以转换为另一词类。可以是: 1.动词与名词间的转换: Our enemy is strengthening. Our enemy is gaining strength. They agreed not to criticize each other. They made an agreement not to criticize each other. It smells good. It has a good smell. John disgraces our family. John is a disgrace to our family. 2.动词与形容词之间的转换: He neglects my advice. He is negligent of my advice. He fears nothing. He is afraid of nothing. This letter expresses his gratitude. This letter is expressive of his gratitude. They widened and lengthened the street.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

They made the street wide and long. 3.动词与副词间的转换: He succeeded in advising Mary. He advised Mary successfully. They enjoyed celebrating the festival. They celebrated the festival joyfully. This story surpasses others in beauty. This story is surpassingly beautiful. 4.名词与形容词间的转换: He is a man of wealth. He is a wealthy man. He is a husband with no heart,she is a wife with a long tongue. He is a heartless husband,she is a long-tongued wife.“Here lies the only wile of John Lee.” “Here lies John Lee's only wife.” This policy is of great importance. This policy is very important. There was once a monster with three heads. There was once a three-headed monster. 5.名词与副词间的转换: Please handle it with care. Please handle it carefully. In all probability,it will rain this evening.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

Most probably,it will rain this evening. Our troops entered the city in triumph. Our troops entered the city triumphantly. 6.形容词与副词间的转换: After a careful analysis,the food proves poisonous. Carefully analysed,the food proves poisonous. He hates hard work. He hates to work hard. 7.介词与连词间的转换: I like him for his unselfishness. I like him because he is unselfish. I will wait until his return. I will wait until he returns.

Ⅱ.简单句与复合句之间的转换 一个分词、动名词、不定式或介词短语可以转换为复合句,反过来也如此: —Sitting down,he read the letter. He sat down and he read the letter. The guest leaving,I went to bed. The guest left,and then I went to bed. Being tired of life,he refuses to see any friends or relatives. —He is tired of life,so he refuses to see any friends or relatives.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

—He ran away to avoid punishment. He ran away,or he would be punished. He has to work hard to maintain his big family. He has to work hard,otherwise he cannot maintain his big family. Out of a desire to please her mother,he sent her things from time to time. He sent things to her mother from time to time,for he desires to please her. —Besides selling rice,he teaches arithmetic in the evening. He sells rice,and besides he teaches arithmetic in the evening. With all his efforts,he failed. He made all efforts,but he failed. By his good manners,he wins her heart. He has good manners,therefore he wins her heart. The boy is rewarded for his bravery. The boy is brave,so he is rewarded.

Ⅲ.简单句与复杂句之间的转换 一个词或是短语可以转变为名词从句、定语从句或状语从句,反过来也如此: A.名词从句 I cannot tell the time of his arrival. I cannot tell when he will arrive. I believe your statement.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

I believe what you state. I insisted on his studying art. I insisted that he should study art. I was informed of his behaviour. I was informed of how he behaved. I wish you to be always happy. I wish that you will be always happy. I think it fit for you to take over the business.I think it fit that you take over the business.I learn of his success. I learn that he has succeeded. His arrival is a great event. That he has arrived is a great event. How to get rid of poverty is a big problem. It is a big problem how we can get rid of poverty. B.定语从句 He is a self-made man. He is a man who has succeeded by his own efforts. It has become an independent country. It has become a country that is no more controlled by anothor. I want to live and die in my native village. I want to live and die in the village where I was born. She wears a sea-blue skirt. She wears a skirt which is as blue as the sea.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

We need an atom-smashing machine. We need a machine that can smash atoms. I have nothing to say. I have nothing that I wish to say. The evil done lives after the doers. The evil that men do lives after them. C.状语从句 The children quarrelled over the property on the death of their father. The children quarrelled over the property as soon as their father died. After 20 years of service,he retired. When he had served 20 years,he retired. He died in his native place. He died where he was born. He stayed at home because of illness. He stayed at home because he was ill. In spite of my advice,he persisted in going out with her. Although I advised him,he persisted in going out with her. You may drink to your heart's content. You may drink as much as you like. Without any water,this plant cannot live. Unless it gets some water,this plant cannot live. He is too tired to work any more.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

He is so tired that he cannot work any more. I will inform the police to punish him. I will inform the police so that he may be punished.

Ⅳ.复杂句与复合句之间的转换 He gained a lot of money in gambling and he wished to gamble again. After he gained a lot of money in gambling,he wished to gamble again. He may be interested in art and in that case he should go to some fine arts school. If he is interested in art,he should go to some fine arts school. Recede one step and they will proceed three. If you recede one step,they will proceed three. He is poor,but he is proud. Although he is poor,he is proud. He has failed,yet he has done his best. Although he has failed,he has done his best. We must keep silent or father will get angry. We must keep silent lest father should get angry. He must live a regular life,otherwise he will fall ill. Unless he lives a regular life,he will fall ill. He is a very good teacher,so the students like him. The students like him,because he is a good teacher.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

They have said all they wish to say,therefore they understand each other thoroughly. As they have said all they wish to say,they understand each other thoroughly. Ⅴ.直接引语和间接引语之间的转换 说话人讲的话可以用两种方式来引用。如果引用他的原话,就称作直接引语。因此 He said,“I am very ill.”为直接引语。如果按引用人的观点来引用,则称为间接 引语。因此 He said that he was very ill.为间接引语。Said 这样的动词称为引话动 词,它前面的主语,例如 he,可称为第一主语。引语中的主语,如 I 及 he,称为第二主 语。引语中的谓语动词称为第二动词。当直接引语转换为间接引语,或间接引语转换为 直接引语时,有几个问题需要注意。 A.大写与标点 直接引语放在引号之内,第一个字母要大写,引号前加逗号(间或用冒号),引语末 加句号、问号或感叹号,但在间接引语中却不加这些。间接引语必须由 that,whether (if)或疑问词(who,why,when 等)开头,末尾要加句号。此外,在直接引语中问句 可能有倒装语序(助动词放在主语前面),但在间接引语中,问句则需变为自然语序: I say,“He will come.” I say that he will come. I say:“When will he come?” I ask when he will come. B.引话动词与第二动词 引 话 动 词 可 以 是 say , remark , observe , claim , explain , con- firm ; ask , enquire , question ; answer , reply ; declare , announce ; beg , urge , suggest , request , demand ;order , command ; object, deny, admit,agree ,argue ;warn , threaten ; think , reflect , consider ; write , cable , phone , telex ; shout , laugh, sneer 等等。 若引话动词是现在时或将来时,则当引语由直接变为间接时,第二动词照旧不变。但 若引话动词是过去时,则间接引语中的第二动词,就要由现在时变为过去时,由过去时 变为过去完成时等。

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济南沃尔得国际英语

I say(or will say)to him,“John arrives(or will arrive,arrived)on Sunday.” I say(or will say)to him that John arrives(or will arrive,arrived)on Sunday. I said to him,“John arrives(or will arrive,arrived)on Sunday. I said to him that John arrived(or would arrive,had arrived) on Sunday. C.引话动词与连词 1.如果间接引语为陈述句,它前面通常都有:say that,know that,tell him that,state that,… 2.如果它是问句,它前面通常有:ask(him)whether(or if),inquire(of him) whether,demand(of him)whether,wonder whether,want to know whether;或 ask(him)+W(即疑问词,如 who,whom,when,why,which),inquire (of him)+W,… 3.如果它是感叹句,它前面通常有:exclaim that,cry out with joy that,… 4.如果间接引语为祈使句,它前面通常有:demand that, ask that,request that,advise that,order that,…且里面包含助动词 should.此外间接引语还可以转 换为不定式短语,这时引话动词需要改为宾补动词: 1.I said,“You are a nice boy”. I said that he was a nice boy. I thought,“You will fail again.” I thought that he would fail again. 2.I said,“Are you a nice boy?” I asked whether he was a nice boy. I thought to myself,“Will he fail again?” I asked myself whether he would fail again.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

I enquired of him,“Who knows it?” I enquired of him who knew it. 3.I said,“What a nice boy you are!” I exclaimed that he was indeed a nice boy. I said,“Hurrah!We have won the battle.” I cried with joy that we had won the battle. He said,“Curse it!You are a fool.” He exclaimed with an oath that I was a fool. He said,“Bravo!You have done something wonder- ful.” He applauded me,saying that I had done something wonderful. 4.I said to him,“Be a nice boy.” I advised that he should be a nice boy. I advised him to be a nice boy. I said to him,“See me at the station.” I requested that he should see me at the station. I requested him to see me at the station. D.代词 此外还要注意,把直接引语变为间接引语时,代词需作改变。如果在直接引语中代词 为第一人称,在变为间接引语时,将变为与第一主语一致的代词。 I said,“I can do it.” I said that I could do it. He said,“I must go.” He said that he must go.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

You said,“I know.” You said that you knew. We said,“We can do it.” We said that we could do it. They said,“We must go.” They said that they must go. I said“We can do it.” I said that we could do it.(We 中包括 I) 如果在直接引语中,代词为第二人称,在间接引语中它将变成与引话动词的宾语一致 的人称: I told him,“You are right.” I told him that he was right. I told you,“You are right.” I told you that you were right. He told me,“You are right.” He told me that I was right. He told us,“You are right.” He told us that we were right. We told them,“You are right.” We told them that they were right.” To somebody 也可看作是宾语: He said to me(=told me),“You are right.” He said to me that I was right.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

He explained to them,“You have gone the wrong way.” He explained to them that they had gone the wrong way. 引话动词的宾语有时可以省略,但它在间接引语中可能需要说出来: They asked me when I would get married.I said,“You will learn it very soon.” …I said that they would learn it very soon. 如果在直接引语中代词为第三人称,在间接引语中,它可以保持不变: I told you,“He is crazy.” I told you that he is crazy. He told me,“She is crazy.” He told me that she was crazy. We told him,“They are crazy.” We told him that they were crazy. He told me,“He is crazy.”(这两个 he 代表两个不同的人) He told me that a certain person was crazy. 还需指出,上述代词,在直接或间接引语中,可以为任何“格”,而不仅仅是主格: He told me,“I will ask my brother to take me to the pictures.” He told me that he would ask his brother to take him to the pictures. He declared “We must urge them to return our territory to us!” He declared that we must urge them to return our territory to us. E.时间副词(短语)

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济南沃尔得国际英语

间接引语中的时间副词(短语)可能和直接引语中的时间副词(短语)不同,这是因 为原来说话人提到的时间可能与现在引话人提到的时间不同: He said,“Mary is very busy now.” He said that Mary was very busy then. He said,“Mary came yesterday.” He said that Mary had come the day before(or the previous day). He said,“Mary came five days ago.” He said that Mary had come five days before(or five days earlier). He said,“Mary will come tomorrow.” He said that Mary would come the following day(or the next day). He said,“Mary will come in five days!” He said that Mary would come five days afterwards(or later). F.第一主语及引话动词的位置 在新闻报导中第一主语有时放在引话动词的后面: Said Stevens,“…” Comments Dr.Lee,“…” Boasted Asia Bank president John Bush,“…” 第一主语及引话动词,除了放在直接引语前面外,还可放在其他位置: He said,“Oh! I have done my best.” “Oh!”he said,“I have done my best.”(但不说 said he) “Oh!I have done my best,”he said.(但不说 said he) “Oh!I have done my best.”(如果大家都清楚这话是谁说的,第一主语及引话 动词也可不必说出。)
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济南沃尔得国际英语

在第一主语及引话动词放在其他位置时,要注意标点符号: He said,“Oh,I have done my best;I have made every effort.But all in vain.” “Oh,”he said,“I have done my best;I have made every effort.But all in vain.” “Oh,I have done my best,”he said;“I have made every effort,But all in vain.” 如果引话动词有较长的修饰语,最好把它放在主语及引话动词前面,如果主语及引话 动词在直接引语后面,长修饰语最好放在引话动词后面: After a short space of silence he said,“I'll consider this problem.” “I'll consider this problem,”he said after a short space of silence. 如果主语和引话动词放在直接引语的中间或后面,作主语的名词可以放在引话动词的 后面或前面(若主语是人称代词,只能放在动词后面): “I think so,”he said(or Leo said,said Leo).(很少说 said he) “Everything is OK!”she says(or Amy says,says Amy).(很少说 says she)

Ⅵ.简单句的合并 两个或更多简单句可以合并成一个比较复杂的句子,这种练习对学习写作的人很有好 处。两个或更多简单句可借助并列连词合并成一个复合句: He saw John.He greeted him. He saw John and he greeted him. I called on Mary.Mary was ill. I called on Mary,but Mary was ill. He has not a single penny.He has to beg.He will be starved.

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济南沃尔得国际英语

He has not a single penny,so he has to beg,otherwise he will be starved. 两个或更多简单句,可以加上从属连词,把一个或更多句子变为名词从句、定语从句 或状语从句,这样来合并成为一个复杂句。 1.变成名词从句: He has arrived.I know it. I know that he has arrived. He may have an accident.I am afraid. I am afraid that he may have an accident. How many were killed?I am not sure. I am not sure how many were killed. How did he achieve this success?That is unknown to me. How he achieved this success is unknown to me. 2.变成定语从句: Who is that man?I saw that man yesterday. Who is the man I saw yesterday? The boy was caught by the police.The boy stole my Pekinese dog. The boy who stole my Pekinese dog was caught by the police. She wears a skirt.I don't like a skirt like this. I don't like such a skirt as she wears. 3.变成状语从句: I walked along.At that time,it was raining. When I walked along,it was raining.
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济南沃尔得国际英语

You turn to the right.You can see the hotel. If you turn to the right,you can see the hotel. He suffered from cancer.He had smoked too much. He suffered from cancer,because he had smoked too much. He looks stupid.He is clever. He looks stupid though he is clever. He studies until midnight.He wishes to pass the exam. He studies until midnight so that he may pass the exam. 两个或更多简单句,也可以把其中一个或更多简单句变成一个短语,甚至一个词,来 合并成一个较为复杂的简单句: Mr.Johnson will leave our school.He is a teacher of history. Mr.Johnson,a teacher of history,will leave our school.(用同位语代替一 个句子) He died.He is forgotten. He is forgotten after his death.(用介词短语代替句子) She poisoned herself.She had a quarrel with her husband. She poisoned herself because of having a quarrel with her husband.(用 “介词+动名词”结构代替句子) He is willing to sacrifice himself.He wishes to please her. He is willing to sacrifice himself to please her.(用不定式代替句子) The enemy surrendered themselves.They came to us with a white flag. The enemy surrendered themselves,coming to us with a white flag.(用分词 代替句子)

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