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Unit 5 Nelson Mandela – a modern hero 重点词汇及短语 1) mean adj. (1)吝啬的, 小气的 (反义词:generous) be mean over/with sth. 在...方面很小气、吝啬 e.g. He’s always mean over/with money. 他很吝啬钱。 (2)刻薄的,卑鄙的 be mean to 对

...刻薄 e.g. 那女人对她继子很刻薄。The woman is mean to her stepson. v. 意思是,意味着 mean to do sth. 打算做。。 。 mean doing sth. 意味着。。 。 e.g. 我不打算留在这儿。 I didn’t mean to stay here. 接受这工作意味着在国外居住。 Accepting this job means living abroad. 2) active adj. 积极的,活跃的,主动的 be active in … 积极从事…… (= take an active part in …) 他工作积极。 He is active in work. 3) devote vt. 献身;专心于 (常与 to 连用) devote oneself / sth. to (doing) sth. 致力于/献身于/专心于…… e.g. 你必须专心于学习。 You must devote yourself to your study. 他用课余时间学习英语。 He devoted his spare time to learning English. devote + 时间 + to (doing) sth. = spend + 时间 + in doing sth. devoted adj. 献身的,专心于。。的;忠实的;深爱的 。 (be devoted to… 为。。奉献,忠于。。 。 。,深爱。。) 。 devotion u.n. 奉献,忠诚,热心 4) found vt. 建立;建设 (- founded - founded ) 可建设、成立具体或抽象的东西。 e.g. found a hospital 建立一座医院 found a new society 建立一个新社会 foundation u.n.创立;成立 c.n.基础;地基;根据;基金;基金会 区别:find – found – found v. 找到;发现 5) hopeful adj. 怀有希望的,有希望的 be / feel ~ of/about/that… 对…抱希望或持乐观态度 e.g. 对未来充满希望 be ~ about the future 我对这次考试取得好成绩充满希望。 I’m ~ that I’ll get a good mark in this exam. 6) vote c.n. 选票;表决;投票;选举权 vi./vt. 投票;选举 e.g. 你还太小,不能投票。 You are too young to vote. 常用结构: (1) vote on “就…投票” e.g. 我们将就此计划投票。 We’ll vote on the plan.

(2) vote for / against + sb./sth./doing sth. “投票赞成(支持)/反对…” e.g. 他投票反对那个计划。 He voted against the plan. (3) vote + n./pron./ to do / that clause “投票决定…,投…票” e.g. 我们投票决定举行一个晚会来筹款。 We voted to hold a party to collect money. 7) blow up (blow – blew – blown) (1) 使充气 e.g. blow up the tyre/balloon 给轮胎/气球充气 (2) 爆炸,炸毁 (vi./vt.) e.g. The bomb/ship blew up. 炸弹/船爆炸。 The bridge/railway was blown up. 那桥/铁路被炸毁了。 8) equal (1) adj. 相等的;平等的 e.g. equal pay for equal work 同工同酬 Women and men are equal. 男女平等。 常用结构: be equal to + sb. / sth. / doing sth. “相当于;能胜任” e.g. 一刻钟相当于 15 分钟。A quarter is equal to 15 minutes. 他能胜任这工作。 He is equal to (doing) this work. A be equal with B. “A 与 B 平等” e.g. 穷人与富人是平等的。 The poor are equal with the rich. (2) vt. 等于;比得上 e.g. Three times three equals nine. 3 乘以 3 等于 9. 谁也比不上她漂亮。 No one can equal her in beauty. (3) c.n. 平等的人/物 e.g. 男女平等。 Women are equals of men. equally adv.平等地 equality n. 平等 9)in trouble 在危险、受罚、痛苦、忧虑、不幸、有麻烦等的处境中 词语积累: out of trouble 走出困境 get (sb.) into trouble (使某人)陷入困境 ask for trouble / look for trouble 自找麻烦 make trouble 制造麻烦;捣乱 10)willing adj. 乐意的;自愿的 e.g. willing workers 志愿工作者 常用结构: be willing to do sth. 愿意做某事 e.g. 他总是乐于助人。 He’s always willing to help others. 11) turn to + n./pron./doing sth. (1) 求助于 e.g. 他求助于老师给他一些建议。 He turned to the teacher for advice.

如果你不懂这个词,请查字典。 If you don’t know the word, turn to the dictionary. (2) 转向 e.g. 向左转 turn to the left 他的注意力转向那个可爱的小男孩。 His attention turned to the lovely boy. (3) 翻到 e.g. 翻到 50 页 turn to page 50 (4) 变成 e.g. 雪很快变成了雨。 The snow turned to rain soon. 12) escape vi.(= run away) 逃离 (常与 from 连用) e.g. escape from prison / a cage vt. 逃避,逃脱 + n./doing e.g. 没人逃得过死亡。 No one can escape death. 那小鸟逃不过被杀。 The bird can’t escape being killed. 13) educate vt.教育;训练 常用结构: educate sb. (to do sth.) 教育某人(做某事) e.g. 我们的父母总是教育我们要尊重老人家。 Our parents always educate us to respect the old. educate oneself 自学 educator n. 教育家,教育者 education n. 教育,培养,训练 14) beg vt./vi. 乞讨;乞求;恳求;拜托 (-gg-) 常用结构: beg ((for) sth.) (from/of sb.) (向某人)乞求/乞讨(某物) e.g. 他非常穷,所以不得不乞食。 He was so poor that he had to beg (for) his bread. 他依靠向富人行乞为生。 He made a living by begging from the rich. beg sth. (of sb.) 恳求某人某事 e.g. I beg a favour of you. 我有事求你。 beg ((of) sb.) to do sth. 恳求(某人)做某事 e.g. She begged (of) me to stay. 她恳求我留下。 The children begged to come with us. 孩子们恳求与我们同来。 beg + that clause 恳求某事 (从句中常有情态动词) The children begged that they might come with us. beggar n. 乞丐 15) reward u.n. 报答,报偿 c.n. 报酬,奖金 in reward (for...) 作为(...的)报酬 e.g. 他没得到任何东西作为报酬。 He got nothing in reward. vt. 给报酬;奖赏 常用结构:

reward sb. with sth. 用…奖赏某人 reward sb. for (doing) sth. 因…而奖赏某人 e.g. 我们因为他帮助我们而奖给他一个奖品。 We rewarded him with a prize for helping us. 16) set up 设立;建立 e.g. 建立一个医院 set up a hospital 创立一个组织 set up an organization set up a new record 创一个新纪录 set up 可建立建筑或组织等;build 一般指建建筑。 17) sentence c.n.句子;判刑,徒刑 e.g. He received a heavy sentence. 他受到重刑。 vt. 判决,宣判 e.g. 法官判处杀人犯死刑。 The judge sentenced the murderer to death. be sentenced to 被判处…… e.g. 杀人犯被判处死刑。The murderer was sentenced to death. 他被判监禁 2 年。He was sentenced to 2 years in prison. 18) opinion c.n./u..n. 意见,看法,主张 have a good / high / low / … opinion of sb./sth. 对…印象好/坏 have no opinion of sb./sth. 对…印象不好 e.g. 他对我们学校印象很好。 He had a good opinion of our school. 他对你印象不好。 He has no opinion of you. in one’s opinion / in the opinion of sb. 依某人看来 e.g. 依我看,这本书值得一读。 In my opinion, this book is worth reading. give / express one’s opinion on / upon 对…发表意见 重点句子 1) He gave up a rich life for his ideas and fought for his country to be free from the UK in a peaceful way. 他为了自己的信念放弃了富裕的生活,并以和平的方式使自己的国家摆脱了英国的殖民统治。 (Pre-reading) (be) free from ... 不受。。的影响,没有。。的 。 。 e.g. 这是一个无风的日子。 It is a day free from wind. 这个句子没有错误。 The sentence is free from mistakes. 2) Only then did we decide to answer violence with violence. (Reading) 当 “only + 状语(即 adv./介词短语/状语从句)”位于句首时,主句应部分倒装。 (即把情态动词、助 动词等提到主语之前。 ) e.g. I realized that I was wrong only then. → Only then did I realize that I was wrong. You can succeed only by working hard. → Only by working hard can you succeed. I can believe it only when I see it myself. → Only when I see it myself can I believe it. (状语从句不倒装,主句部分倒装) Only you can help me. 只有你能帮我。(若置于句首的 only 修饰的词不是状语,则不用倒装。)

3) I felt bad the first time I talked to a group. 辨析: the first time 第一次 (相当于连词,引导时间状语从句) for the first time 第一次 (介词短语, 不可引导从句,只作时间状语。 ) e.g. He visited the West Lake ( the first time ) he came to China. He came to China (for the first time). I remembered her ( the first time ) I met her. It is/was the first/second/… time that sb. have/had done sth. 是某人第…次做某事。




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