非谓语动词。在英语中，不能作句子谓语，而是担任其它语法功能的动词 叫做非谓语动词。 非谓语动词的时态和语态的不同形式 动词不定式 动名词 分词 主动 to do doing doing （ 同 时，主动） 被动 to be done being done done （被动， 完成） 进行主动 to be doing 进行被动 being done 进行，被动
主动完成 to have having done having done done （主动，完 成一般作状 语) 被动完成 to have having been having been been done done done(被动， 完成一般作 状语） 非谓语动词在句中的作用 主语 宾语 表语 补语 定语 状语 不定式 √ √ √ √ √ √ 动名词 √ √ √ √ 分词 √ √ √ √ 一．不定式 1.作主语。不定式和动名词都可以作主语。表示泛指意义时多用动名词 作主语。 表示具体的行为多用不定式。特别是将来的行为时，用不定式作主语。 例句：To refuse him is not easy this time. 不定式作主语常用 it 作形式主语。 特别是在以下句型中。 且不能用 doing It is important/necessary/difficult----(for sb)to do--It is kind/clever/silly/cruel (of sb)to do---注意：可以用人作主语的形容词 一般用 of eg：a. It is important (for all)to obey the traffic rules. b.It is silly（ of you） not to forgive others for their mistakes.=You are silly not to forgive others for their mistakes. 2．作宾语。常在以下动词后作宾语 want(想),wish ,agree,decide,hope,pretend,manage,promise,expect,plan,wou ld like/love,wait,manage,fail,refuse,ask,tend,desire,等 eg：My parents have agreed to see me and Iwill have a different vacation.
我的父母已经同意来看我，我将有一个不同的假期。 3.作表语。不定式与动名词作表语的区别于作主语时一样。 eg：a. You are to finish your homework before watching TV. b. My wish is to become a teacher. 4.作补语。跟不定式作补语的常见动词有 advise,allow,permit,ask,tell,beg,encourge,get,force,invite,expect,wish, require,want,warn,teach,persuade,wait for 等 eg：He permitted me to retake a test.(做宾补) I was permitted to retake a test.(做主补) 注 1.在感官动词 see,watch,observe，feel,hear,notice,listen to,looked at--和使役动词 make,have（让） ，let,后做宾补时，需要省去 to.改为被动语态时，to 需要还原。其中 have，let 没有被动语态 例句：My parents always make me feel good about myself .=I am always made to feel good about myself . 注 2.help sb( to) do to 可要可不要。但在被动语态中，to 需要还原。 例句：I helped them (to)go to the nearest hospital. They were helped to go to the nearest hospital. 注 3see/hear/--sb do---表示看见---干了---（强调全过程） see/hear---sb doing---表示看见---正在干--例句 a.I saw him fall off the tree.=He was seen to fall off the tree.我看见 他从树上掉下了。 b.I heard him singing in the next room.=He was heard singing in the next room. I saw the girl get into the car and drive off.我看见那个女孩进了那辆车开走了。 5．作定语。不定式作定语时常与它所所修的词有逻辑上的动宾关系或 介宾关系 例句：a. With the world changing fast ,we have something new to deal with all by ourselves.(deal with sth new) b. Please give me a cake to eat.(eat a cake) 注 1 不定式作定语时，有时与它所修饰的词有逻辑上的主谓关系 例句：He is always the first to come and the last to leave.(the first 与 come 之间有逻辑上的主谓关系。 注 2.在 chance,time,way,ability 等词后跟不定式作定语， 与它所修 饰的词没有关系。 例句 a. I have been waiting for the chance to speak to her. b. There are a lot of ways to make friends. 6．作状语。不定式作状语时一般表示目的，结果。有时为了强调是目 的状语，还可用 in order to,so as to(so as to 一般不放在句首) 例句：a. He got up early this morning (in order /so as)to catch the train.=He got up so earlt this morning as to catch the train.（表示目的） b. He hurried to the station only to find that the train had left.(表 示结果) 注：在下例句型中，不定式与主语有逻辑上的动宾或介宾关系 主语+be+adj.+不定式
例句：a. The question is hard to answer . b. The chair is comfortable to sit on. 7．不定式的时态和语态与逻辑主语 例句：a. To be accepted as an Olympic event,a sport must be played in at least75countries on at least 4 continents.要接受为奥林匹克一项赛事，这 项运动必须在至少 75 个国家 4 个州进行。 b.When mother entered the room ,the girl pretented to be reading English.妈妈走进房间时，那个女孩假装正在读英语。 c. He is said to have been to America.=It is said that he has been to America.据说他去过美国。 d. The book is said to have been translated into several languages.=It is said that the book has been tranlated into several languages. 据说这本书已经被译成好几门语言。 It is important for us to learn English well. It is kind of you to say so. 二．动名词 1.作主语。表示泛指意义时多用动名词作主语。 eg.Smoking is bad for your health.抽烟对你的健康不利。 注意：1）It is no good /use/useless doing--eg.It is no use telling him about it.告诉他这件事没有用。 2）在 There is no doing---. There is no joking about the matter.这事开不得玩笑。 3）No doing--.=Don`t do ---. eg.No smoking here.=Don`t smoke here.不要再这儿吸烟。 4）Seeing is believing.眼见为实。 2.作表语 My job is teaching English.我的工作是教英语。=Teaching English is my job. 注意：动名词作主语时可以主表对调。 3.作宾语，常接动名词作宾语的动词有 permit,allow,admit,appreciate,avoid,consider,delay,dislike,enjoy,escape,finish,give up ,imagine,keep,mind,miss,pratise,put off,,risk,suggest,can`t help 情不自禁，can`t stand 无法忍受 insist on，等词后还有介词后 eg .He has finished doing his work.他已经做完工作。 I can`t imagine marrying such a man.我不能想象与这样的人结婚。 Are you fond of dancing.你喜欢跳舞吗？ 注意：有些动词后即可加 to do—也可加 doing—作宾语，但意思不同。 1）like/love/hate to do 一般表示具体的某一次动作 like/love/hate doing 一般表示习惯性动作 但 should/would like/love to do— eg.I should like to be taken to Bei jing.我想把我带到北京去。 Would you like to go with me?你愿意和我一道去吗？ 2）remember to do/forget to do 记住/忘了要做--（没做） remember /forget doing---记得/忘了干过--（已做） eg.Please remember to post the letter for me.请记住帮我把这封信寄了。
I remember doing the exercise.我记得做过这项练习。 3）regret to do 对即将要说的话表示遗憾 regret doing/not doing=regret having done/not having done 对已经发生的事表示后 悔或遗憾 eg.I regret to say I must go now.我很遗憾地说我必须要走了。 I regret (not )having accepted/accepting his advice.我后悔（没有）采纳他的意见。 4）mean to do 故意干--mean doing 意味着--I didn`t mean to hurt you.我并不是故意要伤害你的。 Missing the bus means walking home.错过了这辆汽车意味着要走回家。 5）try to do 尽力--try doing 试着--I tried to do it but failed.我努力去做但没成功。 If you can`t do it well ,try doing it some other way. 如果你做不好这件事，试着用另 一种方法试试。 6）need/require/want doing/to be done（需要）主语与 need/require/want 后面的动 词有逻辑上的动宾或介宾关系. eg. The flower needs watering/ to be watered once a week.这种花需要一个星期浇一 次水。 The baby needs operating on /to be operated on at once.这个孩子需要立刻动手术。 但：I need to go now. 4.作定语 a swimming pool 游泳池=a pool for swimming（动名词） a swimming boy 一个在游泳的小孩=a boy who is swimming（分词） 5.动名词的时态和语态与逻辑主语 He admitted having broken the window.=He admitted breaking the window.他承认打 破了窗户。 I remember having been taken to Beijing as a child.= I remember being taken to Beijing as a child.我记得曾经被带到北京去过。 动名词逻辑主语 one`s/sb doing Would you mind my /me /Tom/Tom`s standing here.我/汤姆站在这儿你介意吗？ 作主语时必须用 one`s His /Tom`s not passing the English exam made his parents angry.他/汤姆没有通过这 次英语考试使他的父母很生气。 三．分词 1)作状语 （一般表示时间， 原因， 条件， 伴随） 有时可将从句中 when/while /unless/if 等保留 (While/When)Walking in the street ,I saw her.=While/When I was walking in the street ,I saw her.（表示时间） Seen from the hill,our school looks more beautiful.=When our school is seen from the hill,it looks more beautiful.从小山上看，我们学校更美了。 Being busy, he can`t come.=As he is busy, he can`t come.由于忙，他不能来。 （表示 原因） Given more time ,I can do it better.=If I am given more time ,I can do it better. 如果给
我更多的时间我能将这项工作做得更好。 He stood there,losing himself in thought.=He stood there,losing lost in thought. 他站 在那儿陷入沉思。 （表示伴随） The teacher sat there ,surrounded by the students. （表示伴随） 2)作定语 The girl standing by the window is my sister.=The girl who is standing by the window is my sister.站在窗户旁边的那个女孩是我的妹妹。 This is a book written by a famous Chinese writer.= This is a book which was written by a famous Chinese writer.这是一本著名的中国作家写的书。 3）作表语 The news is surprising.(令人---) I was sursprised at the news.(---人自己感到--) The door is closed. 4)作补语,常跟分词作补语的动词有 see，hear,watch,notice,observe,listen to ,look at, keep,have,等 We watched the teacher doing the experiment.我们看着老师在做实验。=The teacher was watched doing the experiment. I saw him taken away by the police.我看见他被警察带走了。=He was seen taken away by the police. You should have your hair cut.你应该理发了。 Don`t have the horse running so fast.不要让马一直跑这么快。 注意：have—do=let—do 无被动语态 Have him do it by himself.=Let him do it by himself.让他自己做。 注意：with +宾语+doing/to do/done With you standing here,I can`t work.你站在这儿，我没法工作。 He was brought in ,with his hands tied behind.他的手捆在背后被带进来了。 With a lot of work to do,I can`t go with you.有许多工作要做，我不能和你去。 5）分词的时态和语态 Having been given/Given a wrong address ,I could not find his house.由于给了我一 个错误的地址， 我没能找到他家。 =As I had been given a wrong address, I could not find his house. Having been there several times I know how to get there.=As I have been there several times I know how to get there.由于我去过那儿好几次，我知道去那儿的路。 The question being discussed now is very important.正在被讨论的问题很重要。 =The question which is being discussed now is very important. 注意：非谓语动词的否定形式 Mother told me not to make noise. His not coming made me disappointed. Not knowing what to do,I asked the teacher for help. 注意：分词的逻辑主语 Time permitting,I will go with you.=If time permits,I will go with you. 时间允许的 话，我就和你一道去。 注意： 1)To tell the truth,/To be honest,I am against your plan.说实话，我不赞成你的意见。
2)Judging by his clothes ,he is not so poor.从他的衣着看，他不太穷。 3）Strictly speaking, your opinion isn`t the same as mine.严格说来，你的意见与我 的不同 4)do but do I could do nothing but wait here.=I had no choice but to wait here.我别无它法，只能 呆在这儿。 5）)compared to/with 作状语时用过去分词 Compared with /to her mother,she is tall.和她妈比起来她很高了。 （作状语） 注意．Recently a survey _______ prices of the same goods in two different supermarkets has caused heated debate among citizens.（作定语） A．compared B．comparing C．compares D．being compared
非谓语动词练习 一．基本题 1. The new shopping center _____ now will be put into use by the end of this year. A. built B. be built C. being built D. to be built 2._____, she burst into tears. A. Deeply moved B. Deeply moving C. As she deeply moved D. As she was deeply moving 3. _____ carelessly, the boy made mistakes here and there. . A. being written B. Wrote C. Write D. Writing 4. Having finished the work,，_____ . A. it was almost six o'clock B. a postman came and delivered the evening paper and some letters C. supper had been already prepared D. we had a rest and then had supper 5. Although in a hurry, Wilson ______. A. couldn't stop walking B. couldn't help the stranger C. stopped to help the stranger D. didn't answer the stranger 6. Don't forget ______ the light when you leave. A. turn off B. to turn off C. turning off D. turned off 7. When she returned home, she found the window open and something ______. A. stealing B. missed C. stolen D. to steal 8. Strictly _____, it isn't worth the price you are asking. A. to speak B. speaking C. speak D. spoken 9. Tom had no choice but _____ the classroom with his classmates. A. to clean B. clean C. cleaning D. cleans 10.They would not allow him ______ across the enemy line. A. to risk going B. risking to go C. for risk to go D. risk going 11.I’m thirsty. Will you get me something ____? A. drink B. to drink C. eat D. eating 12. How long did you spend ____ your new house yesterday? A. to decorate B. decorate C. decorating D. decorated
13.A policeman saw two thieves ____ a girl’s mobile phone on a bus and he caught them at once. A. to steal B. stealing C. stole D. stolen 14. ----Do you often hear John ____ in his room? ----Yes. Listen! Now we can hear him ____ in his room. A. sing; to sing B. singing; singing C. sing; singing D. to sing; singing 15.Sally had no pen ____ yesterday morning. A. to write B. to write with C. writing D. writing with 16.The manager promised to keep me ______ of how our business was going on. A. to be informed B. on informing C. informed D. informing 17.Tom kept quiet about the accident_________lose his job. A.so not as to B.so as not to C.so as to not D.not so as to 18.Most of the artists______to the party were from South Africa. A.invited B.to invite C.being invited D.had been invited 19.It `s dangerous to let the children who are_____go swimming in the river. A.so young to B.not old enough to C.so young D.too young to 20.The mother was asked______TV every evening. A.not to let her children watch C.not to let her children to watch C.not let her children watch D.not let her children watching 答案 1-5 CADDC 6-10 BCBAA 11-15BCBCB 16-20CBACA 二．高考题 1.(2011 全国卷,27) The next thing he saw was smoke from behind the house. A.rose B.rising C. to rise D.risen 2.(2011 全国卷 II,15) The island, to the mainland by a bridge, is easy to go to. A. joining B. to join C. joined D. having joined 3.（42011 北京卷,25）It’s important for the figures regularly. A. to be updated B. to have been updated C. to update D. to have updated 4.（2011 上海春招,40）Harrison Ford is thought to be one of the few movie stars ______ as a carpenter before. A. to work B. to be working C. to have worked D. to have been working 5.(2011 山东卷,27) Look over there—there’s a very long, winding path _________ up to the house. A. leading B. leads C. led D. to lead 6.（2011 江苏卷,31）Recently a survey _______ prices of the same goods in two different supermarkets has caused heated debate among citizens. A．compared B．comparing C．compares D．being compared 7. （2011 福建卷,23） Tsinghua University, in 1911, is home to a great number of outstanding figures. A. found B. founding C. founded D. to be founded 8.（2011 福建卷,27）The difference in thickness and weight from the earlier version makes the iPad 2 more comfortable . A. held B. holding C. be held D. to hold 9.（2011 安徽卷, 30）Tom asked the candy makers if they could make the chocolate easier _____ into small pieces.
A. break B. breaking C. broken D. to break 10.(2011 浙江卷,3) Bats are surprsingly long-lived creatures, some _______________a life span of around 20 years. A.having B had C. have D. to have 11.（2011 四川卷,16） an important role in a new movie, Andy has a chance to become famous. A.Offer B.Offering C.Offered D.To offer 12.（2011 湖南卷,21）The ability _____ an idea is as important as the idea itself A expressing B expressed C to express D to be expressed 13. （2011 江西卷 32） On receiving a phone call from his wife _____ she had a fall, Mr. Gorden immediately rushed home from his office. A. says B.said C.saying D.to say14. （湖南卷 14.Dina, _______ for months to find a job as a waitress, finally took a position at a local advertising agency. A. struggling B. struggled C. having struggled D . to struggle 15. (江苏卷 28). The retired man donated most of his savings to the school damaged by the earthquake in Yushu, ________ the students to return to their classrooms. A. enabling B. having enabled C. to enable D. to have enabled 16．（山东卷 29）. The living room is clean and tidy, with a dining table already ______ for a meal to be cooked. A. laid B. laying C. to lay D. being laid 17.（浙江卷 8）. The experiment shows that proper amounts of exercise, if __ regularly, can improve our health. A. being carried out B. carrying out C. carried out D. to carry out 18. （浙江卷 20） . The traffic rule says young children under the age of four and __ less than 40 pounds must be in a child safety seat. A. being weighed B. to weigh C. weighed D. weighing 19.（上海卷 33）. Lucy has a great sense of humor and always keeps her colleagues_______ with her stories. A. amused B. amusing C. to amuse D. to be amused 20. (全国卷 II 11).Though ______ to see us，the professor gave us a warm welcome。 A. surprise B was surprised C. surprised D. being surprised 1---5BCACA6---10BCDDA11---15CCCCA16---20ACDAC
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