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阅读专题复习二: 意义猜测题的解题技巧


根据语境猜测生词或短语的意思,或者推断熟词生义,是考生必须掌握的 一项重要阅读技能,因此,意义猜测题是高考阅读理解的必考题型。这类 题包括猜测单词、短语、句子的意思和判断指代内容。题干中通常含有 mean,refer to 或者 be replaced by 等。 一、解题技巧 1.根据近义词关系推测。 作者可能会用一个近义词或者同义词去解释另一个更难的词,以便使它的 文字意思更清楚。我们可以通过寻找近义词来推测生词的意思:一要看由 and或or连接的同义词词组;二要看在进一步解释的过程中使用的同义词。 近义词往往出现在同一句或者同一段落中。如: At the beginning they did not have enough capital to start a business,nor were they able to borrow the amount of money they needed from the bank. 根据 nor结构后的money,bank 可以推测capital 在这里不是指“首都”而 是指“资金”(funds)。

2.根据反义词关系推测。 作者常常通过使用反义词来使文章更具表现力,我们可以利用反义词作为

线索去推测句中出现的生词的意思:一看表转折关系的连词或副词,如 but,while,however等;二看与not搭配的或表示否定意义的词语。如:

(1)He is so homely,not at all as handsome as his brother. 根据not at all...handsome我们不难推测出homely即“不英俊的、不漂亮的” 意思。 (2)Metal expands when heated and contracts when cooled. 从句子结构看,expand与contract相对应,when heated与when cooled相对 应。因为“加热”与“使冷却”是相反的动作,那么contract就应是“收 缩”的意思。

3.根据同位或解释关系推测。 当作者不能肯定读者能够理解他的意思时,他会用另外一种方式陈述自己 的观点。我们可以通过生词后的定语(定语从句或分词短语等)、表语、同 位语、逗号、括号、破折号等的解释说明来推测生词的意思。常见的用来 表示同位或解释关系的词或短语有:is,means,or...;that is,that is to say;in other words,to put it another way;be called,...is/are known as (被称为),...can be defined as等。如: (1)But sometimes,no rain falls for a long,long time.Then there is a dry period,or drought. 由or可知a dry period和drought是同义语。故drought的意思为“久旱,旱 灾”。 (2)It will be very hard but also very brittle—that is,it will break easily. 从后面的“that is,it will break easily”可知brittle 是“脆的”的意思。

4.根据转折或对比关系推测。 由上下句之间的表示转折或对比关系的连词或副词,如but,however等来 推断。如: She is usually prompt for all her class,but today she arrived in the middle of her first class. 由but后面“第一节课上了一半才来”反向推理,可得出她平时一向“准 时”的结论。 5.根据因果关系推测。 通过因果关系猜词,首先是找出生词与上下文之间的逻辑关系,然后才能 猜词,既可由因推果,也可由果推因。有时文章借助关联词,如because, as,since,for,so,thus,as a result,of course,therefore等表示因果关 系。如: (1)The lack of movement caused the muscles to weaken.Sometimes the weakness was permanent.So the player could never play the sport again. 从so后面的结果“永远不能再运动”中,可以推测 permanent的意思为 “永远的,永久的”。

6.根据列举的实例推测。 根据such as,for example等后列举的实例可推测出前面某个词语的意思。 如: Cars must have certain safety devices such as seat belt,headlights,and good brakes. 根据such as后面列举的内容可知devices应该为“装置”的意思。

二、典例精析 例1 Can dogs and cats live in perfect harmony in the same home? People who are thinking about adopting a dog as a friend for their cats are worried that they will fight.A recent research has found a new recipe of success. According to the study,if the cat is adopted before the dog,and if they are introduced when still young (less than 6 months for cats,a year for dogs),it is highly probable that the two pets will get along swimmingly.Twothirds of the homes interviewed reported a positive relationship between their cat and dog. Q: The underlined word “swimmingly” in Paragraph 2 is closest in D meaning to____. A.early B.sweetly C.quickly D.smoothly 解析:语义猜测题。最新的研究发现成功解决猫狗打架的“新秘方(a new recipe of success)”,接下来就应是“秘方”了,swimmingly所在句便是讲 发现的“秘方”。再由“a positive relationship between their cat and dog” 可以进一步确定猫狗“相处得好”,故选D。

例2 “Have a nice day.Next!” This version of the expression is spoken by a salesgirl at the supermarket who is rushing me and my groceries out the door.The words come out in the same tone (腔调)with a fixed procedure.They_are_spoken_at_me,not_to_me. Obviously,the concern for my day and everyone else's is the management's attempt to increase business. Q: What does the underlined sentence in the Paragraph mean? A.The salesgirl is rude. B.The salesgirl is bored. C.The salesgirl cares about me. D.The salesgirl says the words as a routine. 解析:语义猜测题。由该段最后一句“Obviously,the concern for my day and everyone else's is the management's attempt to increase business.”可 知。其余选项文中均未提及,属于无中生有。

例3 Using a web camera equipped in Jennifer's Los Angeles apartment, the monitor in Phoenix tracked how frequently her eyes moved from the computer screen and listened for the secret sounds of a possible helper in the room.Her Internet access was locked remotely to prevent Internet searches,and her typing style was analyzed to make sure she was who she said she was.Did she enter her student number at the same speed as she had in the past? Or was she slowing down? In the battle against cheating,this is the cutting_edge and a key to encourage honesty in the booming field of online education... Q: The underlined expression “cutting edge” in Paragraph 2 is closest in A . meaning to___ A.advanced technique B.sharpening tool C.effective rule D.dividing line

例4.We studied the board critically.Some of us looked with one eye and held up certain colors against the blackboard,rocking the sheets to the right or left while we conjured_up our designs.Others twisted their hair around their fingers or chewed their erasers while deep in thought.We had plans for that tendollar grand prize,each and every one of us. A Q: The underlined phrase probably means_____. A.formed an idea for B.made an outline for C.made some space for D.chose some colors for 解析:语义解析猜测题。根据对比关系和近义推测,上下句是 Some...Others...句式,“while we conjured up our designs”的对应部分是 “while deep in thought”,可见conjured up的意思是“思考,想象”, 故选A。


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