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2010年12月 徐红

定语从句是每年高考中以及所有阶段性考试 中必考的语法项目之一,而引导定语从句的 词通常是历年来考查的重点。对于定语从句 的引导词,应该重点把握以下要点:

一、 只能用that引导定语从句的情况:
1.先行词是everything, nothing, an

ything, all, much, many, a lot, few, little, none等时。如: ? He was so hungry that he ate up everything that was put in front of him.

He saw much that was bad. There is little that I can do for you.


2. 先行词被序数词或the last修饰时。如:

He is the first student that I got to know in this school.
This will be the last thing that I will do.


3. 先行词被最高级修饰或先行词本身就是最 高级时。如: ? This is the most interesting film that I have seen this year.

This book is the most expensive that I have bought so far.

4. 先行词被all, every, some, next, any, no, many, much, the only, the very等修饰时。如: ? He is the very man that I am after.
5. 一些以who, which开头的句子,为了避免重复, 也要用that作关系代词。如:
? ?

Which is the book that you have just paid for? Who is the person that you are looking for?

6. 先行词既指人也指物时。如: We talked about the things and persons that we still remembered.
7. the way用作先行词时,引导词用that或in which,也可省略,但不能用which。 如: This is the only way(that / in which) you can work out this problem.

8. 关系代词在定语从句中作表语时(只限于限定 性定语从句)。如: Mr. Smith still talks like the man that he was ten years ago.

二、 只能用which引导定语从句的情况:

1. 在引导非限定性定语从句,且which指代前 面的整个句子时。这一用法是高考的一个热点。如:

Mary failed in the examination, which worried her mother a lot.

2.在介词的后面只能用关系代词which来指代 前面表示物的名词。如:

I bought a lot of books yesterday, most of which are in English.

三、 as和which引导非限定性定语从 句的区别:
1. 从句意上讲,as引导的非限定性定语从句通 常表示“正如……,正像……的那样”;而 which引导非限定性定语从句时指代前面整个句 子的内容。如: 1)Taiwan is part of China, as is known to all. 2)China is making rapid progress, as everybody can see. 3)Mary didn’t pass the driving test, which made her very sad.

2. 从位置上讲,as引导的非限定性定语从句 可以放在句子的前面、后面,甚至可放在这 个句子的中间。因为,实质上,as引导的非 限定性定语从句是一个插入语,用来对一个 句子进行附加说明。故它在句中的位置比较 灵活;而which引导的非限定性定语从句只能 放在先行词的后面。如:

1).As is mentioned above, our school still calls for many skilled teachers. 2).He is late again, as is often the case. 3).Many people, as you know, are learning foreign languages. 4).He changed his mind, which made me very angry.

3. 从搭配上讲,as引导的非限定性定语从 句中的谓语动词通常是表示感觉或心理活 动的动词。如:see, hear, know, expect, guess, hope, remember等;而which引导 的非限定性定语从句中的谓语动词则没有 这样的特点。如: The weather turned out fine, as we had expected. She was very fond of speaking French, which indeed she spoke well.

四、 几个特殊先行词后的定语从句: 1. reason为先行词时, 若引导词在从句中作状 语,则用why引导,若引导词在从句中作主 语、宾语、表语,则用that或which引导,而 且可以省略。如: Do you know the reason why he didn’t attend the meeting? (why在从句中作状语)

This is the reason (that / which )he gave. (that / which在从句中作宾语)

2. situation, occasion, point 在定语从句中 作先行词,且引导词在从句中作状语时,则 关系副词用where 或in which。如: We may be trapped in such a situation where we have no one to turn to. (where在从句中作状语)

五、 特殊定语从句。
下面的定语从句,是一些特殊例子,还有些是 与其他句式的对比,一定要熟记。 1). He stood at the window, from where he could see what was happening. 2). It may rain, in which case the match will be put off. 3). Is this place the one that we visited? Is this the place that we visited?

4). He is one of the boys who play the piano very well. He is the only one of the boys who plays the piano very well.
5). Mr. White has three sons, all of whom are doctors. Mr. White has three sons, and all of them are doctors. 6). This is so touching a story as I have read three times. This is so touching a story that I have read it three times.

7). As is known to us, Bell invented the telephone. It is known to us that Bell invented the telephone. 8). Five visitors invited by him came as I expected. More visitors invited by him came than I expected.


动词的被动语态在语法中起着举足轻重的作 用,也是历年高考考查的重点。在学习时我 们应注意以下几点:

动词的被动语态是由动词be加上过去分词构 成,时态通过be表现出来。如: Breakfast is provided in our hotel from 7 to 9 o’clock on weekdays.(一般现在时的被动语 态) We haven’t moved into the new house because the rooms are being painted. (现 在进行时的被动语态)

The sports meet will be put off because of the bad weather. (一般将来时的被动语态) Two big towers were being built there at that time. (过去进行时的被动语态) My hometown was liberated in 1949 and now it has been turned into a beautiful city. (一般过去时的被动语态)

The doctor has already been sent for. (现在完成时的被动语态)
When firefighters arrived, the big fire had been put out. (过去完成时的被动语态)

有不少短语动词相当于及物动词,所以这些 短语动词亦有被动语态。如: Many interesting experiments are carried out in our laboratory. He is often made fun of for this by his classmates.

有些由“动词 + 名词 + 介词”构成的短语动词, 变成被动语态时可以将其中的名词变为被动 语态的主语。如:
Good use is made of the library. (主动句是:They make good use of the library.)

常见的不及物动词有: appear, arrive, belong, come, die, escape, fall, happen, last, remain, succeed, take place, occur等。如: 1)The train arrived at the station 20 minutes late. 2)Something unexpected occurred. 3)The film festival takes place in October.

四、有些动词的主动形式可以表示被 动意义
这类动词是一些表示主语特征、性质的不及 物动词,如: sell, wash, wear, shut, open, read, write, cut, end, begin等;
The door won’t shut. The cloth washes well.

连系动词look, feel, taste, smell, sound等,也 可用主动形式表示被动意义,但后要接形容 词作表语,不能接副词。如:


The flowers smell sweet. The food tastes nice.

五、某些系表结构中的形容词是由过去分词 转化而来,虽然形式上是被动的,但描述的 却是一种状态。常见的这类形容词有: interested, lost, dressed, surprised, engaged 等。如:


He was dressed in a police uniform at that time.
The girl was lost in the forest. My uncle has been engaged in the study of medicine for 20 years.





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