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同位语从句-用此课件


Grammar

语法精解(一)
1. 同位语the Appositive 同位语是句子成分的一种, 它位于名

词、代词后面, 说明它们的性质和情
况, 它可以由名词、代词、名词性短

语或从句充当。

同位语的表现形式有以下几种: (1) 名词 Tom, our monit

or, is a handsome boy. (2) 代词 I myself will do the experiment.

(3) 数词
She is the oldest among them six.

(4) 从句 He told me the news that the plane had exploded. 他告诉我飞机爆炸的消息。 (5) 由such as, that is引导 Some subjects, such as maths and physics, are very difficult to learn. 某些学科,例如数学和物理,是很难学的。

(6) 由of引导
The city of Beijing has been greatly

changed since 2000.
自从2000年以来, 北京市发生了很 大的变化。

(7) 由or引导 The freezing temperature, or freezing point, is the temperature at which water freezes under ordinary pressure.

结冰温度即冰点,是水在常压下结
冰时的温度。

语法精解(二)
2. 同位语从句the Appositive clause (1) 同位语从句的定义 在复合句中用作同位语的从句称为 同位语从句。同位语从句是名词性从句

的一种。它在句中起同位语的作用。

用法:
常跟的抽象名词有:

fact/ idea/reason/question/possibility/thought/
doubt/news/hope/ truth/belief/suggestion/proposal/request/order/ promise/ order/ word….
引导词/连词

that/whether who/ which/ what

when /where/why/how

e.g. The hope that he may recover is not gone yet. The problem whether we should continue to do the experiment has

been solved.
I have no idea when he will come

back.

注意:

同位语从句有时被别的词把它 和名词隔开:

The story goes that William Tell killed the king with an arrow. Word came that their team had won.

⑵ 同位语从句的表现形式: ① 由that引导

The fact that you haven’t
enough time to do the work is

simply unbelievable.
The hope that he may come

here is not gone yet.

The news that he has been elected president of the United States is true. The truth that heavy objects and light objects fall at the same speed is known to all. The problem that she later developed a serious lung disease bothered scientists.

② 由whether引导
The question whether we need

more time to do the work has not
been discussed.

③ 由when引导
I have no idea when they will go.

⑶ 有时可用 namely (即), that is to

say (也就是说), in other words
(换句话说), that is (那就是), for

example 等引出同位语, 说明其
前面的名词或代词。有时同位语

直接跟在名词或代词的后面。

He told us the good news, namely, the museum is open to all. There is only one way of improving your English , that is , to practice more. Altogether Dolly had lived for six years, half the length of the life of the original sheep.

⑷ 同位语从句与定语从句的区别:
同位语从句与定语从句在使用中常常混淆, 我们可以从以下几个方面区别它们: ① 同位语从句说明的名词大都是抽象名词;

定语从句所修饰、限定的名词或代词有抽
象的也有不抽象的。

We express the hope that they will
come to visit China again.

(同位语从句) Those who want to go please sign their
names here. (定语从句)

② 同位语从句所说明的名词与从句没有逻

辑关系;
定语从句所限定的名词是从句逻辑上的 主语、宾语、表语、定语、状语等。

The news that they won the match is true. (同位语从句, news和从句没有逻辑关系) The news that you told us yesterday is true.

(定语从句, news是told的逻辑宾语)

The order when we should go back

hasn’t reached us.
(同位语从句, order和从句没有逻辑关

系)
The day when New China was founded

will never be forgotten.
(定语从句, day是founded 的逻辑状语)

③ 同位语从句主要由连接词that引导,有时 也可用when, where, who, whether等引 导; 定语从句由关系代词或关系副词引导。 Then he raised the question where they

were to get the machine needed.
Do you know the place where he was

born?

④ 引导同位语从句的连词不可省略;

引导定语从句的关系代词作宾语时常
可省略。

The news that he has been elected
monitor of our class is true.

The news (that) he told me is exciting.

⑤ 同位语从句与先行词一般可变成一个完 整句子, 谓语动词用be的不同形式。 He heard the news that their team had won. 此句可以变为一个表语从句:

The news was that their team had won.

单项选择
25. One of them held the view __ the

book said was right.
A. what that C. that B. that what D. whether

26. The reason ___ he has to go is ___ his mother is ill in bed. A, why ; why B. why; because

C. why ; that

D. that ; because

27. They received orders ___ the work

be done right away.
A. which B. that C. / D. when

28. I have no idea _______. A. how to do B. when shall we start out for the trip C. what has happened to my wife

D. how much have they earned

29. I think ___ certain that she will do well in her exam. A. that B. this is C. it D. what’s 30. The film brought the hours back to me ____ I was taken good care of in

that far-away village.
A. until B. that C. when D .where

31. He’s got himself into a dangerous situation __ he was likely to lose control over the plane. A. where B. which C. what D. why 32. That’s the only thing ___ he can do now A. which B. all C. that D. what

33. Information has been put forward ___ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities. A. while B. that C. when D. as 34. Along with the letter was his promise ___ he would visit me this coming Christmas. A. which B. that C. what D. whether

35. There is a new problem involved in

the popularity of private cars ____
road conditions need ____.

A. that; to be improved
B. which; to be improved C. where; improving D. when; improving

高考题
36. Along with the letter was his promise ____ he would visit me this coming Christmas. ( 2004春季上海 ) A. which B. that C. what D. whether 答案B。这是一个同位语从句, 解释 promise的具体内容, 要用that引导。

37. Some researchers believe that there is no doubt ______ a cure for AIDS will be found. (05广东卷) A. which B. that C. what D. whether

38. Danby left word with my secretary _________ he would call again in the afternoon. (05浙江卷) A.who B.that C.as D.which

39. Doris' success lies in the fact ___ she is co-operative and eager to learn from others. (06年上海 春招) A. which B. that C. when D. why
40. Do you have any idea ________ is actually going on in the classroom? (05辽宁卷) A.that B.what C.as D.which

41. There’s a feeling in me ___ we’ll never know what a UFO is – not ever. ( 2002年上海) A. that B. which C. of which D. what 解析: 答案A。同位语从句that we’ll never know what a UFO is – not ever作a feeling的同位语,解释a feeling 的具体 内容。that连接同位语从句时,只起连 接作用,不作从句的任何成分。

42. Information has been put forward ___ more middle school graduates will be admitted into universities.( 2001年上海) A. while B. that C. when D. as
解析:答案B。That引导从句作 information的同位语,解释 information的具体内容。

43. A story goes _____ Elizabeth I of England liked nothing more than being surrounded by clever and qualified noblemen at court. A. when B. where C. what D. that 44. _____ is no possibility _____ Bob can win the first prize in the match. (2001上海春) A. There…that B. It…that C. There…whether D. It…whether

同位语从句与定语从句区别:
1. 从词类上区别 同位语从句前面的名词只能是idea, fact, news, hope, belief…等有一定内涵的名词, 而定语从句的先行词可以是名词,代词,主句 的一部分或是整个主句。

Word came that he had been abroad.
据说他已经出国了。 (同位语从句)

Our team has won the game, which made

us very happy.
我们的队赢了, 这让我们很高兴。

(定语从句)

2.从性质上区别 定语从句对其先行词的修饰或限制,属于 形容词性从句; 而同位语从句对前面抽象名词的进一步的 说明和解释,属于名词性从句:

The news that our team has won the game was true.
我们队赢了那场比赛的消息是真的。 (同位语从句, 补充说明news到底是一个什么消息)

The news that he told me yesterday was true.
昨天他告诉我的那个消息是真的。
(定语从句, news在从句中作told的宾语)

3. 引导词及其在句子中的成分上区别

有些引导词如how, whether, what 可以
引导同位语从句, 但不能引导定语从句。

如: That question whether we need it has

not been considered.
我们是否需要它这个问题还没有考虑。
(同位语从句)

★that引导词 that引导定语从句, 在从句中一般作主语或宾语 (指物时还可以 用which代替), 并且作宾语时常常省略;

that引导同位语从句,仅起连接作用, 不充当成分, 但不能省略,
也不能用which来代替,如: The order that we should send him to Canada was received yesterday. 我们应派他去加拿大的命令昨天收到了。 (同位语从句, 是对order的具体解释, that虽不作成分, 但不能省略) The order that we received yesterday was that we should send him to Canada. 我们昨天收到的命令是我们应该他去加拿大。 (定语从句, 是名词order的修饰语, that在从句中作received的宾语, 可以省略)

★demand, suggestion, proposal等表示

建议,请求的同位语从句中,谓语动词要用 虚拟语气,即: ( should ) + 动词原形
eg.The suggestion that the plan ( should ) be delayed延迟 will be discussed tomorrow. 推迟那项计划的建议将在明天讨论。

判断下列哪些含有同位语从句,哪些 含有定语从句。 ① The news that we had successfully sent up another communication satellite spread throughout the world. 同 ② That’s the best piece of news I’ve heard. 定

③ Is there any hope that he will be home at 7? 同 ④ I’ve no hope that my parents have been expecting to me. 定

⑤ The possibility that you referred to doesn’t exist at all. 定 ⑥ There is a strong possibility that we may be in France for the next week. 同


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