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过去分词做状语同步课堂教学设计


过去分词做状语同步课堂教学设计

编写人:吴翔 学习目标:

审批人:

1. 熟记过去分词的基本用法;提升灵活运用能力。 2. 合作探究、大胆质疑;归纳过去分词的用法。 3. 激情投入学习;享受攻克难关的快乐。 【使用说明】 1. 利用自主自习时间根据要求对导学案进行有效预习(约 30 分钟) 2. 1)15 分钟自学

、讨论 2)25 分钟质疑、展示、点拨、巩固落实 3)5 分钟当堂检测

【课前预习】
分词是动词的一种非谓语形式,主要起形容词和副词的作用,可以作定语、表语或是状 语等 ?分词有两种,一种是现在分词,一种是过去分词。这两种分词在句子中能担任的成 分大体相同,主要是在“意思”上有主动和被动之分。过去分词有两大特点:一是表被动的 概念;二是表动作已完成。过去分词在句中可用作定语、表语、宾语补足语或状语等成分。 过去分词在句中作某种成分时,其逻辑主语一般为该分词所表示的动作的承受者。? 1.作定语 1)及物动词过去分词既表被动,又表完成;不及物动词过去分词,只表完成。 boiled water 开水、selected apples 精选苹果、spoken English 英语口语、 iced beer 冰镇啤酒、cooked food 熟食、fried chips 炸土豆条; fallen leaves 落叶、 the risen sun 升起的太阳 2)单个的过去分词作定语时,一般可以放在被修饰词语之前,也可以放在所修饰词语的后 面。 The excited children didn’t know how to do with themselves. The meeting held yesterday was very important. 3)过去分词短语作定语时,须将分词放在被修饰的词语之后,功能相当于一个定语从句。 Her daughter,brought up by me(=who was brought up by me)has begun to work now. ? 由我带大的她的女儿现在已经参加工作了。 2.作表语 1)当“人”做主语时用过去分词作表语,表示主语的状态或思想感情等。 He seemed quite delighted at the idea.?听到这个想法,他似乎很高兴。 2)过去分词作表语不要与被动语态混为一体。分词作表语表示主语的状态,而被动语态则 表示被动的动作。比较: My glasses are broken.我的眼镜碎了。(状态)? My glasses were broken by my son.我的眼镜被我儿子摔碎了。(动作)? 3. 作宾补 1)过去分词用在表示“致使”含义的动词 keep,leave,have,make, get 等的后面。 They kept the door locked for a long time.?他们把门锁了好长一段时间。 Don’t leave the windows broken like this all the time.?不要让窗户一直像这样破 着。 I have had my bike repaired.?我让人修了修我的自行车。 I raised my voice to make myself heard.?我提高了嗓门以便被人家听到。? 2)过去分词常用在感官动词 watch,notice,see,hear,listen to,feel,find 等的后 面。

When we got to school,we saw the door locked.? 当我们到学校时,我们看见门锁着。 We can hear the windows beaten by the heavy rain drops.? 我们可以听到大雨点敲打窗户的声音。 3)过去分词用在 want,wish,like,expect,order 等表示“希望,愿望,命令”这一类 动词的后面。 The teacher wouldn’t like the problem discussed at the moment.? 老师不想此刻讨论这个问题。 ? I want the suit made to his own measure.?我想要这套衣服照他自己的尺寸做 ? My parents expected me (to be )well-prepared for the entrance examination. 我父母希望我好好准备入学考试。 4)过去分词用在“with+宾语+宾补”这一结构中,过去分词与宾语之间是动宾关系。 The thief was brought in with his hands tied behind his back.? 小偷被带进来了,双手被反绑在后面。? With many brightly-colored flowers planted around the building,his house looks like a beautiful garden.? 周围种了许多色彩鲜艳的花,他的房子看上去就像一座漂亮的花园。 4. 作状语 1)时间状语 Seen from the hill,the park looks very beautiful.?从山上看,这个公园非常美 丽。 Don’t speak until spoken to.?当别人和你讲话时,你才能讲话。 2)原因状语 Touched by his teacher’s words,the boy cried. 这个男孩被老师的话打动了,所以他哭了。 3)条件状语 Given more time,we could do it much better. 多给我们点时间,我们会做得更好。 4)让步状语 Though warned of the storm,the farmers were still working in the fields.? 虽然农民们已被告知将有风暴,但他们仍然在地里干活。 5)伴随状语 The teacher entered the classroom,followed by a group of his students. 老师走进教室,后面跟着一群学生。

过去分词作状语教学过程 【观察】 观察下列句子中的过去分词在句中做什么状语呢? (课件展示)
1.Born in a poor family, he had only two yeas of schooling. 2.Looked at from a distance, the hills resemble a sleeping woman. 3.Given another chance , he will do better. 4.The hunter left his house, followed by his dog 5.Although tired, he went on working. 答案:1.原因状语 2.时间状语 3.条件状语 4.伴随状语 5.让步状语

一.过去分词作状语,相当于一个状语从句。例如

When heated(When it is heated), ice will be changed into water. (时间状语) Given advice by the famous detective(Since/ As she was given advice by the famous detective), the young lady was no longer afraid. (原因状语) Given more attention(If they had been given more attention), the cabbages could have grown better.(条件状语) Though tired out (Though he was tired out), he still kept working on his plan until it was finished.(让步状语 The hunter left his house, followed by his dog(and he was followed by his dog). (伴随状语)

【重点提示 1】
当状语从句的主语与句子的主语一致,且谓语动词是系动词时,常省略从句主谓语,用过 去分词作状语。 If invited, I will go to her party. When heated, water changes its form. Although tired, he went on working.

【重点提示 2】
过去分词短语作状语时,必要时前面可加连词 when, if, once, though, unless 等, 以表明作何种状语 提升训练 GROUP 1 A. Seen B. Seeing C. To see D. Being seen *1._______ from the top of the hill, the city was very beautiful. *2._______ from the top of the hill, we managed to get to the summit(顶点). *3._______ from the top of the hill ,we found the city very beautiful. GROUP 2 A. Compare B. Compared C. Comparing D. To compare * 1. _______ the two countries, you will find they are similar in many ways. * 2._______ the two countries, and you will find they are similar in many ways. * 3._______ with English, Chinese has more learners. 答案:Group1 1.A 2. C 3. B Group2 1.C 2.A 3. B 做此类题一要把握句意;二要考虑句子主语与非谓语动词的主被动关系。

做状语的非谓语动词形式

与主语关系 及时间

与谓语动词 先后关系



to do

主动、将来的

在谓动之后发生

doing

主动、进行

与谓动同时发生

done being done having done having been done

被动、完成 被动、进行 主动、完成 被动、完成

在谓动之前发生 与谓动同时发生 在谓动之前发生 在谓动之前发生

二.过去分词作状语时,过去分词的逻辑主语与句子主语一致。反之,则用独立 主格结构。例如:
比较:It getting dark, I left in a hurry (独立主格)

主语不相同 it 不可省略

Caught by the policemen (Since he was caught by the policemen, the thief had to admit his crime. (分词作状语)

主语相同,可以省略逻辑主语

句子改错:Being Sunday, the shops were closed.

答案:Being Sunday 改为 It being Sunday 【重点提示 3】
过去分词做状语时,其逻辑主语一般情况下通常是句子的主语。但是,过去分词的逻辑主语 若不是句子的主语时,通常会将逻辑主语保留。这种结构中过去分词带有自己的逻辑主语。 这种现象叫分词的独立结构。只用来做状语表示时间、原因、条件、方式或伴随情况。 The table set, they began to have lunch. 桌子摆好后,他们开始吃午饭。 (表时间)

All his money gone, he began to look for a job. 所有的钱用光了,他就开始找工作。 (表原因) All things considered, the meeting had to be put off. 如果全面考虑,会议不得不推迟。 (表条件) He was lying on the grass, his hands crossed under his head. 他躺在草地上,头枕着双手。 (表方式) He rushed into the room, his face covered with sweat. 他满脸是汗地跑进屋里。 (表伴随) 【重点提示 4】 过去分词的独立结构在较口语的问题中还可以用“with/without+名词/代词+过去分词”的 结构代替,通常也是表示时间、原因、条件、方式或伴随情况等。例如: With the experiments carried out ,we started new studies. 实验一做完,我们就开始心得研究。 (表时间) With my sister gone, there was nobody to help the old woman. 我姐姐一走,就没有人帮助那位老大娘了。 (表原因) The old gentleman was walking, with his arms folded across his chest. 那位老人在散步,双臂交叉放在胸前。 (表方式) Henry left the classroom, without a word spoken. 亨利一句话也没有说就离开了教室。 (表伴随)
练习用过去分词作状语来改写句子。 1). As I was worried about the journey, I was unsettled for the first few days. → _______________________ , I was unsettled for the first few days. 2). If he is given time, he’ll make a first-class tennis player. → _________ , he’ll make a first-class tennis player. 3) .As I was confused by the new surroundings, I was hit by the lack of fresh air. → ______________________________, I was hit by the lack of fresh air.

答案:1)Worried about the journey. 2) Given time. 3) Confused by the new surrounding.

三. 过去分词有三大特点:
1). 表示被动的动作; 2) . 表示已经完成的动作, 因此,当过去分词作状语的时候一定要搞清楚分词与主语的逻辑 关系--被动 Left alone at home(Although he was left alone at home), Sam did not feel afraid at all. (分词作状语) 3).有些过去分词(短语)源于系表结构,作状语时不表动作而表状态。 moved/pleased/disappointed/worried? be dressed in be lost in 沉浸在 be devoted to 致力于 be supposed to 应该 be located in 位于 be buried in 专心于 be faced with 面对

高手过招: 1. The computer centre, ___ last year, is very popular among the students in this school. A. open B. opening C. having opened D. opened 2. The first textbooks ____ for teaching English as a foreign language came out in the 16th century. written 3. C. being written D. written A. having written B. to be

What’s the language ___ in Germany? A. speaking B. spoken C. be spoken D. to speak

4.

The Olympic Games, ___ in 776 B. C., didn’t include women until 1912. A. first playing B. to be first played C. first played D. to be playing

5

._____ by the beauty of nature,the girl from London decided to spend another two

days on the farms. A.Attracting B.Attracted C.To be attracted D.Having attracted

答案:1.D

2. D

3. B 4. C 5. A


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