英国国家知识概况 第一章 Land and People 英国的国土与人民 I. Different Names for Britain and its Parts 英国的不同名称及其各组成部分 1.Geographical names: the British Isles, Great Britain and England. 地理名称：不列颠群岛，大不列颠和英格兰。 2.Of
ficial name: the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. 官方正式名称：大不列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国。 3.The British Isles are made up of two large islands-Great Britain (the larger one) and Ireland, and hundreds of small ones. 不列颠群岛由两个大岛—大不列颠岛（较大的一个）和爱尔兰岛，及成千上万个小岛组成。 4.Three political divisions on the island of Great Britain: England, Scotland and Wales. 大不列颠岛上有三个政治区：英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士。 (1) England is in the southern part of Great Britain. It is the largest, most populous section. 英格兰位于大不列颠岛南部，是最大，人口最稠密的地区。 (2) Scotland is in the north of Great Britain. It has three natural zones (the Highlands in the north; the Central lowlands; the south Uplands) Capital: Edinburgh 苏格兰位于大不列颠的北部。它有三大自然区：北部高地，中部低地及南部山陵。首府：爱 丁堡。 (3) Wales is in the west of Great Britain. Capital: Cardiff 威尔士位于大不列颠的西部。首府：加的夫 (4) Northern Ireland is the fourth region of the UK. Capital: Belfast. 北爱尔兰是英国第四个区域。首府：贝尔法斯特。 5.The Commonwealth (of nations) is a free association of independent countries that were once colonies of Britain. It was founded in 1931, and has 50 member countries until 1991. 英联邦是曾为英国殖民地的、但现已独立国家所构成的自由联合体。它成立于 1931 年，至 1990 年止已有 50 个成员国。 II. Geographical Features 英国的地理特征 1.Geographical position of Britain: 英国的地理位置： Britain is an island country surrounded by the sea. It lies in the North Atlantic Ocean off the north coast of Europe. It is separated from the rest of Europe by the English Channel in the south and the North Sea in the east. 英国是一个岛国。它位于大西洋北部，与欧洲大陆的北海岸隔海相望。南面的英吉利海峡和 东面的北海将它与欧洲其它部分隔开。 2.The north and west of Britain are mainly highlands; and the east and southeast are mostly lowlands. 英国的西部和北部主要是高地，东部和东南部主要是低地。 III. Rivers and Lakes 河流与湖泊 Ben Nevis is the highest mountain in Britain (1,343m). 本尼维斯山为英国最高峰，海拔 1,343 米。 Severn River is the longest river in Britain (338km).
塞文河是英国最长的河流。全长 338 公里。 Thames River is the second longest and most important river in Britain. (336km). 泰晤士河是英国第二大河，也是英国最重要的河。全长 336 公里。 Lough Neagh is the largest lake in Britain which is located in Northern Ireland. (396 square kilometres). 讷湖（内伊湖）是英国最大的湖，位于北爱尔兰。面积为 396 平方公里。 River Clyde is the most important river in Scotland. 克莱德河是苏格兰最重要的河流。 Snowdonia is the highest mountain in Wales.（1,085m） 斯诺多尼亚是威尔士的最高点，海拔 1,085 米。 IV. Climate 气候 1. Britain's favorable climate 英国有利的气候条件： Britain has a maritime climate-winters are not too cold and summers are not too hot. It has a steady reliable rainfall throughout the whole year. The temperature varies within a small range. 英国属于海洋性气候：冬季不过于寒冷，夏季不过于炎热。全年有稳定可靠的降雨量，气温 变化幅度小。 2.The factors influence the climate in Britain: 影响英国气候的因素： 1） surrounding waters tend to balance the seasonal differences by heating up the land in winter The and cooling it off in summer; 环绕四周的海水。冬天，海水可使岛内气温升高，夏天则使气温降低，从而起到平衡季节温 差的作用； 2)The prevailing south-west winds or the Westerlies blow over the country all the year round bringing warm and wet air in winter and keeping the temperatures moderate; 一年四季盛行的西南风和西风在冬季从大西洋带来温暖、潮湿的空气，使气温适宜； 3）The North Atlantic Drift passes the western coast of the British Isles and warms them. 北大西洋暖流经不列颠群岛西海岸，使气候变暖。 3.Rainfall 降雨量： Britain has a steady reliable rainfall throughout the whole year. The average annual rainfall in Britain is over 1,000mm. There is a water surplus in the north and west, and a water deficit in the south and east. 英国全年降雨量稳定，平均降雨量超过 1000 毫米。 英国北部、西部雨量过多，但是南部、 东部有所缺乏。 V. The People 人口 1.population distribution 人口分布： Britain has a population of about 57 millions and it is very unevenly distributed. 90% of the population is urban and only 10% is rural. The population of Britain is made up mainly of the English (81.5%), the Scottish (9.6%), the Welsh (1.9%), the Irish (2.4%), the Northern Irish (1.8%) and other peoples (2.8%). 英国人口约 570 万，分布极不均匀，90%是城市人口，只有 10%是农村人口。英国人口组成 为：英格兰人（81.5%） ，苏格兰人（9.6%） ，威尔士人（1.9%） ，爱尔兰人、北爱尔兰人和 其他民族居民。 2.The difference between the ancestors of the English and Scots, Welsh and Irish: 英伦三岛民族的祖先：
The ancestors of the English are Anglo-Saxons, the Scots, Welsh and Irish are Celts. 英格兰人祖先属于盎格鲁—萨克逊人，而苏格兰、威尔士和爱尔兰人属于凯尔特人。 3.The difference in character 个性差别： The Welsh are emotional and cheerful people. They are music lovers and are proud of their past. 威尔士人感情丰富，情绪高涨，热爱音乐，为过去感到自豪。 The Scots are said to be a serious, cautious and thrifty people, and they are also hospitable, generous and friendly. 苏格兰人通常被认为严肃、谨慎而且节俭，但是他们同样也热情、大方且友好。 The Irish are charm and vivacity. 爱尔兰人充满魅力，生性活泼。 4.The difference in speech between southern England and northern England: 英格兰南方人和北方人语言上的差别： Southerners speak the type of English close to BBC English; In northern England, regional speech is usually "broader" than that of southern England. 南方人讲的英语接近 BBC，北英格兰人的发音通常要比南英格兰人宽。 5.The Welsh keep their language and culture in this way: 威尔士人以这样的方式使他们的语言 及文化保持活力。 Throughout the year they have festivals of song and dance and poetry called Eisteddfodau. The great event of the year is the National Eisteddfod. On these occasions competitions are held in Welsh poetry, music, singing and art. 一年中他们有称之为“艺术年会”的唱歌、跳舞、诗歌节。一年中最重要的节日是全国诗歌音 乐比赛会。在那里会举行威尔士诗歌、音乐、唱歌和艺术比赛。 6.The main problem in Northern Ireland: 北爱尔兰存在的主要问题： The fight between the Protestants who are the dominant group and the Roman Catholics, who are seeking more social, political and economic opportunities. 作为统治者的新教徒和要求更多社会、政治及经济权利的罗马天主教徒之间的斗争。 7.Immigrants: 移民： About three million have come to Britain to live and find work since World War II. 自从二战以来约有三百万人来英国生活、工作。 II. Roman Britain (55BC-410AD) 罗马人统治时期的英国（公元前 55 年—410 年） 1.British recorded history begins with the Roman invasion. In 55BC and 54BC, Julius Caesar, a Roman general, invaded Britain twice. In AD 43, the Emperor Claudius invaded Britain successfully. For nearly 400 years, Britain was under the Roman occupation, though it was never a total occupation. 有记录的英国历史开始于罗马人的入侵。公元前 55 年和 54 年，罗马将军朱略斯?凯撒两次 入侵英国，均未成功。直到公元 43 年，克劳锹才成功占领不列颠。将近四百年里，英国人 处于罗马人的占领下，但这并非是完全的占领。 2. Roman?s influence on Britain. The Roman built many towns, road, baths, temples and buildings. They make good use of Britain?s natural resources. They also brought the new religion, Christianity, to Britain. 罗马人修建了许多城镇网，道路，澡堂，庙宇和其他建筑物。他们还很好地利用了英国的自 然资源。罗马人还把基督教这门新宗教带到不列颠。 3. Reasons for limited Roman influence on Britain. 罗马对不列颠的影响有限的原因。
First, the Romans always treated the Britons as a subject people of slave class. Second, never during the 4 centuries did the Romans and Britons intermarry. Third, the Romans had no impact on the language or culture of ordinary Britons. 首先，罗马人把不列颠人当作奴隶阶段的属民来对待。其次，在四世纪对罗马人和不列颠人 通婚。最后，罗马人也未影响普通不列颠人的语言和文化。 Summary: This is the second part of Chapter 2 (The Origins of a Nation). It introduced some important events and important people in England from 446 to 1066. These most important events are The Anglos-Saxons? invasion; The Viking and Danish Invasions and The Norman Conquest. (简要：这是第二章“国家的起源”的第二部分。在这一部分里，主要是介绍了英国从公元 446 年到 1066 年所发生的重要事件及人物。这些重要事件分别是盎格鲁—撒克逊人的入侵，北 欧海盗和丹麦人的入侵及诺曼征服)。 III. The Anglo-Saxons (446-871) 盎格鲁—撒克逊人（公元 446—871 年） 1. Basis of Modern English race: the Anglo-Saxons. 盎格鲁—萨克逊时代（奠定了英国的基础） In the mid-5th century a new wave of invaders, Jutes, Saxons, and Angles came to Britain. They were three Teutonic tribes. The Jutes, who fished and farmed in Jutland, came to Britain first. A Jutish chief became the King of Kent in 449. Then the Saxons, users of the short-sword from northern Germany, established their kingdom in Essex, Sussex and Wessex from the end of the 5th century to the beginning of the 6th century. In the second half of the 6th century, the Angles, who also came from northern Germany and were to give their name to the English people, settled in East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria. These seven principal kingdoms of Kent, Essex, Sussex, Wessex, East Anglia, Mercia and Northumbria have been given the name of Heptarchy. 五世纪中叶，朱特人、 撒克逊人和盎格鲁人不断入侵不列颠。这是三支日耳曼（条顿） 部落。 居住在朱特兰岛（现丹麦南部）上从事打渔农耕的朱特人先抵不列颠。后来从德国北部来的 使用短剑的撒克逊人在埃撒克斯、 苏塞克斯和威塞克斯建立了王国， 统治期从五世纪末至六 世纪初。六世纪后半叶，同样来自德国北部的盎格鲁人，在东盎格利亚、麦西亚以及诺森伯 利来定居， 同时也他们也把名字给了英国人。 这七个主要王国 （肯特、埃塞克斯、苏塞克斯、 威塞克斯、东盎格利亚、麦西亚和诺森伯利亚） ，合称为七王国。 2.The early Anglo-Saxons converted to Christianity. 最早的盎格鲁—撒克逊人改信基督教。 The Anglo-Saxons brought their own Teutonic religion to Britain. Christianity soon disappeared, except among the Celts of Cornwall, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. In 597, Pope GregoryI sent St. Augustine, the Prior of St. Andrew?s Monastery in Rome, to England to convert the heathen English to Christianity. In 579 St. Augustine became the first Archbishop of Canterbury. He was remarkably successful in converting the king and the nobility, but the conversion of the common people was largely due to the missionary activities of the monks in the north. 盎格鲁—撒克逊人把日耳曼宗教带到了英国。除了康瓦尔、威尔士、苏格兰和爱尔兰中的克 尔特人还信奉基督教外，基督教很快就消失了。公元 597，教皇格里高一世把罗马圣安德鲁 修道院的副院长圣奥古斯丁派遣到英格兰，其使命是使异教徒的英国人皈依基督教。公元 579 年圣奥古丁成为坎特伯雷大主教。 在使国王和贵族皈依基督教方面， 奥古斯丁特别成功。 但是普通人的皈依很大程度上归功于北部修士们的传教活动。 3.The Early Anglo-Saxons make the contributions to the English state.
早期盎格鲁—撒克逊人为英国做出的贡献。 The Anglo-Saxons laid the foundations of the English state. Firstly, they divided the country into shires, with shire courts and shire reeves, or sheriffs, responsible for administering law. Secondly, they devised the narrow-strip, three-field farming system which continued to the 18th century. Thirdly, they also established the manorial system. Finally, they created the Witan（council or meeting of the wisemen） to advise the king, the basis of the Privy Council which still exists today. 盎格鲁—撒克逊人为英国国家的形成打下了基础。首先，他们把国家划分为郡，郡法庭和郡 法官、或行政司法长官负责执法。其次，他们设计的窄条三圃田农耕制延用至 18 世纪。此 外，他们还建立了领地制。最后，他们还创立了议会(贤人会议)，向国王提供建议，这就成 为了今天仍存在的枢密院的基础。 IV.Viking and Danish invasions 北欧海盗和丹麦人的入侵 1.The invaders were the Norwegians and the Danes. They attacked various parts of England from the end of the 8th century. They became a serious problem in the 9th century, especially between 835 and 878. They even managed to capture York, an important center of Christianity in 867. By the middle of 9th century, the Viking and the Danes were posing a threat to the Saxon kingdom of Wessex. 入侵者是挪威人和丹麦人，从 8 世纪末开始，他们不断袭击英格兰的各个地方。9 世纪，尤 其是公元 835-878 年间已成为严重问题。他们甚至占领了约克郡，公元 867 年时的基督教中 心。到 9 世纪中叶，北欧海盗和丹麦人威胁到撒克逊人的威撒克斯王国的安全。 2.King Alfred (849-899) and his contributions 艾尔弗雷德国王（849-899）和他所做出的贡献 Alfred was a king of Wessex. He defeated the Danes and reached a friendly agreement with them in 879. The Danes gained control of the north and east, while he ruled the rest. He also converted some leading Danes into Christians. He founded a strong fleet and is known as “ the father of the British navy”. He reorganized the Saxon army, making it more efficient. He translated a Latin book into English. He also established schools and formulated a legal system. All this earns him the title “Alfred the Great.” 阿尔弗雷德是威塞克斯的国王。他打败了丹麦人，并于公元 879 年与他们达成了友好协议。 协议规定丹麦人控制英格兰北部和西部（丹麦法区） ，而他统治其他地区。他还劝服一些丹 麦首领成为基督教徒。 他因为建立了强大舰队，而以“英国海军之父”闻名于世。他改组了“弗立德”（撒克逊军队） ， 使之更为高效。他将一本拉丁语的书翻译成英语。同时他还建立了学校，并且阐明了法律制 度。所有这一切使他当之无愧于“阿尔弗雷德大王。”的称号。 V.The Norman Conquest (1066) 诺曼征服（公元 1066 年） 1.Reasons for William?s invasion of England after Edward?s death. 威廉在爱德华死后入侵英国的原因。 It was said that king Edward had promised the English throne to William, but the Witan chose Harold as king. So William led his army to invade England. In October 1066, during the important battle of Hastings, William defeated Harold and killed him. One Christmas Day, William was crowned king of England, thus beginning the Norman Conquest of England. 据说， 爱德华国王曾答应把英格兰王位传给诺曼底公爵威廉， 但是贤人会议挑选了哈罗德为
国王。公元 1066 年 10 月，在哈斯丁斯附近的激烈交锋中，威廉打败了哈罗德军队，同时哈 罗德也在此战争中战死。 2.The Norman Conquest and its consequences 诺曼征服及其产生的影响。 The Norman Conquest of 1066 is perhaps the best-known event in English history. William the Conqueror confiscated almost all the land and gave it to his Norman followers. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman government. He replaced the weak Saxon rule with a strong Norman government. So the feudal system was completely established in England. Relations with the Continent were opened, and the civilization and commerce were extended. Norman-French culture, language, manners and architecture were introduced. The Church was brought into closer connection with Rome, and the church courts were separated from the civil courts. 1066 年的诺曼征服也许是英国历史上的最著名事件。征服者威廉几乎没收了所有土地，将 其分发给他的诺曼追随者。他用强有力的诺曼政府代替了软弱的萨克逊政府。于是，封建制 度在英国完全建立。开放了与欧洲大陆的关系，文明和商业得到发展，引进了诺曼—法国文 化、语言、举止和建筑。教会与罗马的联系更为密切，教会法庭与世俗法庭分离。 3.The English is a mixture of nationalities of different origins. The ancestors of many English people were the ancient Angles and Saxons. Some English people are of the Norman-Frenchorigin. 英国是一个集不同民族于一体的国家。 许多英国人的祖先是古盎格鲁和撒克逊人。 而还有一 些英国人的是诺曼血统。 This is one of the most difficult parts. In this part, I will introduce some Kings in English history and their reformations. Though we have to remember a lot of things in this part, we also learn more about English history. Chapter 3 第三章 The Shaping of the Nation (1066-1381) 英国的形成（公元 1066-1381） I. Norman Rule (1066-1381) 诺曼统治（公元 1066-1381） 1. William's Rule （1066-1087） 威廉一世的统治（公元 1066-1087） England's feudalism under the rule of William the Conqueror 在威廉统治下的英国封建制度 ①Under William, the feudal system in England was completely established. ②According to this system, the King owned all the land personally. ③William gave his barons large estates in England in return for a promise of military service and a proportion of the land's produce. ④ These estates were scattered far and wide over the country, so that those who held them could not easily combine to rebel the king. ⑤The barons, who had become William's tenants-in-chief, parceled out land to the lesser nobles, knights and freemen, also in return for goods and services. ⑥At the bottom of the feudal scale were the villeins or serfs. ⑦One peculiar feature of the feudal system of England was that all landowners must take the oath of allegiance，not only to their immediate lord, but also to the king. ①在威廉统治下，英国的封建制度得到完全确立。②根据此制度，国王拥有全国所有土地。 ③威廉把英国的大片土地分给贵族，条件是换取对方服役和收租。④这些地产分散于各处，
这样土地拥有者就不易联合起来反叛国王。 ⑤已成为国王土地承租人的贵族又把土地分配给 小贵族、骑士和自由民，同样换取货物和服役。⑥在封建等级底层的是农奴。⑦英国封建制 独有的特色就是，无论是土地承租人还是二佃户，都必须要宣誓效忠于直接领主，而且要效 忠于国王。 2. King Henry II and his reforms 亨利二世国王和他的改革 The ways King Henry II consolidate the monarchy. 亨利二世巩固君主制的途径。 Henry II took some measures to consolidate the monarchy. He forced the Flemish mercenaries to leave England; recalled grants of Royal lands made by his previous king Stephen; demolished many castles built in Stephen?s time; strengthened and widened the powers of his sheriffs and relied for armed support upon a militia composed of English freemen. 亨利二世采取了一些措施巩固君主制。 他迫使弗兰德斯雇佣军离开英国， 收回史蒂芬森赠出 皇室土地；拆除几十座史蒂芬森时造德城堡，加强并扩大了他的行政长官们的权力，依靠由 英国自由民组成的民兵获取军事支持。 The ways Henry II reform the courts and the law. 亨利二世对法院及法律进行改革的方式。 King Henry II greatly strengthened the Court and extended its judicial work. He divided the whole country into six circuits and appointed justices to each. Cases were therefore heard before the intermittent justices who applied the law impartially. During his reign, a common law was gradually established in place of the previous laws of the local barons. He also introduced a new jury system to replace the old ordeal-based trial system. Besides, he shifted the trial of clergymen charged with criminal offenses from the Bishop's court to the King's court. 亨利二世大大加强了王家法院，扩展了其司法工作的职权范围。他将全国分为六个审制区。 案件更多地由巡回法官审理，并不偏不倚地使用法律。在他统治时期，逐渐建立起超越地方 领主法律的普遍法。另外，他用陪审员制度代替了旧的残酷的审判制度。他坚持被控犯有刑 事罪的神职人员应由国王法庭审判，而不由主教法庭审判。 II.Contents and the significance of the Great Charter 《大宪章》的内容及意义 Great Charter was signed by King John in 1215 under the press of the barons. It consists of sixty-three clauses. Its important provisions are as follows: (1) no tax should be made without the approval of the Grand Council; (2) no freemen should be arrested, imprisoned or deprived of their property; (3) the Church should possess all its rights, together with freedom of elections; (4) London and other towns should retain their traditional rights and privileges, and (5) there should be the same weights and measures throughout the country. Although The Great Charter has long been popularly regarded as the foundation of English liberties, it was a statement of the feudal and legal relationships between the Crown and the barons, a guarantee of the freedom of the Church and a limitation of the powers of the king. The spirit of the Great Charter was the limitation of the powers of the king, keeping them within the bounds of the feudal law of the land. 《大宪章》是约翰国王 1215 年在封建贵族压力下签定的。 《大宪章》总共 63 条，其中最重 要的内容是：(1) 未经大议会同意，不得征税；(2) 只有根据国家有关法律才能逮捕、监禁 自由人以及剥夺他们的财产；(3)教会应享受其所有权利且有选举自由； （4） 伦敦和其它城 镇应保留其古时的权力和特权；(5) 全国要使用统一的重量和长度度量衡。尽管人们普遍认 为《大宪章》为英国的自由奠定了基础，但该宪章只是规定国王和贵族之间封建关系和法律
关系的文件，保证了教会的自由，限制了国王权利。 《大宪章》的精神是限制国王权力，使 其在英国封建法律允许的范围内活动。 III.The origins of the English Parliament 英国议会的起源 The Great Council is known to be the prototype of the current British Parliament. In 1265, Simon de Montfort summoned the Great Council, together with two knights from each county and two citizens from each town. It later developed into the House of Lords and the House of Commons. Its main role was to offer advice. There were no elections or parties. And the most important part of Parliament was the House of Lords. 大议会是当今英国议会的原型。1265 年，西门德孟福尔召开大议会，各县有两名骑士，各 镇有两名市民参加。大议会发展到后来演变成议会，分为上议院和下议院。其作用是咨询而 非决定；也没有选举和政党。议会的最重要的部分是上议院。 IV.The Hundred Years' War and its consequences. 百年战争及其结果 The Hundred Years? War refers to the war between England and France that lasted intermittently from 1337 to 1453. The causes of the war were partly territorial and partly economic. The territorial causes were related with the possession by the English kings of the large duchy in France, while the French kings coveted this large slice. The economic causes were connected with cloth manufacturing towns in Flanders, which were the importer of English wool, but they were loyal to the French king politically. Besides, England's desire to stop France from giving aid to Scots and a growing sense of nationalism were the other causes. The English's being driven out of France is regarded as a blessing for both countries. If the English had remained in France, the superior size and wealth of France would have hindered the development of a separate English national identity, while France was hindered so long as a foreign power occupied so much French territory. 百年战争指 1337 年到 1453 年英法之间一场断断续续的战争， 战争的起因既有领土因素又有 经济因素。 领土起因尤其是与英国国王拥有法国的阿基坦大片公爵领地有密切关系， 随着法 国国王势力日增，他们渴望占领这片在他们领土内的土地。经济原因则与弗兰德斯有关。弗 兰德斯地区生产棉布的城镇是英国羊毛的主要进口商，但这些城镇在政治上却效忠法国国 王。其他原因还有英国试图阻止法国帮助苏格兰人，以及不断觉醒的民族意识。 战争的结果：把英国人赶出法国对两个国家都是幸事：若国车人继续留在法国，那么法国人 在领土和财富上所占的优势必然会阻碍分离的英国民族的发展； 而法国民族被外国势力占领 了众多的领土，发展更是长期受阻。 第四章 Transition to the Modern Age (1455-1688) 向现代英国的过渡 I. Transition to the Modern Age (1455-1485) 向现代英国的过渡(1455 年-1485 年) The Wars of Rose 玫瑰战争 The name Wars of the Roses was refer to the battles between the House of Lancaster, symbolized by the read rose, and that of York, symbolized by the white, from 1455 to 1485. Henry Tudor, descendant of Duke of Lancaster won victory at Bosworth Fireld in 1485 and put ht country under the rule of the Tudors. From these Wars, English feudalism received its death blow. The great medieval nobility was much weakened.
玫瑰战争是指， 1455 年到 1485 年， 从 以红玫瑰为象征的兰开斯特大家族和以白玫瑰为象征 的约克家族之间战争的普遍接受的名称。1485 年，兰开斯特家族的后代亨利都铎取得了博 斯沃恩战役的胜利，建立了都铎王朝。这些战争使英国的封建主义受到致命打击，贵族阶层 受到了削弱。 II. The English Reformation 英国的宗教改革 Henry VIII was above all responsible for the religious reform of the church. There were three main causes: a desire for change and reform in the church had been growing for many years and now, encouraged by the success of Martin Luther, many people believed its time had come; the privilege and wealth of the clergy were resented; and Henry needed money. 最重要的是，亨利八世负责进行教会的宗教改革。改革原因有三个主要方面：改革教会的渴 望已有多年，现在又受马丁路德成功的鼓舞，许多人认为时机已到；人们痛恨教职人员的威 望和财富；亨利需要钱。 The reform began as a struggle for a divorce and ended in freedom from the Papacy. Henry VIII wanted to divorce Catherine of Aragon but the Pope refused. Henry?s reforms was to get rid of the English Church?s connection with the Pope, and to make an independent Church of England. He made this break with Rome gradually between 1529 and 1534. He dissolved all of England?s monasteries and nunneries because they were more loyal to the Pope than to their English kings. The laws such as the Act of succession of 1534 and the Act of Supremacy of 1535 made his reform possible. He established the church of England as the national church of the country, and he made himself the supreme head of the church of England. 改革以争取离婚而开始，以脱离教皇而告终。亨利八世欲与阿拉贡的凯瑟琳离婚，但是教皇 拒绝了。亨利改革的目的是摆脱英国教会与教皇的联系，成立独立的英格兰教会。1529 年 至 1534 年间逐渐地与罗马脱离了关系。他解散了所有英国的修道院和修女院，因为后者对 教皇比对英国国王更忠诚。1534 年的《继位法》和 1535 年的《至尊法案》使改革具有了可 行性。1535 年他获“英格兰教会最高首脑”之称号。 Henry VIII?s reform stressed the power of the monarch and certainly strengthened Henry?s position; Parliament had never done such a long and important piece of work before, its importance grew as a result. His attack on the Pope?s power encouraged many critics of abuses of the Catholic Church. England was moving away form Catholicism towards protestaintism. 改革的三大影响：亨利的改革强调了君主权力，自然加强了亨利的地位；议会以往从未做过 如此漫长而重要的工作， 自然其重要性也有所加强； 他对教皇权力的打击鼓舞许多人批评指 责天主教会，并希望从天主教转向新教。 III. Elizabeth I (1558-1603) 伊莉莎白一世（1558 年-1603 年） Elizabeth's religious reform and her foreign policy 伊莉莎白的宗教改革和外交政策 Elizabeth's religious reform was a compromise of views. She broke Mary's ties with Rome and restored her father's independent Church of England, i.e. keeping to Catholic doctrines and practices but to be free of the Papal control. He religious settlement was unacceptable to both the extreme Protestants known as Puritans and to ardent Catholics. For nearly 30 years Elizabeth successfully played off against each other the two great Catholic powers, France and Spain, and prevented England from getting involved in any major European conflict. Through her marriage alliances which were never materialized, Elizabeth managed to
maintain a friendly relationship with France. So England wad able to face the danger from Spain. 伊莉莎白的宗教改革是各种观点的妥协。 她中断玛丽与罗马的关系， 恢复父王独立的英格兰 教会，也就是说保持天主教教条及习俗，但不受教皇控制。她的宗教和解既不被极端的新教 徒（即清教徒）所接受，也不为虔诚的天主教徒所接受。 近 30 年的时间，伊莉莎白成功地令两大天主教强国法国和西班牙互相斗杀，从而免于英国 卷入任何主要的欧洲国的冲突。 通过她从未具体化的联姻， 伊莉莎白设法与法国维持友好关 系，因此英国能面对来自西班牙的危险。 IV. The English Renaissance 英国文艺复兴 Distinctive features of the English Renaissance 英国文艺复兴的特点 1) English culture was revitalized not so much directly by the classics as by contemporary Europeans under the influence of the classics; 2) England as an insular country followed a course of social and political history which was to a great extent independent of the course of history elsewhere in Europe; 3) Owing to the great genius of the 14th century poet Chaucer, the native literature was sufficiently vigorous and experienced in assimilating for foreign influences without being subjected by them; 4) English Renaissance coincided with the Reformation in England. 英国文艺复兴的五个特点：1）英国文化的复兴并不是直接通过古典作品，崦是通过受古典 作品影响同时代的欧洲人实现的；2）英格兰作为一个与大陆隔离的国家，其社会历史进程 很大程度上独立于欧洲其它国家；3）由于 14 世纪伟大的天才诗人乔叟的出现，英国本国文 学得以蓬勃发展，能够在吸收外国文学影响的同时，并未处于从属地位；4）英国文艺复兴 文学首先是艺术的，其次才是哲学的和学术的；5）文艺复兴和英格兰的宗教改革在时间上 有所交叉。 VI. The Civil Wars and their consequences Because of the absolute rule of Charles, the confrontation between Charles I and the parliament developed into the civil war. The war began on August 22,1642 and ended in 1651. Charles I was condemned to death. The English Civil War is also called the Puritan Revolution. It has been seen as a conflict between the parliament and the King, and a conflict between economic interests of the Crown. The economic interests of the urban middle classed coincided with their religious ( Puritan) ideology while the Crown?s traditional economic interests correspondingly allied with Anglican religious belief. The English Civil War not only overthrew feudal system in England but also shook the foundation of the feudal rule in Europe. It is generally regarded as the beginning of modern world history. 由于查尔斯的“君权神授”统治权，他与议会的对质发展成了内战。战争开始于 1642 年 8 月 22 日，结束于 1651 年。最后查尔斯被处死。 英国内战又称为清教徒革命。 这是议会和国王间的冲突， 也是城市中产阶级的经济利益与皇 室传统经济利益之间的冲突。城市中产阶级经济利益刚好与他们的宗教（清教）思想吻合， 相应地， 皇室传统的经济利益则与圣公会教的宗教信仰相结合在一起。 英国内战不仅推翻了 英国的封建制度， 而且动摇了欧洲封建经济的基础。 英国内战通常被看作是现代世界史的开 端。 The Restoration
王政复辟 When Oliver Cromwell died in 1658 and was succeeded by his son, Richard, the regime began to collapse. One of Cromwell's generals George Monck, occupied London and arranged for new parliamentary elections. The Parliament thus was elected in 1660 resolved the crisis by asking the late King's son to return from his exile in France as king Charles II. It was called the Restoration. 1658 年奥利弗克伦威尔去世，他的儿子理查德继任护国公，政权立即开始瓦解。克伦威尔 的一位将军乔治蒙克占领伦敦，安排新的议会选举。1660 年选出的议会要求上一任国王的 儿子长期流亡地法国回国作国王查尔斯二世，从而解决了危机。这就是所谓的王政复辟。 The Glorious Revolution of 1688 1688 年光荣革命 In 1685 Charles II died and was succeeded by his brother James II. James was brought up in exile in Europe, was a Catholic. He hoped to rule without giving up his personal religious vies. But England was no more tolerant of a Catholic king in 1688 than 40 years ago. So the English politicians rejected James II, and appealed to a Protestant king, William of Orange, to invade and take the English throne. William landed in England in 1688. The takeover was relatively smooth, with no bloodshed, nor any execution of the king. This was known as the Glorious Revolution. 1685 年查尔斯二世去世，由其弟詹姆斯二世继位。詹姆斯二世从小在欧洲流亡长大，是个 天主教徒， 他希望不放弃个人宗教信仰统治国家。 但是 1688 的英国已不象 40 年前那样能容 忍天主教徒当国王了。英国政客反对詹姆斯二世，他们呼吁信奉新教的国王，奥兰治亲王威 谦入侵英国夺取王位。1688 年 11 月 15 日威廉在托尔比登陆并占领伦敦。这一占领相对平 静，既未流血也未处死国王，所以就称为“光荣革命”。 The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 The Gunpowder Plot of 1605 was the most famous of the Catholic conspiracies. On Nov. 5,1605, a few fanatical Catholics attempted to blow King James and his ministers up in the House of Parliament where Guy Fawkes had planted barrels of gun-powder in the cellars. The immediate result was the execution of Fawkes and his fellow-conspirators and imposition of severe anti-Catholic laws. The long-term result has been an annual celebration on Nov. 5, when a bonfire is lit to turn a guy and a firework display is arranged. 1605 年的火药阴谋案是最著名的天主教阴谋。 1605 年 11 月 5 日， 几个狂热的天主教徒企图 在议会大厦炸死国王和大臣， 盖伊福克斯已在地窖放了炸药桶。 结果是福克斯和同伙被立即 处死，以及更严厉的反天主教法律的颁发。长斯结果是每年 11 月 5 日举行庆祝仪式，点燃 火堆焚烧盖伊模拟像并燃放烟火。 第五章 The Rise and Fall of the British Empire (1688-1990) 大英帝国的兴衰 I. Whigs and Tories 辉格党人和托利党人 These two party names originated with the Glorious Revolution (1688). 这两个政党名称皆起源于 1688 年的光荣革命。 The Whig were those who opposed absolute monarchy and supported the right to religious freedom for Nonconformists. The Whig were to form a coalition with dissident Tories in the mid-19th century and become the Liberal Party. 辉格党人是指那些反对绝对王权，支持新教徒宗教自由权利的人。辉格党人在 19 世纪中叶 与持不同意见的托利党人组盟组成自由党。
The Tories were those who supported hereditary monarchy and were reluctant to remove kings. The Tories were the forerunners of the Conservative Party. 托利党人是指那些支持世袭王权、不愿去除国王的人。托利党是保守党的前身。 The Industrial Revolution (1780-1830) 工业革命（1780-1830） 1.The industrial Revolution refers to the mechanisation of industry and the consequent changes in social and economic organization in Britain in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. 工业革命指的是 17 世纪末、18 世纪初英国工业的机械化，以及因此而导致的社会结构和经 济结构的变化。 2.Britain was the first country to industrialize because of the following factors: 英国成为第一个工业化的国家，原因如下： (1) Favourable geopraphical location. Britain was well placed geographically to participate in European and world trade; 优越的地理位置：英国地理位置优越，适合参与欧洲与世界贸易； (2) Political stability. Britain had a peaceful society, which, after the 17th century, was increasingly interested in overseas trade and colonies. International trade brought wealth to merchants and city bankers. They and those who had done well out of new farming methods provided capital in large quantities for industralization. 政治局面稳定。17 世纪后的英国社会宁静，对海外贸易和殖民地兴趣日增。国际贸易给商 人和城市银行家带来财富，他们加上由于新农作法而发家的人们为工业化提供了大笔资金。 (3) Good foundation in economy. The limited monarchy which resulted from the Glorious Revolution of 1688 ensured that the powerful economic interests in the community could exert their influence over Government policy. 1688 年光荣革命限制了君主的权力，这使得强大的经济利益集团能对议会政策施加影响。 (4) It was a country in which the main towns were never too far from seaports, or from rivers, which could distribute their products. 英国的主要城镇皆靠近海港或河流，货物运送便利。 (5) Britain had many rivers, which were useful for transport but also for water and steam power. Britain also had useful mineral resources. 英国许多河流不仅用于交通，还提供水力及蒸汽动力。英国还有可用的矿产资源。 (6) British engineers had sound training as craftsmen. 英国工程师为训练有素的手工艺人。 (7) The inventors were respected. They solved practical problems. 发明家受人尊重，他们解决了实际难题。 (8) Probably laissez faire and “Protestant work ethic” helped. 很可能利益于“放手干”及“新教工作道德”。 (9) England, Scotland, and Wales formed a customs union after 1707 and this included Ireland after 1807. So the national market was not hindered by internal customs barriers. 1707 年后，英格兰、苏格兰和威尔士形成关税联盟，1807 年后爱尔兰加入。因此，全国市 场不再受阴于内部的关税障碍。 (10) The enclosures and other improvements in agriculture made their contributions by providing food for the rising population, labour for the factories, and some of the raw materials needed by industry. 圈地运动和其它农业改良为增加的人口提供了粮食， 为工厂提供了劳动力， 为工业提供了所
需的一些原材料。 3.Typical examples of the inventions during the Industrial Revolution 工业革命中一些重大创新 (1) John Kay?s flying shuttle in 1733; 1733 年，约翰凯的飞梭； (2) James Hargreaves? Spinning Jenny in 1766; 1766 年詹姆士哈格里夫斯詹妮纺纱机； (3) Richard Arkwright?s waterframe in 1769; 1769 年理查德阿克赖特的水力纺织机； (4) Samuel Crompton?s mule in 1779 1779 年塞缪尔克朗普顿的走绽纺纱机； (5) Edmund Cartwright?s power loom in 1784; 1784 年爱德蒙卡特莱特发明的力织机； (6) James Watt?s steam engine in 1765. 1765 年詹姆斯瓦特的高效蒸汽机。 4.Consequences of the industrial Revolution 工业革命的结果 （1） Britain was by 1830 the “workshop of the world”; 英国成为了“世界工场”； （2） Towns grew rapidly and became the source of the nation?s wealth. 城镇迅速兴起，成为国家财富的源泉。 （3） Mechanization destroyed the livelihood of those who could not invest in it . The working men worked and lived in a appalling conditions. 机械化摧毁了不能投入其中的人们的生活。工人们在可怕的条件下劳动与生活。 （4） The industrial revolution created the industrial working class, the proletariat, and it later led to trade unionism. 工业革命产生了工人阶级，即无产阶级。后来形成了工会制度。 The Chartist Movement (1836-1848)宪章运动（1836-1848） 1. Reasons for parliamentary reforms. 议会改革的原因 (1) Power was monopolized by the aristocrats. 权力由贵族操纵。 (2) Representation of town and country, and North and South was unfair. 城镇和农村，北方和南方的代表权极不平等。 (3) There were also various so-called rotten or pocket boroughs. 还有各种称之为衰败或口袋选区的选区。 2.Three Reform Bills 三个改革法案 Between 1832 and 1884 three Reform Bills were passed. 1832 年至 1884 年间通过了三个改革法案。 a) The Reform Act of 1832 (also called the “Greater Charter of 1832) abolished “rotten boroughs”, and redistributed parliamentary seats more fairly among the growing tows. It also gave the vote to many householders and tenant?s, based on the value of their property. 1832 年的《改革法案》 （也称为 1832 年的大宪章）废除了“衰败选区”；在新兴城镇中较为 公平地重新分配了议席；以财产价值为基础给予许多屋主和佃家。
b) The New Poor Law of 1834 forced the poor people into work houses instead of giving them sufficient money to survive in their own homes. 1834 年的新贫困法强迫穷人进工厂，而没有给他们足够的钱在自己的家里生存。 3.A People?s Charter 人民宪章 There was widespread dissatisfaction with the Reform Act of 1832 and the New Poor Law. In 1836, a group of skilled workers and small shopkeepers formed the London Working Men?s Association. They drew up a charter of political demands (a People?s Charter) in 1838, with the intention of presenting it to Parliament. It had six points: (1)the vote for all adult males; (2)voting by secret ballot; (3)equal electoral districts; (4)abolition of property qualifications for members of Parliament; (5)payment of members of Parliament; (6)annual Parliaments, with a General Election every June. 1832 年的《改革法案》和《新贫困法》引起了普遍不满。1836 年，一群技术工人和小店主 组成伦敦工厂联盟。他们于 1838 年起草了有关政治要求的宪章（人民宪章） ，想把它呈送给 议会。宪章有六点内容： （1）所有成年男子都有选举权； （2）进行无记名投票； （3）平等选 区； （4）议员选举废除财产资格要求； （5）议员应有报酬； （6）议会每年六月进行大选。 4.Results of the Chartist Movement 宪章运动的结果。 Chartism failed because of its weak and divided leadership, and its lack of coordination with trade-unionism. The working class still immature, without the leadership of a political party armed with correct revolutionary theory. The Chartist movement was, however, the first nationwide working class movement and drew attention to serious problems. The 6 points were achieved very gradually over the period of 1858-1918, although the sixth has never been practical. Lenin said that Chartism was “the first broad, really mass, politically formed, proletarian revolutionary movement.” 由于领导层的软弱和分歧，由于缺少与工会的协调，宪章运动失败了。当时的工人阶级还未 成熟，没有正确的革命理论武装的政党领导。但是，宪章运动是第一次全国范围的工人阶级 运动，引起了对许多严重问题的关注。在 1858 至 1918 年间，六项要求逐渐达到，尽管第六 项从未成为现实。列宁说宪章运动是“第一个广泛的、真正群众参与的，有政治组织形式的 无产阶级革命运动。” I. Trade Unions and the Labour Party 工会和工党 1. The Trade Union Act of 1871 legalized the trade unions and gave financial security. 1871 年通过的《工会法》使工会合法化并给其财政保障。 2. The Labor Party had its origin in the Independent Labor Party(ILP), which was formed in January, 1893. In 1900, representatives of trade unions, the ILP, and a number of small socialist societies set up the Labor Representation Committee (LRC). The LRC changed its name to the Labor Party for the general election called for in 1906. 工党起源于独立工党，于 1893 年 1 月成立。1900 年，工会代表，独立工党和许多小型社会 主义社团一起成立了工人代表委员会。1906 年的大选迫使工人代表委员会及时更名为工党。 II. Colonial Expansion 殖民扩张 1. The growth of dominions 自治领的兴起
English colonial expansion began with the colonization of Newfoundland in 1583. Encouraged by Britain?s control of the seas, especially by the rising tide of emigration, British colonialists stepped up their expansion to Canada, Australia, and New Zealand, in the late 18th and the early 19th centuries. By 1900, Britain had built up a big empire, “on which the sun never set”. It consisted of a vast number of protectorates, Crown colonies, spheres of influence, and self-governing dominions. It included 25% of the world?s population and area. 英国殖民扩张开始于 1583 年纽芬兰的殖民化。在 18 世纪末、19 世纪初，受到海外移民浪 潮的鼓舞，英国殖民者很快加他们的扩张到加拿大、澳大利亚、新西兰。到 1900 年英国已 建立了“日不落”的大英帝国，包括受保护国、英国殖民地、势力范围和自治领，占世界人口 与面积的 25%。 Canada was ceded to Britain by the 1763 Treaty of Paris. French rights were guaranteed by the Quebec Act of 1774. The Canada Act of 1791 divided Canada into Upper Canada where the British had settled, and Lower Canada populated by the French. The British North America Act of 1867 established Canada as a dominion. 1763 年签订的《巴黎条约》将加拿大割让给英国。1774 年的《魁北克法》保证了法国的权 益。之后，1791 年《加拿娃哈哈》把加拿大分为上加拿大和下加拿大，前者是英国人的定 居地，后者是法国人的居住点。1867 年《英国北美法案》确定加拿大为自治领。 English began to transport convicts to Australia in 1788. Free settlement began in 1816, and no convictswere sent to Australia after 1840. The gold rushes (1851-1892) brought more people to Australia, and in 1901 the six self-governing wer united in one dominion-the independent Commonwealth of Australia. 1788 年英国人开始把囚犯流放到澳大利亚。1816 年开始可以自由定居，1840 年后囚犯不再 流放到澳大利亚。1851 年至 1892 年的淘金热使更多的人拥到澳洲。1901 年，六个自治领统 一为一个自治领—澳大利亚独立联邦。 New Zealand became a separate colony of Britain in 1841, achieved self-government in 1857, became a dominion under the British crown in 1907 and was made completely independent in 1931. 1841 年新西兰. The Conquest of India 征服印度 The British East India Company established in 1600. By 1819 the British conquest of most India was almost complete. After the muting of Bengal army in 1857, the control of India passed to the British Crown and Queen Victoria became Empress of India in 1877. 1600 年英国东印度公司的建立是经济渗透的实例。 1819 年英国对印度的征服已基本完成。 到 1857 年东印度公司孟加拉军队的当地士兵发动兵变后， 1858 年印度改由英国君主统治。 1877 年维多利来女王正式成为印度女皇。 2. The Scramble for Africa 对非洲的掠夺 At the beginning of the 19th century British possessions were confined to forts and slave trading posts on the west coast. Over the 19th century the interior of Africa was gradually discovered and colonized by Europeans. Britain led the way in the race. Apart from the colonies in the South and West, Britain was also involved in the North East in Egypt and the Sudan. 19 世纪初英国的占领地局限于西海岸的堡垒和奴隶交易点。 整个 19 世纪欧洲人逐渐发现并 殖民了非洲内陆。 在这场瓜分竞赛中英国占了较大的优势。 除了不断扩张的南部和西部殖民 地后，英国又凯觎东北的埃及和苏丹。
3. Aggression against China 侵略中国 In 1840, the Opium War broke out between Britain and China. Since then, Britain gradually invaded many coastal areas and imposed a series of unequal treaties upon China. 1840 年英国和中国发动了鸦片战争。从那时起，英国逐渐侵略了中国的许多沿海城市，并 签定了许多不平等条约。 VI. Twentieth Century 二十世纪 1. Britain and the First World War 英国和第一次世界大战 The Work War I was fought from 1914 to 1918 primarily between two European Power blocs: “the Central power”. Germany and Austria-Hungary, and the “Allies”, Britain, France and Russia. During the war, the Britain lost much. Apart from the loss of manpower, there had been considerable disruption of the economy and society. Out of the war settlement came the establishment of the league of Nations. 第一次世界大战是从 1914 年至 1918 年，战争主要在两大欧洲集团间进行：“同盟国”，包括 德国和奥匈帝国，和“协约国”，包括英国、法国和俄罗斯。一战中英国损失惨重。除了劳动 力损失，还有巨大的经济与社会瓦解。 2. Britain Between the Two World Wars 两次世界大战期间的英国 The effects of the New York Stock Market Crash of 1929 soon spread throughout Europe and by 1931 Britain was entering the Great depression. 1929 年纽约股票交易所崩溃的影响迅速波及欧洲，到 1931 年英国进入经济大萧条。 3. Britain and the Second World War 英国与第二次世界大战 As Adolf Hitler and Nazism showed off their aggressive momentum in Europe, Chamberlain, the Prime Minister, found his policy of appeasement of German aggression was no longer tenable, and was forced to declare war on Germany on September 3,1939. 当阿道夫希特勒及纳粹主义显示他们对欧洲的侵略意图时， 首相张伯伦发现他的绥靖政策已 站不住脚，只得于 1939 年 9 月 3 日对德宣战。 4. Postwar Britain 战后的英国 (1) One of the most far-reaching consequences of the War was that it hastened the end of Britain?s empire. 二战最为深远的结果之一是加速了大英帝国的瓦解。 (2) In 1952 Princess Elizabeth was crowned Queen Elizabeth II. Many people through television saw the ceremony. 1952 年伊莉莎白公主加冕成为伊莉莎白女王二世。新发明的电视使许多人看到了加冕仪式 的过程。 (4) In January 1973, Britain became a full member of the European Economic Community which was still called the Common Market in 1973. Britain witnessed the first oil shock in 1973. 1973 年 1 月，英国终于成为欧洲经济共同体的正式成员国。1973 年仍称为共同市场。1973 年英国经历了第一次石油禁运。 (5) Mrs. Thatcher
撒切尔主义 Thatcherism referred to the policies put forward by Margaret Thatcher, the first woman prime minister in England in 1979. The main contents of her policies included the return to private ownership of state-owned industries, the use of monetarist policies to control inflation, the weakening of trade unions the strengthening of the role of market forces in the economy, and an emphasis on law and order. To some extent her program was successful and she led one of the most remarkable periods in the British economy. 1979 年撒切尔夫人成为英国第一任女首相。她提出的政策被为“撒切尔主义”。其内容包括 国有工业私有化，采用货币主义政策以控制通货膨胀，削弱工会的影响，加强市场因素在经 济中的作用，强调法律和秩序。在一定程度上讲，她的计划是成功的。她领导英国经济度过 了一段最繁华的时期之一。 成为独立殖民地，1857 年实现自治，1907 年成为英皇属下的自治领，1931 年完全独立。 第六章 The Economy 英国经济 I. The Evolution of the British Economy since the War The evolution of the British economy since WWII falls into three periods: 二战后英国经济发展可分为三个阶段： (1) Steady development in the 50s and 60s: The British economy in this period is characterized by slow but steady growth, low unemployment and great material prosperity with rising standards of consumption. （1）战后 50-60 年代平稳发展时期。其主要特点是经济缓慢而持续增长，失业率低，物质 丰富，人民消费水平不断增长。 (2) Economic recession in the 70s: In the 1970s among the developed countries, Britain maintained the lowest growth rate and the highest inflation rate, and the high record of trade deficits. （2）70 年代经济滞胀。在 70 年代，英国在所有的发达资本主义国家中，始终保持最低经 济增长率，最高的通货膨胀率，和最高的贸易赤字纪录。 (3) Economic recovery in the 80s: An outstanding feature of the economic recovery in the 80s was its length, lasting seven years. Another was the improved financial position of the government, with stronger current account of the balance of payments. （3）80 年代经济复苏。一个显著特点是时间长，复苏持续了 7 年。另一个特点是国际收支 大大盈余，政府金融地位最高。 Measures taken by Mrs. Thatcher's government to improve the economy Mrs. Thatcher's government took numerous measures to improve the efficiency of the economy during the past decade, using both macroeconomic and microeconomic policies. 撒切尔政府运用宏观经济政策和微观经济政策，采取许多措施提高经济效益。 (1) Macroeconomic measures were directed towards bringing down the rate of inflation and achieving price stability. 宏观经济政策直接针对降低通货膨胀率和维持物价稳定。 (2) Microeconomic policies were aimed at working with the grain of market forces by encouraging enterprise, efficiency and flexibility. 微观经济政策旨在通过鼓励实业，效率和灵活性共同努力提高市场竞争力。 Reasons for the British coal mining is called a “sick” industry today. 英国煤矿被称为“生病”工业的原因。 Today the coal industry in Britain is on the decline，the number of miners, collieries and the total
output have been falling. 如今的英国煤矿业衰退，从而导致矿工、煤矿的数量和总产量都大大下降。 The reasons for the decline are as follows: exhaustion of old mines, costly operations of extraction, poor old equipment, little investment, fall in demand due to imports of cleaner, cheaper and more efficient fuels, etc. 煤工业衰退的原因包括：老煤矿的枯竭，昂贵的提炼费用，破旧的设备，极少的投资，由于 进口更干净、更便宜、更高效的燃料导致的需求下降等等。 Main problems associated with Britain?s iron and steel industry today. 如今英国钢铁工业的主要问题。 British iron and steel industry is declining for the following reasons: 英国钢铁工业衰退的原因如下： 1. Local supplies of iron ore have become exhausted; 当地贮备枯竭； 2. Old fashioned furnaces for making coke cannot recover valuable by-products; 他们生产焦炭的老式炉不能提取有价值的副产品， 3. Blast furnaces, steelworks, and rolling mills are often separated from each other and thus cannot perform as well as more compact operation; 高炉、钢铁厂和轧钢厂经常分开，导致不如更紧凑的企业出效益； 4. Many steelworks have to be closed down,causing major unemployment in an area. 许多钢铁厂倒闭，导致该地区的大批人失业。 The main textile producing regions of Britain are the East Midlands, Yorkshire, Humberside, and Northern Ireland. New Industries New industries include microprocessors and computers, biotechnology and other high-tech industries. There are three areas in Britain which have seen some high-tech industrial growth: (1).the area between London and South Wales, (2).the Cambridge area of East Anglia and (3).the area between Glasgow and Edinburgh in Scotland. The third area is the most spectacular of the three and is now often referred to as the “Silicon Glen”. By the end of 1985 half of Britain?s microchip output was estimated to have come from Scotland. 英国主要纺织基地是现在的中东部，约克郡和汉伯塞德郡及北爱尔兰。 The reasons behind the decline of Britain's textile industry are: 英国纺织业的衰退原因如下： (1) Exports of textiles have not competed well with those of other foreign producers who have managed to produce cheaper goods. 纺织品出口不能很好地与设法生产出更便宜商品的国外产家竞争。 (2) There has been a rise in cheaper imports of textiles to Britain from foreign producers. 英国增加了从外国产家进口更廉价纺织品。 (3) Poor and outdated management decisions have caused problem. 薄弱及过时的管理决策导致许多问题。 (4) Substitutions of human-made fibres have been made for natural fibres. 人造纤维代替品已取代了天然纤维。 (5) An improvement of output per worker has been achieved, due to mechanization. 由于机械化，每个工人的生产量有了提高。 Government and Administration
英国政府机构 The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy, the head of state is a king or a queen. The United Kingdom is governed, in the name of the Sovereign by His or Her Majesty?s Government. The System of parliamentary government is not based on a written constitution, the British constitution is not set out in any single document. It is made up of statute law, common law and conventions. The Judiciary determines common law and interprets statutes. 联合王国是君主立宪制国家,国家的首脑是国王或女王。联合王国以君的名义,由国王或女王 陛下政府治理。英国的议会制度并不是基于成文宪法,英国宪法不由单一文件构成,而由成文 法,习惯法和惯例组成。司法部门裁定习惯法或解释成文法。 I.The Monarchy 君主制 1.Elizabeth II, her title in the United Kingdom is “Elizabeth the Second, by the Grace of God of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland andher Other Realms and Territories, Queen, Head of the Commonwealth, Defender of the Faith. 伊莉莎白二世，她的全称是“上帝神佑，大布列颠及北爱尔兰联合王国以及她的其他领土和 领地的女王，英联邦元首，国教保护者伊莉莎白二世。” 2. The Queen is the symbol of the whole nation. In law, She is head of the executive, an integral part of the legislature, head of the judiciary, the commander-in-chief of all the armed forces and the “supreme governor” of the Church of England. She gives Royal Assent to Bills passed by parliament. 女王是国家的象征。从法律上讲，她是行政首脑，立法机构的组成部分，司法首脑，全国武 装部队总司令，英国国教“至高无上”的领袖。她任命首相和重要的政府官员。对议会通过的 法案给予御准。 3. The monarch actually has no real power. The monarch?s power are limited by law and Parliament. Constitutional monarchy began after the Glorious Revolutionin 1688. 君主政体实际已无实权。它的权力受限于法律和议会。君主立宪制是从 1688 年的光荣革命 后开始。 III.Parliament 议会 1. The United Kingdom is a unitary, not a federal, state. Parliament consists of the Sovereign, the House of Lords and the House of Commons. 英国是中央集权国家，而不是联邦制国家。议会由君主，上议院和下议院组成。 2. The main functions of Parliament are: (1) to pass laws; (2) to provide, by voting for taxation, the means of carrying on the work of government; (3) to examine government Policy and administrations, including proposal for expenditure; and (4) to debate the major issues of the day. 议会的主要作用是： （1）通过立法； （2）投票批准税为政府工作提供资金； （3）检查政府政 策和行政管理，包括拨款提议； （4）当天的议题辩论。 3. The House of Lords is made up of the Lords Spiritual and the Lords Temporal. The main function of the House of Lords is to bring the wide experience of its members into the process of lawmaking. In other words, the non-elected House is to act as a chamber of revision, complementing but not rivaling the elect House. 贵族院 （上议院） 由神职贵族和世俗贵族组成。 它的主要作用是用议员的丰富经验帮助立法。 换而言之，非选举的上议院是修正议院，补充而非反对由选举产生的下议院。 4. The House of Common is elected by universal adult suffrage and consists of 651 Members of
Parliament (MPs). It is in the House of Commons that the ultimate authority. 下议院（平民院）由成人普选产生，由 651 名议员组成。下议院拥有最终立法权。 5. Britain is divided 651 constituencies. Each of the constituencies returns one member to the House of Commons. A general Election must be held every five years and is often held at more frequent intervals. 英国被划分为 651 个选区，每个选区选一名下议院议员。大选必须五年举行一次，但经常不 到五年就进行一次选举。 6. Britain has a number of parties, but there are only two major parties. Thesetwo parties are the Conservative Party and the Labour Party. Since 1945, eitherthe Conservative Party or the Labour Party has held power. The party which wins sufficient seats at a General Election to command a majority of Government. The leader of the majority party is appointed Prime Minister. The party which wins the second largest number of seats becomes the Official Opposition, with its own leader and “shadow cabinet ”. The rule of Opposition is to help the formulation of policy. Criticizes the Government and debate with the Government. 英国有很多政党，但有两个主要的政党—保守党和工党。从 1945 年以来，两党一直轮流执 政， 在大选中获多数议席因而在下议院拥有多数支持者的政党组建政府， 多数党领袖由君主 任命为首相。获得第二多数议席的政党则正式成为“反对党”，有自己的领袖和影子内阁。反 对党的目的是帮助制定政策，它可以经常给政府提出批评性的建议和修正议案。 III.The Cabinet and Ministry 内阁和内阁部长 1. The Prime Minister presides over the Cabinet, is responsible for the allocation of functions among ministers and informs the Queen at regular meetings of general business of the Government. Cabinet members hold meetings under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister for a few hours each week to decide Government policy on major issues. 首相主持内阁， 负责分配大臣们的职能， 在定期会见女王时向女王报告政府事务。 内阁在 首 相的主持下，每周开会几小时，以决定在重大问题上政府的政策。 2. Ministers are responsible collectively to Parliament for all Cabinet decisions; individual Ministers are responsible to Parliament for the work of their department. 内阁的所有决定由大臣集体向议会负责，各大臣又为各自部门的工作向议会负责。 IV.The Privy Council 枢密院 1. The Privy Council was formerly the chief source of executive power in the state and give private advice to the King. So the Privy Council was also called the King?s Council in history. Today its role is largely formal, advising the sovereign to approve certain government decrees. 枢密院原来是政府行政权力的源泉，给君主提供“私人”建议。它在历史上也称为国王议会。 今天它的主要作用是礼节性的，如建议君主批准政府的法令。 2. Its membership is about 400, and includes all Cabinet ministers, the speaker of the House of Common and senior British and Commonwealth statement. 它的主要成员有 400 人左右，包括内阁阁员，下议院院长及英国，英联邦的高级政治家等。 V.Government Department and the Civil Service 政府各部和公务员部 1. The principal Government department main includes: the Treasury, the House of office, the Foreign and Commonwealth office, the Ministry of Defense… 主要的政府部门包括：财务部，内务部，外交部，国防部等。
2. Members of the Civil Service are called Civil Services. They staff government departments. Civil Servants are recruited mainly by competitive examination. Civil servants do not belong to any political party. Changes of Government do not involve changes in departmental staff, There are about 541800 civil servants in Britain now. 文职人员部的成员被成为公务员。 公务员主要是通过竞争考试录用。 公务员部门不属于任何 政党，政府的变更并不影响部门职员的变更。英国现约有 541800 名公务员。 VI.Local Government 地方政府部门 1. There are two main tiers of local authority throughout England and Wales: counties and the smaller districts. Now, England and Wales are divided into 53 counties which are sub-divided into 369 districts. 英格兰和威尔士实行两级地方政府制—郡和比郡小的区。 现在英格兰和威尔士分为 53 个郡， 郡下分为 369 个区。 2. Greater London is divided into 32 boroughs. 大伦敦被分为 32 个行政区。 Justice and the law 法律与司法机构 There is no single legal system in the United Kingdom. A feature common to all systems of law in the United Kingdom is that there is no complete code. The sources of law include (1) statutes; (2) a large amount of “unwritten” or common law; (3) equity law; (4) European Community. Another common feature is the distinction made between criminal law and civil law. 联合王国不实行完全统一的法律制度。 联合王国所有法律制度的一个共同特点是没有以部完 整的法典。法典来源包括： （1）成文法； （2）大量的“不成文法”或习惯法； （3）衡平法； （4） 欧共体法。另一个共同的特点是刑法和民法之间的区别。 Criminal Courts in England and Wales 英格兰和威尔士的刑事法庭 Magistrates? Courts which try summary offences and “either way” offences. A magistrates? court, which is open to the public and the media, usually consists of three unpaid “lay” magistrates-known as justices of the peace-who are advised on point of law and procedure by a legally qualified assistant. A Magistrates? court sits without a jury. 治安（警事）法庭，负责审理判决犯罪，也审理“任意方式”罪行。治安法庭对公众和媒体公 开，通常由三位无薪的“外行”地方官——地方治安官组成，由懂得法律知识的书记员和助手 给他们提供法律规定和程序方面的建议。治安法庭审察时没有陪审团。 Youth Court which try most cases involving people under 18. 青少年法庭，负责审理 18 岁以下青年的大多数案件。 The Crown Court tries the most serious offences and ?either way” offences referred to it by magistrates. The Crown Court is presided over by High Court judges, full-time circuit Judges and part-time Recorders England and Wales are divided into six circuits for the purpose of hearing criminal case. Each circuit isdivided into areas containing one or more centers of High Court and Crown Court. 皇家刑事法庭。负责审理最严重的罪行和由地方法官提交的“任意方式”罪行。皇家刑事法庭 由高级法院法官，全职巡回法官和兼任刑事法官主持。为审理刑事案，英格兰和威尔士被分 为六个巡回区，每个巡回区又分区域，每个区域有一个或多个高级法庭和皇家刑事法庭。 2. Criminal courts in Scotland
苏格兰的刑事法庭 There are three criminal courts in Scotland. （1） High Court of Justiciary;(2) the sheriff court;(3) the the district court. Scotland has two types of criminal procedure, know as solemn procedure and summary procedure. In solemn procedure, a defendant is tried by a judge sits without a jury. 英格兰有三种刑事法院： （1）高级法院； （2）郡法院； （3）区法院。英格兰有两种刑事诉讼： 庄重诉讼和即决诉讼。庄重诉讼里，被告由陪审团和法官审理。在即决诉讼中，法官独自审 理，不用陪审团。 3. Criminal courts in Northern Ireland 北爱尔兰的刑事法庭 Cases involving minor summary offences are heard by magistrates? courts presided over by a full-time legally qualified resident magistrate. County courts are primarily civil law courts. The Crown Court deals with criminal trails on indictment. 涉及轻微即决犯罪的案件由治安法庭听审， 法庭由全职的法律合格的常驻治安法官主持。 郡 法庭主要是民事法庭。皇家刑事法庭根据起诉进行刑事审判. III.Civil Courts 民事法庭 1. Civil Courts in England and Wales 英格兰和威尔士的民事法庭 Magistrates? Courts have limited civil jurisdiction, The main courts of civil jurisdiction are County Courts, the High Court deals with the more complicated civil case. Its jurisdiction covers mainly civil and some criminal cases. It has three divisions: (1) the family Division; (2) the Chancery Division; (3) the Queen?s Bench Division. 治安法庭只有一定的民事审判权。 主要行使民事司法权的是民事法院， 高等法院处理更为复 杂的民事案。主要包括民事案和一些刑事案，高等法院有三个分支： （1）家事庭； （2）娃哈 哈官庭； （3）王室庭。 IV. The Judiciary 司法机构 There is no ministry of justice in the United Kingdom. Central responsibility lies with the Lord Chancellor the Home Secretary and the Attorney General. In England and Wales, lay magistrates are appointed on behalf of the Crown by the Lord Chancellor who is advised by committees in each county. The Lord Chancellor recommends the High Court and circuit judges. The highest judicial appointments and made by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister. 英国没有司法机构。 中央政府的司法工作主要由娃哈哈官内政大臣和检察总长负责。 在英格 兰和威尔士， 娃哈哈官根据各部委员会的建议任命外行人员为治安官。 娃哈哈官推荐高等法 官和巡回法官。最高级别的司法官任命由女王根据首相的建议做出。 V. Police 警察 The police service for United Kingdom is organized and controlled on a local basis under the Home Secretary and the Scottish and Northern Ireland Secretaries. London?s Metropolitan Police Force is directly under the control of Home Secretary. Police officers are not allowed to join a trade union or go on strike. They do not normally carry firearms. 在内政大臣和苏格兰及北爱尔兰国务大臣的指导下， 英国警察分地组建， 并以地方管理为基 础。但伦敦警察署直接与内政大臣管辖。警察不得加入工会或罢工。他们通常不佩带手枪。 VI. Treatment of offenders
对违法者的处理 The chief aims of the penal system are to deter the potential lawbreaker and to reform the convicted offender. 刑罚制度的主要目的是阻止潜在的违法者，并改造已判的违法者。 Capital punishment ( a sentence of death ) for murder has been abolished in the U.K, through proposal for its reinstatement are regularly debated by Parliament, and it remains the penalty for treason and piracy. 英国已废除对谋杀罪的死刑，但议会仍经常辩论要恢复死刑，判国罪和海盗罪仍可判死刑。 Social Affairs 英国社会 I. Health and Social Services 全国医疗保健计划 1. Britain is regarded as a welfare state. This system is funded out of national insurance contributions and taxation. In Britain the term applies mainly to the National Health Service (NHS), national insurance and social security. 英国被认为是福利制度的国家。此制度的所需资金来源于全国保险税和赋税。在英国，这主 要是指国民保健制度，国民保险和社会保障制度。 2. The National Health Service provides for every resident, regardless of income, a full range of medical services. The service was established in the U.K. in 1948. Over 82 per cent of the cost of the health service in Great Britain id funded out of general taxation. The rest is met from: (1)the NHS element of National Insurance contributions; (2) charges towards the cost of certain items such as drugs prescribed by family doctors, and general dental treatment; (3) other receipts, including land sales and the proceeds of income generation schemes. 不管个人收入如何，国民保健制度为每个居民提供全面医疗服务。英国于 1948 年确立此制 度。英国国民保健制度 82%以下的费用来自普通税收，其他部分来自（1）国民保险金中的 国民保险金部分； （2）象对家庭一生开的药单和普通牙科治疗所收的费用； （3）其他收入， 包括出售土地和增收计划的收益。 3. There are proportional charges for most types of HNS dental treatment, including examinations. Sight test are free to children. No one is liable to be charged by the National Health Service for treatment in an accident, emergency or for an infectious disease. Central government is directly responsible for the NHS, which is administered by a range of local health authorities and health boards throughout the U. 国民保健制度中多数牙科治疗都要收取一定比例的费用， 包括检查费。 视力检查对儿童免费。 国民保健制度对事故，急诊或传染病的治疗不收费，中央政府直接负责国民保健制度，由全 国各地的保健机构和卫生委员会实施 4. The family health services are those given to patients by doctors, dentists, opticians and pharmacists. In order to obtain the benefits of the NHS a person must normally be registered on the list of a general practitioner (GP, sometimes knows as a “family doctor”). 家庭保健服务由医生、牙医、眼科大夫和药剂师提供给病人。为获得国民保健制度的服务， 人们必须在普通开业医生的名册上注册。 5. A full range of hospital services is provided by district general hospital. There are also specialist hospital or units for children, people suffering from mental illness, those with learning disabilities, and elderly people, and for the treatment of specific diseases. 地区普通医院提供全面的医院服务。也有为儿童，精神病人，有学习障碍者，老人和特殊病
人开设的专门医院或病区。 6. The National Health Service is the largest single employer of labour in the U.K. NHS has suffered from underfunding in recent decades, as a result of which many better-off people have been turning to private medical health care. 国民保健制度是英国最大的用人机构。近几十年来，因为资金不足，许多比较富裕的人正逐 渐转向私人的医疗保健机构。 7. Personal social services in Britain assist elderly people, disabled people, people with learning disabilities or mental illness, children, and families facing special problems. These statutory service are provided by local government social services authorities. 在英国，个人社会服务向老人， 残疾人，有学习障碍者，精神病人，有特殊家庭困难的人等。 地方政府社会服务委员会提供法定援助。 II. social Security 社会保险 1. The social security system is designed to secure a basic standard of living for people in financial need. Nearly a third of government expenditure is devoted to the social security programme which provides financial help for people who are elderly, sick, disabled, unemployed, widowed, bringing up children or on very low incomes. 社会保险制度设立的目的是保障经济困难的人们的基本生活水平， 政府开支的近三分之一用 于社会保险计划。此计划给老人，病人，残疾人，失业者，寡妇，抚育幼儿者或低收入者提 供经济帮助。 2. Administration in Great Britain is handled by separate executive agencies of the Department of Social Security. In Northern Ireland by the Social Security Agency. 大不列颠的社会保险由社会保险部独立执行机构管理，在北爱尔兰则是社会保险局。 3. contributory social security benefits, it includes: (1) retirement pension;(2) unemployment pension;(3) sickness and invalidity benefit (4) Maternity allowance and widows?s benefits. 需要先交费的社会安全福利（个人有工作收入时交，无收入时领） ，其中包括：退休金，失 业金，病残福利金，孕产期补助金，寡妇补助金。 4. non-contributory social security benefits, it include: (1) war pensions;(2) industrial injuries disablement benefit;(3) child benefit and (4) family credit. 不需要先交费的福利金，包括战争伤亡抚恤金，工伤致残救济金，儿童补助金，低收入家庭 补助金。 III. Religion 宗教 1. Everyone in Britain has the right to religious freedom with out interference from the community or the State. He may change his religion at will may manifest his faith in teaching, worship and observance. Except that the Lord Chancellor may be a Roman Catholic, public offices are open without distinction to members of all churches or none. 在英国，人人都有信仰宗教的权利，社会和政府不得干涉。他可以随意改变宗教信仰，可以 在教职，礼拜或仪式中表明他的信仰。除了娃哈哈官不可以是罗马天主教徒外，公共职务对 各种信仰或没有信仰的人一律公开。 2. Established churches 国教 There are two established church in Britain: in England the church of England and Scotland the Church of England.
英国有两大国教，在英格兰是英格兰国教，苏格兰是苏格兰教会（长老教） 。 3. Church of England is uniquely related to the Crown in that the Sovereign must be a member of that Church and as “Defender of the Faith”. The Church is also linked with the State through the House of loads. The church of England is not free to change its form of worship, as laid down in the Book of Common Prayer without the consent of Parliament. 英格兰国教与君主有独特的联系。因为君主作为“国教的捍卫者”必须是此教会的一员，他在 登基时必须承诺维持国教。国教还通过上议院与政府联系。没有议会同意，英格兰教会不可 随意改变“国教祈祷书”中规定的礼拜仪式。 4. The government of the Church of Scotland is Presbyterian, that is, government by ministers and elders, all of whom are ordained to office. The Monarch is normally represented at the general assembly by the Lord High Commissioner. 英格兰教的管理时长老制，也就是由教士和长老治理。他们被授予圣职，王室高级代表通常 代表君主光临会议。 5. Unestablished churches 非国教教会 There are include: the Anglican Churches(圣公会)，the Free Churches(自由教)，the Roman Catholic Church（罗马天主教） 。 IV. Festival and Public Holidays 节假日 The Christian festival of the year and Christmas, Easter, and Whit Sunday. 其主要的节日有圣诞节，复活节，圣灵降临节 Sports 体育运动 1. Many international sports were introduced by the British in leisure time very seriously. There is widespread participation in sport in Britain. 许多国际体育项目是由认真对待休闲时间的英国人引进的，在英国，人们广泛参与体育。 2. Football ( or “soccer” as it is colloquially called ), the most popular sport in England as well as in Europe, has its traditional home in England where it was developed in the 19th century. 足球（口语叫”soccer”）,在英格兰和欧洲是最受欢迎的运动，其传统老家在英格兰，出现于 19 世纪。 3. The game“Rugby” was invented at Rugby School in Warwich shire in the early 19th century. 拉格比球比赛 19 世纪初创立于沃尔威克郡的拉格比学校，因此而得名。 4. Cricket, the most typically English of sports, has been in existence since the 16th century. On an international level, 5-day Cornhill Test Matches. 板球，是英国人最典型的体育运动，自从 16 世纪以来已存在。国际比赛是 5 天的康希尔决 赛。 5. Although tennis has been played for centuries, the modern game originated in England in late 19th. The main tournament is the annual Wimbledon fortnight, one of the 4 tennis “Grand Slam” tournaments. 尽管网球已打了好几个世纪，但现代比赛却起源于 19 世纪末的英格兰。主要比赛是一年一 度的温布尔登两周赛，这是四大满贯网球锦标赛之一。 6. There is a considerable following and participation of athletics in Britain. For example, the London Marathon, which takes place every spring. 英国参加田径的人很多，例如伦敦的马拉松塞，每年春季举行。
7. The home of golf is Scotland where the game has been played since the 17th century and naturally the oldest golf club in the world is there: The Honourable Company of Edinburgh Golfers. The Walker Cup for amateurs and the Ryder Cup for professionals. 高尔夫球的故里是苏格兰，自从 17 世纪以来这项运动就在那儿盛行。全世界最古老的高尔 夫俱乐部也在那里：爱丁堡高尔夫球会员荣誉公司。业余球员参加沃尔克公开赛，职业球员 参加雷德尔杯。
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