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高中定语从句完整讲解(自制)


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定语从句
定语从句(Attributive Clauses)在句中做定语,修饰一个名词或代词,被修饰的名词, 词组或代词即先行词(Antecedent) 。定语从句通常出现在先行词之后,由关系词(关系代词 或关系副词)引出 1. 定义 定语从句,就是用来修饰名词或代词的句子,起到定语的作用,所以叫做定语从句。被修 饰的词叫先行词。定语从句不同于单词作定语的情况,它需要放在被修饰的词(即先行词) 之后。定语从句一般由关系代词来引导。关系代词必须放在定语从句之首。 2. 从句结构:包括先行词,关系词和定语。 3. 关系词 (1) 关系代词:that,which,who,whom,whose,as(在定语中作主语,宾语,定语,表 语)------在句中作成分,说明后面的句子不完整。 (2) 关系副词:when,where,why,(在句中作状语)-----后面的句子完整。 一. 由 that,who,whom 作关系代词引导的定语从句,先行词指人。 spoke at the meeting yesterday?(两者都修饰前面的

1. Do you know the comerade comerade). 2. This is the man

(they say) is a good teacher.(这里 who 还做了后面 they say 的宾

语,有双重身份,所以不能用 that.) 3. This is the teacher 4. My cousin, 能用 that 引导。 ) 5. 先行词是 he, they, those, one, ones, anyone,只能用 who,不能用 that. Anyone One breaks the law will be punished. works hard and without complain is welcome here. I met in the street just now.(作宾语,所以可以省略)。 is an engineer, went to America last week.(非限定性定语从句,不

6. 关系代词指人的先行词(先行词指人)存在于 there be 结构中用 who。 Eg. There is someone is waiting for you at school gate.

7. 先行词指人,关系代词在从句中做宾语时可以省略。 Eg. This is the teacher I met in the street just now.

8. 先行词指人,介词后紧随关系代词不能省略关系代词且必须用宾格, (关系代词在此时做
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she could turn for help. she could turn to for help.

宾语) 。 Eg. In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person to In the dark street, there wasn’t a single person

9. 在非限定性定语从句中,先行词指人,关系代词作宾语,只能用 whom,不能用 that. Eg. He is a man with rich experience, we can learn a lot from.

10. 在 who 引导的定语从句中(先行词指人) ,后只能用 that 引导的宾语从句作主语。 Eg. Who is the boy is shouting in the classroom.

11. 先行词指人,在定语从句中作表语时,用 that. Eg. Li Hong is no longer the girl she was before.

12. 先行词又指人又指物,在定语从句中只用 that. Eg. Watch the woman and her dog are crossing the street.

13. 先行词指人,被 the only, the very 等最高级或序数词修饰时,做宾语用 that. Eg. He was the only person I had invited.

14. 为了平衡句子结构,有时要省略 that 或 who(或都省略)。 Eg. The man 二. she likes is the one is both honest and brave.

先行词指物,关系代词 that 与 which 的区别。

1. 一般情况可以互换 Eg. The machine can fly is plane.

2. 介词+关系代词,不能用 that,且不能省略 which. Eg. This is the book in This is the book she could much interest. she could much interest in.

3. 非限定性定语从句中不能用 that,且不能省略 which. Eg. I will buy a book, tells about the use of English idoms.

4. 先行词是 that, 作宾语时用 which,也可省略。 Eg. What was that you said about him.

5. 先行词是 all, everything,anything, nothing,much,little,few 等不定代词时,关系代词用 that. Eg. Everything can be done has been done.

6. 先行词被 all,any,every,much,little,no,only,very 修饰时,用 that. Eg. Ask any question you don’t understand.

7. 先行词被序数词或形容词最高级修饰时,关系代词常用 that.
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Eg. The first lesson

I learned will never be forgotten.

8. 由 which 引导的特殊疑问句中,含定语从句,先行词指物时,关系代词用 that 来避免重 复。 Eg. Which of the cows you keep produces more milk?

9. 先行词指物,在定语从句中作表语,只用 that. Eg. Our hometown is no longer the one 10. 先行词指物,且在 there be 句型中,只用 that. Eg. There is a seat in the coner is still free. it used to be.

11. 如果指的是相同的一个东西(同一个)用 that,而不用 as,如表示相同,但不是同一个就 要用 as. Eg. I have found my missing book and this is the same one I lost yesterday.

12. 一个句中如果含有两个定语从句,先行词指物,第一个用 which,第二个用 that,第一个用 that,第二个就要用 which。 三. 关系代词 which 和 as 的区别

1. 都可以用来引导非限定性定语从句,可表示某一物的名词,也可代指整个事物。 2. (1)which 可做介词的宾语,而 as 不可以。 (2.)which 引导的非限定性定语从句一般在主语之后,as 可前可后可中间,位置灵活。 (3) as 引导的非限定性定语从句有较为密切的上下关系。 (4) as 本身含有“正如......”之意,一般情况下放在句首。 3. 先行词是某个具体的名词,且所指的名词在非限定性定语从句中又做了主语的时候,只用 which 而不用 as. Eg. I like English very much, is a bridge to so much knowledge.

4. 关系代词指代前面整个内容,并且在非限定性定语从句中作主语或宾语时,用 which 而不 用 as。 Eg. Light travels faster than sound, all teachers once told us.

5. 固定结构:as 引导的非限定性定语从句用于下列句型(句式)中。 Eg. as is known to us all/ as we all know/as we can see/as is said/as is reported/as is expected/as is

announced/as has happened/as we hoped 可用在句首,句中,句尾;在句中作插入语(正如......) 四. 关系代词 whose Whose 不单用,表示所属关系,即可指人也可指物,一般情况下可和 of which 互换,但有时
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不能。 1. The desk legs Tom broke yesterday has been repaired.

2. 先行词表示整体与部分的关系时(定语从句的主语) ,如 little, some, most, mainly,few,much 等时不能用 whose 来连接,只能用 of which 或 of whom 来连接。 Eg. Jonn bought me much bread , little of Those foreign teachers, most their work here. 3. 定语从句的主语是同位关系的代词(与先行词是同位关系)如 all, none, neither, each, either 的时候用 of whom 或 of which,不用 whose. Eg.He gave me many books,none was interesting. tastes good. had never been to China before, are enjoying

4. 定语从句的主语是数词时,用 of whom 或 of which ,不用 whose。 Eg.My father has many books,seven percent 五. 关系代词 as(可用作主语或宾语) are written in English.

1. 正如:as is...to... 2. The same +n+as... Eg. I have the same dictionary as you bought yesterday. 3. such +n+as...像这样......像那样...... 六. 关系副词(后面句中完整,做宾语的从句,都考虑用关系副词,具体选择哪一个要根据意思来 看). 1. I will never forget these days I will never forget these days 2. This is the farm This is the farm 3.This is the reason This is the reason 4. I will never forget the day 5. ...the way (定语从句) I lived with the farmers in the counterside. I spent with the farmers in the countryside. my father used to work. my father used to visit. he was late. he explained at the meeting. I joined the Party.

6. 先行词是 point,scene, case,situation,mark 等时,首先考虑关系副词 where,再看从句中是否 有宾语,如没有就用 that 或 which。 Eg. I don’t like the way he spokes to me.
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