2009 福 建 省 普 通 高 中 学 生 学 业 基 础 会 考 英语学科考试大纲 （试 行）
一、命题依据 依据教育部颁布的《普通高中英语课程标准（实验）》七级要求，福建省教 育厅颁布的 《福建省普通高中新课程英语学科教学实施指导意见 （试行） 、 》 《福 建省普通高中学生学业基础会考方案（试行）》和《2009 年福建省普通高中学 生学业基础会考英语学科考试大纲
（试行）》，并结合我省普通高中教学实际情 况进行命题。 二、命题原则 1．导向性原则。面向全体学生，有利于促进学生全面、和谐、健康的发展， 有利于中学实施素质教育， 体现英语学科新课程理念，充分发挥基础会考对普通 高中英语学科教学的正确导向作用。 2．基础性原则。严格按教育部颁发的《普通高中英语课程标准（实验）》 七级要求所规定的基本内容和基本要求命题。考试将注重英语基础知识的考核， 重视学生听、说、读、写英语基本能力的考核；检测学生业已形成的学习策略和 思维能力，检测学生对英语国家文化的理解。试题难易适当，不出偏题和怪题。 3．科学性原则。试题所选择的语言素材和创设的语言运用情景要充分考虑 各地学生的生活实际、生活经验，要尽可能避免因学生的生活经历的差异而影响 试题的公正性、科学性和合理性。 4．时代性原则。阅读文章和书面表达的选题应贴近学生实际、尽量使用真 实、地道、典型的英语素材，体现时代感。 三、考试目标要求 学生学习完 1~5 必修模块后， 达到七级的目标要求。 七级的语言知识和语言 技能的目标要求如下： 1．语言知识 词汇 1）理解话语中词汇表达的不同功能、意图和态度等； 2）运用词汇给事物命名、进行指称、描述行为和特征、说明概念等； 3）学会使用 2400—2500 个单词和 300—400 个习惯用语或固定搭配；
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4）了解英语单词的词义变化以及日常生活中新出现的词汇。 语法 1）掌握描述时间、地点和方位的常用表达方式； 2）理解并掌握比较人、物体及事物的常用表达方式； 3）使用适当的语言形式描述事物，简单地表达观点、态度或情感等； 4）掌握语篇中基本的衔接和连续手段，并根据特定目的有效地组织信息。 功能 1）了解日常交际功能的主要语言表达形式； 2）在语境中恰当地理解和表达问候、告别、感谢或介绍等交际功能； 3）在日常人际交往中有效地使用得体的语言进行表达，如发表意见或进行 判断等； 4）运用已学过的功能项目有效地表达情感、意图和态度。 话题 1）熟悉个人、家庭和社会交往等方面的话题； 2）进一步熟悉有关日常生活、兴趣爱好、风俗习惯和科学文化方面的话题； 3）熟悉我国一般社会生活的话题，如职业、节日、风俗和社交礼仪等； 4）了解英语国家有关日常生活习惯的话题。 2．语言技能 听 1）能识别语段中的重要信息并进行简单的推断； 2）能听懂正常语速听力材料中对人和物的描写、情节发展及结果； 3）能听懂有关熟悉话题的谈话并能抓住要点； 4）能听懂一般场合的信息广播，如天气预报。 读 1）能从一般性文章中获取和处理主要信息； 2）能理解文章主旨和作者意图； 3）能通过上下文克服生词困难，理解语篇意义； 4）能通过文章中的线索进行推理； 5）能阅读适合高中生的英语报刊或杂志。 写 1）能用文字及图表提供信息并进行简单描述； 2）能写出常见体裁的应用文，如信函和一般通知等； 3）能描述人物或事件，并进行简单的评论； 4）能填写有关个人情况的表格，如申请表等。
四、考试内容 Ⅰ．词类 1．名词 1）可数名词和不可数名词； 2）名词的复数形式； 3）专有名词； 4）名词所有格。 2．代词 1）人称代词； 2）物主代词； 3）反身代词； 4）指示代词； 5）不定代词； 6）疑问代词； 7）关系代词。 3．数词 1）基数词； 2）序数词。 4．介词 1）“词汇表”中所列介词的用法； 2）“词汇表”中所列介词短语的用法。 5．连词 1）“词汇表”中所列连词的基本用法； 2）辨别并列连词和从属连词的用法。 6．形容词 1）作定语、表语和宾语补足语的用法； 2）比较等级：原级、比较级和最高级的构成及其基本用法。 7．副词 1）时间、地点、方式、程度、疑问、连接、关系等副词的用法； 2）比较等级：原级、比较级和最高级的构成及其基本用法。 8．冠词的一般用法 1）a(n)和 the 的基本用法； 2）a(n)和 the 常见的习惯用法。 9．动词
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1）动词的基本形式：原形、过去式、过去分词以及-ing 形式； 2）及物动词和不及物动词的基本用法； 3）常用的连系动词，如：be, get, look, seem, become, turn, grow 等的基本用 法； 4）助动词 be, do, have, shall, will 等的基本用法； 5）情态动词 can, may, must, ought to, need, dare 等的基本用法； 6）动词的时态：a. 一般现在时；b. 一般过去时；c. 一般将来时；d. 现在 进行时；e. 过去进行时；f. 现在完成时；g. 过去完成时*；h. 过去将来时*；i. 将 来进行时*；j. 现在完成进行时*。 7） 动词的被动语态： 一般现在时的被动语态； 一般过去时的被动语态； a. b. c. 一般将来时的被动语态；d. 进行时的被动语态；e. 完成时的被动语态；f. 带 情态动词的被动语态。 8）动词的不定式：a. 作主语、宾语、宾语补足语、表语、定语、状语的基 本用法；b. 用在 how, when, where, what, which, whether 等后面的用法； 9）动词的过去分词：作定语、表语、宾语补足语、状语的基本用法； 10）动词的-ing 形式：作主语、宾语、表语、宾语补足语、定语、状语的基 本用法。 Ⅱ. 句子 1．句子的种类 1）陈述句（肯定式和否定式）； 2）疑问句（一般疑问句、特殊疑问句、选择疑问句、反意疑问句）； 3）祈使句及其否定形式； 4）感叹句。 2．句子的成分（主语、谓语、表语、宾语、直接宾语和间接宾语、宾语补 足语、定语、状语） 3．主谓的一致关系 4．简单句的五种基本句型 1）主语＋连系动词＋表语（S＋V＋P）； 2）主语＋不及物动词（S＋V）； 3）主语＋及物动词＋宾语（S＋V＋O）； 4）主语＋及物动词＋间接宾语＋直接宾语（S＋V＋IO＋DO）； 5）主语＋及物动词＋宾语＋宾语补足语（S＋V＋O＋C）。 5．并列句（and, or, but, so, when, while 等引导的并列句） 6．复合句 1）2）3）4）
1）名词性从句（主语从句、宾语从句、表语从句、同位语从句）； 2）定语从句：a. who, which, that, when, where 等引导的定语从句； b. 限定性定语从 3）句和非限定性定语从句的区别； 4）状语从句（时间状语从句、地点状语从句、原因状语从句、条件状语从 句、比较状语从句、让步状语从句、目的状语从句、结果状语从句）。 7．直接引语和间接引语 8．倒装句* 9．省略句* 10．强调句* 11．虚拟语气* 注：标*号的项目，七级只要求理解。 Ⅲ. 构词法 1. 合成法：blackboard，man-made，overthrow，however，everyone 等。 2. 转化法：hand (n.)→hand (v.), break (v.) →break (n.), empty (adj.) →empty (v.)等。 3. 派生法 1）加前缀：dis-, in-, re-, un-, non-等； 2）加后缀：-able, -al, -an, -ful, -ive, -er, -ese, -ist, -ment, -ness, -tion, -fy, -ian, -ing, -is(z)e, -ly, -teen, -ty, -th, -y 等。 4. 缩写和简写 五、考试形式 1．答卷方式：闭卷、笔试。 2．考试时间：90 分钟。试卷满分 100 分。 六、试卷结构
试卷结构 第一部分： 听力 第二部分： 英语知识运用 第三部分： 阅读理解 第四部分： 写作 节 一、听短对话 二、听长对话 一、选择填空 二、完形填空 一、判断题 二、选择题 一、单词拼写 二、短文写作 题量 5 5 10 15 5 10 10 1 赋分 10 10 10 15 10 20 10 15 主、客观试题 客观性试题 客观性试题 客观性试题 客观性试题 客观性试题 客观性试题 主观性试题 主观性试题
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1．题型：试卷一般可包括选择题、正误判断题、单词拼写、书面表达等题 型。 2．试题难易比例：试卷包括容易题、中等题和难题，以中等题为主，三类 试题比例为 8：1：1。 容易题，难度值：0.80 以上，约占 80%；中等难度题，难度值：0.60—0.80， 约占 10%；较难题，难度值：0.40—0.60，约占 10%；全卷难度值：0.80—0.85。 3．听力测试部分由各设区普通高中学校自行组织考试。 七、题型示例 （一）多项选择题 考查听力 M: Could you tell me how to take the medicine? W: Certainly. Take one of these white pills twice a day after meals. 1. How many pills should the man take a day? A. 1. B. 2. C. 3. 答案：B W: Tickets, please. M: We want to catch the eight nineteen to London. W: I’m sorry. You’ve just missed it! M: What? It’s only eight fifteen. W: Sorry, sir. That clock’s ten minutes slow. M: When’s the next train? W: In five hour’s time. 1. When does the train leave for London? A. At 8:19. B. At 8:15. 2. What’s wrong? A. The traveler’s watch. B. The clock. 3. When will the next train leave for London? A. At 13:25. B. At 12:25. 答案：1. A 2. B 3. A C. At 8:09. C. The train. C. At 12:00.
考查语法和词汇知识 1. — How did you find the lecture? — Wonderful. In his lecture the way he suggested ______ his oral English helped the students a lot. A. improving B. improved C. to improve D. improve 2. It was in Atlanta ______ nearly half the population were black ______ one of the great leaders of the Civil Rights Movement, Dr Martin Luther King, Jr. was born. A. that, that B. that, where
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C. where, that D. where, where 3. The efforts Dr Martin Luther King, Jr. made ______ segregation were not in vain. A. end B. ending C. ended D. to end 4. More and more high wage earners ______ regularly at the local gym every day to keep fit and energetic. A. come out B. figure out C put out D. work out 答案：1. C 2. C 3. D 4. D 考查阅读理解 The Mayan Indians lived in Mexico for thousands of years. The Maya were so bright that they achieved a lot. They had farms, temples and cities with many buildings. They knew much about nature and the world around them. This knowledge helped them to live a better life than most people of that time. In ancient Mexico there were many small clearings in the forest. In each clearing was a village with fields of crops around it. The Maya planted seeds after they cleared the land. A farmer was able to grow crops that produced for several people. But not every Maya had to be a farmer. Some were builders or priests (祭司). The Maya believed in many gods. They built large temples to honor them. Skillful workers built cities around these temples. It was difficult because they had to carry all of the building materials themselves. Today, many of these ancient Mayan cities and temples are still standing. Although the Maya worked hard to build the beautiful cities, very few of them lived in them. Usually, only the priests lived in the cities. The other people lived in small villages in the forests. Their houses were much simpler. Most Maya lived a simple life close to nature. Measuring time correctly was important to the Maya, so Mayan priests made a system to keep track of time. They wrote numbers as dots ( … ) and bars ( — ). They also made a calendar (日历). The year was divided into 18 months of 20 days each with five days left over. Around the year 800, the Maya left their villages and beautiful cities, never to return. No one knows why this happened. They may have died from a deadly disease. They may have left because the soil could no longer grow crops. The lost secrets of the Maya are still beyond the reach of modern people. They are still one of our greatest mysteries (神秘). 1. The Maya lived better than most people of their times because _____. A. they had skillful workers B. they believed in many gods C. they knew better about nature D. they could measure time correctly 2. It can be inferred from the passage that _____. A. the calendar was first invented by the ancient Maya B. the ancient Mayan cities and temples were well built C. the ancient Mayan people led a happy life in the cities D. the priests were not highly respected by the ancient Maya 3. The underlined word “they” in the passage refers to _____.
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A. the Mayan people B. the Mayan villages C. the Mayan cities D. the lost secrets of the Maya 4. Which of the following would be the best title for this passage? A. The Life of the Maya B. The Cities of the Maya C. The Mystery of the Maya D. The Belief of the Maya 答案：1. C 2. B 3. D 4. C （二）填空题 完型填空题 In most societies around the world, and in Western culture in particular, alcohol (酒) is the “drug of choice”. Apart from restrictions (限制) on age and in connection with driving there are few 1 on its use. There are many 2 for this widespread use. The most acceptable one is its 3 roles. There is a commonly held view that alcohol 4 the good times better and helps people 5 the bad times. People use alcohol to 6 success, to soften the blows of sadness and defeat, and to mark 7 occasions such as weddings or the achievement of a university degree. In many religious groups, alcohol has another 8 and is used in services. What makes alcohol 9 is its role in society. People enjoy drinking in groups 10 society is trying to meet the needs of the people. In the UK, for example, there are more than 80,000 pubs and bars that are designed for people drinking alcohol. 1. A. rules B. explanations C. limits D. instructions 2. A. causes B. reasons C. demands D. ways 3. A. national B. local C. political D. social 4. A. gets B. turns C. changes D. makes 5. A. with B. through C. for D. across 6. A. congratulate B. celebrate C. express D. achieve 7. A. special B. common C. usual D. general 8. A. sign B. effect C. role D. problem 9. A. popular B. famous C. valuable D. precious 10. A. but B. as C. or D. and 答案 1. C 2. B 3. D 4. D 5. B 6. B 7. A 8. C 9. A 10. D （三）正误判断 阅读下面短文，根据短文内容，判断所给句子的正误，从每题所给的 A、B 两个选项中，选出正确的选项。 Pasta is an Italian word for a large group of food made from wheat flour, cut and formed into various shapes, and eaten after being boiled in water and, usually, combined with a sauce. Spaghetti, macaroni, and noodles are all forms of pasta, but pasta, especially in Italy, can have over five hundred shapes and sizes. One pasta-maker in New York claimed that there must be over a thousand forms of pasta. It is not clear where pasta originated. The usual explanation is that noodles were first
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made in China over three thousand years ago. When Marco Polo, the Italian traveler, returned to Italy from China in the 1300s, he is said to have returned with the idea for making pasta. According to the story, the Italians took the Chinese idea and developed it into the many forms of pasta we have today. 1. Pasta is a word that means “paste”. A．正确 B．错误 2. There are at least five hundred shapes of pasta. A．正确 B．错误 3. Pasta must have been invented in Italy. A．正确 B．错误 4. Noodles were first made in China in the 1300s. A．正确 B．错误 5. Marco Polo brought the idea of making paste to Italy. A．正确 B．错误 答案: 1. A 2. A 3. B 4. B 5. B （四）单词拼写 1. Those who want to sign their names for the 15-kilometre-long race should go through a number of ________（心理上的）and physical tests. 2. Only 52 students are perfectly __________（愿意）to attend the lecture. 3.The plan to reduce the tax received __________ (广泛的) support throughout the country. 答案：1. mental 2. willing 3. widespread （五）书面表达题 假设你叫李平， 你所在学校的英语俱乐部将举行一场英语演讲比赛。你准备 邀请你校外籍教师 Mr. Neil 一起参加并担任评委。请根据以下海报的内容，给 Mr.Neil 写一封邀请信。 注意： 1．词数 100 左右； 2．信的开头和结尾已给出，不计入总词数。 [评分标准] 句子结构准确，信息内容完整、连贯。
英 语 演 讲 比 赛
时 间：5 月 22 日晚 7 点 30 分 地 点：学校礼堂 演讲主题：I Have a Dream 演讲选手：各班两名选手 奖励名额：一等奖二名；二等奖四名 参加人员：高二年级全体同学，家长可自愿参加
Dear Mr Neil, How is everything? I’m writing to let you know about an English Speech Competition and invite you to join us. … I’m looking forward to your reply. Cheers, Li Ping
八、主要题型答题技巧 1．听力测试答题思路点拨 听力是一种技能， 通过定量训练加上有效指导，考生个体得分差异不像其它 题型那么显著。要想得高分，必须掌握以下几个要领： 1）听前迅速从题干及选项中获取重要信息。在听力播放前，要尽快浏览听 力材料，搜索答题可能涉及的相关信息。这样，在听录音时就能有的放矢，提高 答题的准确率。 2）及时记录，强化记忆。在听力播放时，可用自己熟悉的符号，将听力材 料中的重要信息，如人物、地点、时间、数字及时记下，以帮助自己更好地理解 对话或短文。 3）抓主题句、关键词。主题句就是听力材料的中心思想。抓主题句的前期 准备工作就是要听前浏览材料，这个准备工作做好了，听录音时，抓主题句就容 易了。而主题句中还有关键词，关键词听清楚了，主题句的中心信息就有了。其 中， 听力测试常用的关键词有 though, but, if, however, until, neither nor, hardly 等。 4）要有良好的心态。良好的心态是提高答题准确率的前提。自信和沉着是 最大限度发挥自己听力水平的法宝。不要因为一两个句子听不清就紧张起来，其 实既便有些地方没听懂，但若能把握主旨和一些重要细节，仍然可以答好题。 5）英语听力复习应试口诀：听音一刻，坚持不懈；听读范文，出口成章； 考前试音，渐入状态； “英”乐入耳，心旷神怡；全神贯注，志在必得。 2．单项选择题答题思路点拨 单选选择题语言地道，语境典型真实，形式多变灵活，旨在考查考生在特定 的语境中综合运用语言的能力。 因此， 只有把语法、 语境和语言文化背景相结合， 才能提高分析和解题的能力。在解题中有 3 条最重要原则要牢记： 1）单刀直入，一锤定音 有些题题干短，考查知识较单一，只要基本功扎实，概念清楚，一眼就能看 出正确答案，此时可根据平时所掌握的知识直接做答。
— Could you do me a favour and take these books to my office?
— Yes, ______. A. for pleasure B. I could C. my pleasure D. with pleasure
在平时训练里，已对 my pleasure/with pleasure 的使用场合烂熟于心：my pleasure 是对感谢的答语，with pleasure 是对求助的答语，答案是 D。 2）抓住主干，理清脉络 答题时，要善于抓住题干的主要信息脉络。
如：The chief foods eaten in any country depend largely on sail. A. it grows B . what grows C. does it grow D . what does it grow best in its climate and
划线部分才是题干中的主要成份，其它可忽略。on 后面为宾语从句，考 虑出宾语的语序，排除 C、D，A 项缺主语，显然答案为 B。 3）认真审题，把握语境 要特别重视语境的细微变化对解题的影响。如：
— Who were those people with the flags? — A group A . calls itself the league of peace. B. calling C. called D .being called
此题答句中的“itself”作用重大，有它的存在答案为 B；若它不存在则答案 变为 C，尽管无论 B、C 那个选项都充当后置定语。 4）认清省略、补全信息 单选题常考省略的用法， 只要认真通读上下文，运用句法分析就能明确题干 省略了什么，继而把握解题方向。如：
— What will Andrew be doing in fall? — maths at a private school. A. To teach B. Teaching C. To be teaching D. Be teaching
解此题关键之处在于明确答句为省略句。省去了“Andrew will be”这个上句 已有的部分，答句只是这个部分的延续。这点一突破，问题就迎刃而解。答案显 然为 B。 5）英语单选复习应试口诀：语言大法，不可或缺；没有规矩，难成方圆； 提纲挚领，触类旁通；认真审题，把握语境。 3．完形填空题答题思路点拨 完形填空的考查要求是：在一篇 200 个词左右的短文中留出 15 个空白，在 空白处标上序号，短文后按空白处的序号分别给出 A、B、C、D 四个选项，要 求考生从每题所给的四个选项中选出最佳选项，使补足后的短文意思通顺，前后 连贯，结构完整。
做完形填空题应遵循以下三个步骤： 1）通读全文，总览全文信息，明确大意。完形填空侧重考查考生对文章的 整体理解程度，许多答案要在透彻理解短文内容后才能确定。因此，解题时，先 跳跃空格快速阅读全文，了解文章的体裁、背景、内容、结构，中心思想以及情 节发展的前因后果。 同时对空格部分也作猜测。完形填空的第一句往往是全文的 关键句，一般不设空。考生应该充分利用此句的标示作用，将它作为一个解题的 突破口，据此展开思维。 2）精读全文，全面理解，确定选项。在掌握文章大意的基础上，按照文章 的先后顺序，逐句分析，瞻前顾后，根据上下文的意义，运用逻辑思维，行文线 索以及有关的信息来判断、揣摩，对每个题目的选项进行分析、比较，从句法、 语法、惯用法等方面进行推敲，从而选择语法正确、词义贴切又合乎语义的最佳 选项填入空格。做题时，切忌局限于某个单句所提供的语境，而应在语篇层面上 通篇考虑，整体理解。此外，遵循先易后难的原则，因为有时候往往是大部分题 目答完后，个别的难题也就迎刃而解了。 3）复读全文，检查校对，验证答案。这是做完形填空题必不可少的环节， 也是考生容易忽视的步骤。做完所有题目后，应将短文再认真通读一遍，全面检 查和验证所选答案是否做到了选词得当， 意义贯通， 逻辑合理。 更改那些不合理、 不贴切的答案。有时一题中的四个选项都是对的，但最贴切的只有一个，只有符 合文章内涵和作者意图的才是最贴切的。 完形填空题的总体难度不大，题材大多选用与学生平时生活、学习相关的话 题。考查的内容大多围绕名词、动词、形容词、副词等实词以及词的搭配、惯用 法等。备考时要重点注意名词、动词的用法，词的搭配与辨析。做题时还要考虑 文章中动作顺序，时间关系，情感因素等，同时还应特别注意句子间的连词的使 用，以更好地把握上下文的逻辑关系。 现以 2008 年学业基础会考试题分析如下： 阅读下面短文，从短文后所给各题的四个选项（A、B、C、和 D）中，选出 可以填入空白处的最佳选项，并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。
Dear Students， I am glad to be your guest speaker today. It’s a great pleasure to meet all of you. I would like to tell you about chose this job 13 12 . I have been a news reporter for the past fifteen years. I 14 me many unforgettable 15 , earthquakes, 11 your school and to
I could travel the world, but the job has
lessons. The work is sometimes difficult. I have seen famines (饥荒), poverty (贫穷)and death. But I have also seen courage, hope and happiness.
India, I visited a city where there were many homeless children. Some were as 18 . But then a 20
as four years old. They lived in the streets and survived by begging or lady called Rosa opened a home for them. Within one year, she was children. She clothed them, fed them and taught them. She Here in China, I 22 21
a young boy with a serious medical condition. He had had twenty 23 , but when I
operations and spent nearly his whole life in hospital. I thought he would be met him, his smile was so warm and welcoming. In life, we need role models (榜样) that we can admire and learn from. difficult, I try to remember the courage and goodness of these 11. A. visit 12. A. yourselves 13. A. or 14. A. taught 15. A. love 16. A. On 17. A. young 18. A. studying 19. A. lazy 20. A. looking after 21. A. made 22. A. liked 23. A. sad 24. A. Since 25. A. one B. call B. themselves B. so B. made B. help B. In B. new B. laughing B. bad B. looking for B. paid B. asked B. happy B. After B. two C. run C. myself C. but C. remembered C. victories C. At C. long C. stealing C. terrible C. giving in C. gave C. trained C. pleased C. When C. three 25 people.
my life is
D. leave D. itself D. and D. heard D. wars D. By D. short D. teaching D. wonderful D. giving up D. told D. met D. friendly D. Before D. four
精析：这是一篇演说辞，通读全文可知本文的大意是：作者通过作为一个新 闻记者在印度和中国的亲身经历，为我们树立起两个榜样：一个是为无家可归的 孩子建立家园的“Rosa”；一个是面对困境依旧乐观的男孩。告诉我们：生活中， 我们需要榜样。11. A。本句话是演讲的开场白，“visit”与“your school ”构成动宾 搭配“访问你们的学校”，符合句意。12. C。本段讲述作者的亲身经历，故用 “myself”。 13. B。 考查连词， 此处前后两句话构成因果关系， 所以用“so”。 A。 14. “teach sb. lessons”是“给某人一些教训”，符合动宾搭配。15. D。根据前面的 “famines”, 以及后面的“earthquakes, poverty and death”，可判断此处应选用含贬 义意义的词 “wars”。16. B。此处考查介词。“in India”属习惯搭配。17. A。根据 后面“four years old”可知，其含义是“有的孩子小到只有四岁”，故选用“young”。
18. C。 根据上下文， 无家可归的孩子靠乞讨和 “偷窃” 生存， 因此选择“stealing”。 19. D。根据下文，“Rosa”为那些无家可归的孩子建立家园，应该是“wonderful”。 20. A。此处考查动词短语的含义，“look after”意为“照顾”，符合逻辑。21. C。 考查动宾搭配，“给某人希望”，应用“give sb. hope”，故选 C。22. D。考查动 词，“见到”一个小男孩。23. A。根据上下文的转折关系可知“我原以为他会 很伤心”。24. C。最后一句话的含义是：每当我生活困难时，我总是想起这两 个人的勇敢与善良。“when”解释为“每当”。25. B。作者前面所提到的两个人。 4．阅读理解题答题思路点拨 基础学业会考对阅读理解的考查是：要求考生根据所提供的 3 篇短文的内容 （约 700 词），第 1 篇要求正误判断；第 2、3 篇要求从每题所给的选项中选出 最佳选项。阅读技能是整个试卷的重点考查项目。 1）按照自己熟悉的做法，可以先看文章再做题，也可以先看题再读文章 无论采用那种方法，都必须认真阅读题干。阅读题干时，首先要掌握问题的 类型， 分清是客观信息题还是主观判断题。客观信息题主要考查对文章细节的理 解， 往往可以从文章中直接找到答案；而主观判断题考查的是对文章较深层的作 者未加陈述的观点以及贯穿全文的中心主旨的理解， 这类题要求考生通过文章对 作者的态度、意图进行深层的推理。因此，了解试题题干以及各个选项所包含的 信息，然后有针对性地对文章进行扫读，排除干扰项，从而选出正确答案。 2）速读全文，了解大意和主题 阅读的目的是获取信息。 阅读能力一般指阅读速度和理解能力两个方面。阅 读速度是阅读最基本的能力。考生必须在有限的时间内运用略读、扫读、跳读等 技巧快速阅读，筛选有效信息，搜寻关键词、主题句，捕捉时空、顺序、情节、 人物、观点，并且理清文章脉络，把握语篇实质。抓主题句是快速掌握文章大意 的主要方法，主题句一般出现在文章的开头和结尾，往往对全文起提示、启迪、 概括、归纳的作用。主旨大意题和归纳概括题往往可以从主题句中得到启示，得 出答案。当然，也有些文章没有主题句，需要读者自己去归纳。 3）详读细节，仔细思考，一一解答 在理解通篇文章的基础上，认真思考：对细节理解题，要在文章中找到选项 的出处；对于词汇猜测题，一定要回到原文中，根据上下文作出判断；主旨大意 题和归纳概括题（如归纳中心思想，加标题等）属于深层理解题，要特别注意文 章的主题句和关键词， 不能就事论事， 以偏概全； 推理判断题则必须忠实于原文， 根据字面意思，通过语篇的逻辑关系，研究细节的暗示，理解文章的寓义，推敲 作者的态度、意图，从作者的立场出发，作出合理的推测，不可主观臆断。对于 一些理解不透的问题或没有把握的选项，可通过复读作最后的判断。
总之，阅读理解选材多样化，信息较广，且有较丰富的文化蕴涵，语篇语言 难度适中，试题设计基本符合学生认知水平。现以 2008 年学业基础会考试卷阅 读理解题为例，分析如下： 阅读下列短文，从每题所给的四个选项（A、B、C 和 D）中，选出最佳选 项。
Music is an international language. The songs that are sung or played by instruments are beautiful to all people everywhere. Popular music in America is what every student likes. Students carry small radios with earphones and listen to music before class, after class and at lunch. Students with cars buy large speakers (扬声器) and play the music loudly as they drive on the street. Adult drivers listen to music on the car radio as they drive to work. They also listen to the news about sports, the weather, politics, and activities of the American people. But most of the radio broadcast is music. Pop or popular music singers make much money. They make a CD or tape which radio stations use in every state. Once the popular singer is heard throughout the country, young people buy his or her tapes. Some of the money from these tapes comes to the singer. Wherever the singer goes, all the young people want to meet him or her. Now the singer has become a national star. Besides pop music, there are two other kinds of music that is important to Americans. One is called folk music. It tells stories about the common life of Americans. The other is called western or country music. This was started by cowboys who would sing at night to the cows they were watching. Today, any music about country life and the love between a country boy and his girl is called western or country music. 31. In America, every student likes ______. A. folk music B. country music C. pop music D. western music
32. According to the passage, most of the car radio broadcast is ______. A. sports B. the weather C. politics D. music
33. What do the cowboys do according to the passage? A. They sell cows. C. They sing and dance. B. They watch cows. D. They travel around.
34. How many kinds of music are mentioned in the passage? A. Three. B. Four. C. Five. D. Six.
35. What’s the best title of the passage? A. Music in America C. Cowboys in America B. Music Listeners D. International Language
精析：这是一篇有关美国音乐的文章，涉及三种美国的音乐。31. C。本题 为细节理解题。由第二段第一句话“Popular music in America is what every student likes.”可知。 D。 32. 本题为细节理解题。 根据第三段的最后一句话“But most of the radio broadcast is music”可作出判断。33. B。本题为推理判断题，根据“This was started by cowboys who would sing at night to the cows they were watching”可知 “cowboys”的工作是“watch cows”。34. A。本题属归纳判断题。从最后一段话的 首句“Besides pop music, there are two other kinds of music that is important to Americans.”可以作出判断。文章中具体指“pop music”, “folk music”和“western or country music”。35. A。本题为主旨大意题。阅读文章后可以得出本文的关键词 应该是“music”和 “America”。因此，A 为最佳答案。 5. 单词拼写题答题思路点拨 这类试题主要用于考查学生对英语单词的记忆和拼写能力， 同时兼顾考查学 生的词汇运用能力。会考测试的重点放在那些考生容易混淆、易漏写或错写的常 用单词上。 根据下列句子的意思及所给的汉语提示， 在右边的横线上写出各单词的正确 形式。（每空限填一词）
66. I have 67. John`s brother will 68. Students need lots of teachers. (自信) that I am perfect for the job. (毕业) from Oxford University. 66. ____________ 67. ____________
(encourage) from both their parents and their 68. ____________
精析：本试题中的 66、67 主要考查单词的普通拼写形式，68 题要考虑单词的词性与词 形变化。 答案：66. confidence 67. graduate 68. encouragement
英语单词拼写复习应试口诀：把握句义，考虑文法，注意搭配，变好词形， 大写小写，不要搞错。 6．书面表达题答题思路点拨 书面表达是考查考生实际使用英语的能力的重要题型。尽管出题形式多变， 但掌握下列几条表达技巧定能写出文字通顺、可读性强的高分文章。 1）摆脱母语负迁移，写出地道英语 书面表达常有这样的内容“近年来，我们国家发生了巨大的变化”。不少考 生常想当然按照汉语的思维将其硬译为“0ur country has taken place great changes in recant years”，此句中“发生（has taken place）”是不及物动词，不能接宾语 “great changes”。因此，正确的表达为“Great changes have taken place in our country in recent years”。
2）句子概念要完整，用准谓语、非谓语 如句子“我们学校有 2000 位学生就读。”许多考生用英语这样表达：There are 2,000 students study in our school. 这个句子的错误就在考生不清楚一个句子 只能有一个谓语，其它的动词必须非谓语化。上句中必须把动词“study”改为 “studying”或在“study”前加上“who”变为定语从句才行。 3）语态使用要得当，分清主动与被动 考生在表述过程中， 常常无法正确使用英语的语态， 把握不准动作的施动者。 如句子“Everywhere can see red flowers and green grass”就是语态使用不当。正 确表达应为“Red flowers and green grass can be seen everywhere”。 4）用好连接词，启承转合要自如 由于汉语中， 句子前后的连接主要是通过上下文的逻辑关系来实现，连接词 使用大大少于英语。 由于这个原因，很多中国学生写作时往往忘了使用连词而造 成诸多病句。 如： “The sun warms the earth, this makes it possible for the plants to grow.” 句子 就是没有连词的毛病。上句应在“this”前加“and”或把“this”改为“which” 才符合英语表达习惯。 5）掌握好词形词性的变化规律 汉语中， 没有词形随词性变化的规则， 这是造成中国学生犯错误的潜在原因。 如病句“When people have difficult，we should help them”中，“difficult(形 容词)”误用了，应为“difficulty（名词）”。 6）记牢句型，用好搭配 病句“He spent a lot of time to study English”中的“to study”应改为“in studying”。因为“花时间做某事”的句型为“spend…in doing sth.” 病句“He was in such a hurry that he forgot his wallet at home”中的“forgot” 应改为“left”，因为“leave sth. at some place”为固定搭配。 7）明确非谓语使用的场合及形成 汉语中没有非谓语的概念， 更没有像英语中按时间定义引出的动名词和不定 式表达的问题，因此，这是中国学生学习英语的难点。 如句子“The earthquake struck the area，caused some deaths”中的“caused” 应改为“causing”，用来做结果状语。 又如“He hurried to the railway station，only finding the train had left”中的 “finding”属误用，应改为“to find”，因为表示未曾经预料到的结果应该用 only ＋不定式来表达。 8）用好高分表达法
尽量多使用较复杂的语法结构与句型（比较级、复合句、倒装句、非谓语、 独立主格结构，少用简单句）和过渡词，句型要富有个性，不宜太平淡，如“Wu Dong is the tallest in his class.”就不如“Wu Dong is taller than anyone else in his class.”鲜活、新颖。 9）英语书面表达复习应试口诀：认真审题，把握主旨；重要信息，一个不 落；字迹工整，先声夺人；遣词造句，时态为先；启承转合，多加注意；名言妙 语，能助高分。 九、参考试卷 第Ⅰ卷（共 75 分）
第一部分 听力（共二节，满分 20 分） 第一节 (共 5 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 10 分) 听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有一个小题，从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最 佳选项，并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后，你都有 10 秒钟的时间来回答有关小题 和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 1. What is the woman going to do? A. See the man smile. B. Take the man’s photo. C. Take out the film.
2. What did the man think of the film? A. He found it very moving. B. He found it exciting. C. He didn’t seem to like it. 3. How much has Jack saved? A. 20 yuan. 4. Where are the two speakers? A. In a department store. B. In a clothes factory. C. On a playground. B. 16 yuan. C. 4 yuan.
5. What’s the relationship between the two speakers? A. Teacher and student. B. Waiter and customer. C. Patient and doctor.
第二节 (共 5 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 10 分) 听下面 2 段对话。每段对话后有几个小题，从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最 佳选项， 并标在试卷的相应位置。 听每段对话前， 你将有时间阅读各个小题， 每小题 5 秒钟； 听完后，各个小题将给出 5 秒钟的作答时间。每段对话读两遍。 听第 6 段对话，回答第 6、7 题。 6. What’s wrong with the man? A. He’s a bad cold. B. He’s a bad headache. C. He’s very cold now.
7. What did the woman tell the man to do? A. To go to see the doctor at once. B. To take a good rest and go home soon. C. To drink plenty of water and take a rest. 听第 7 段对话，回答第 8 至 10 题。 8. What time is it now? A. It’s 10: 10 p.m.. B. It’s 10: 30 p.m.. C. It’s 9: 50 p.m..
9. How long will it take the woman to the railway station? A. Less than fifteen minutes. B. More than fifteen minutes. C. Less than fifty minutes. 10. Why did the man invite the woman to his house? A. They had a tea party. B. They had a dinner party. C. They had a dancing party. 第二部分 英语知识运用（共两节，满分 25 分） 第一节 单项填空 (共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分) 从 A、B、C、D 四个选项中，选出可以填入空白处的最佳选项，并在答题卡上将该项 涂黑。 11．— How’s the young man? — ______ A. He’s twenty. B. He’s much better. C. He’s a doctor. D. He’s David.
12．Mind your ______; thank your friend when you leave the party. A. advice B. ways C. manners D. manner
13. Our English teacher often says in class, “Let’s ______ English as much as possible.” A. tell B. speak C. talk D. say
14. ______ terrible weather! It has been raining for more than a week. A. What a B. How a C. What D. How
15. Be quick, ______ you’ll be late for the meeting. A. or B. so C. and D. but 16. — I’ll tell Mary about her new job tomorrow. — You ______ her last week. A. should have told B. would have told C. must tell D. ought to tell 17. Aren’t you tired ______ doing the same work all year round? A. with B. from C. of
18. Fighting ______ in the prison cells. A. broke in B. broke off C. broke up 19. Americans eat ______ vegetables per person today as they did in 1910. A. more than twice B. as twice as many C. more than twice as many D. twice as many as 20. — How often do you eat out？ — ______, but usually once a week. A. Have no idea C. Generally speaking B. As usual D. It depends
D. broke out
第二节 完形填空 (共 15 小题；每题 1 分，满分 15 分) 阅读下面短文，从短文后所给各题的四个选项（A、B、C 和 D）中，选出可以填入空 白处的最佳选项，并在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 The modern Olympic Games came from one of the great events in Greek history. In 490 BC about 10,000 Greeks fought against the Persian army at a place called Marathon. It is said that the Persians were ten times as of the Greece, the Persians were beaten and 21 23 as the Greeks. But 22 the brave attack
away from the plain of Marathon. When the 24 in Athens, was ordered to 25 the
Persians had run away, a soldier, the most famous good news to the city at full speed. 26
he had fought through the battle and received many wounds, the soldier 28
started off towards the distant city. It was one and a quarter miles
the plain of Marathon 29 for news. He ran 31 hard. But
to the Markplace of Athens, where the elders of Athens had gathered and ran 30
hills and across plains. Slowly his lips became dry and his 32 of the people of Athens 33
when he thought of the harder than ever.
hearing the news, he ran even
The elders of Athens heard a great
and saw a soldier staggering toward them, 35 . In honour of this noble soldier and
“Rejoice! Rejoice! We won!” Then he fell down
athlete we have in modern Olympic Games the Marathon race, in which the athletes run this same distance. 21. A. little 22. A. in 23. A. take 24. A. player 25. A. carry 26. A. Since 27. A. in time 28. A. from B. few B. with B. made B. runner B. bring B. After B. on time B. to C. many C. by C. left C. soldier C. take C. When C. at once C. in D. much D. as D. driven D. officer D. post D. Although D. slowly D. at
29. A. looking 30. A. above 31. A. heart 32. A. sadness 33. A. on 34. A. cry 35. A. dead
B. waiting B. across B. body B. joy B. in
C. asking C. through C. breathing C. anger C. from B. noise
D. sending D. over D. legs D. surprise D. with C. shout D. died D. sound
第三部分 阅读理解 (共 15 小题；每小题 2 分，满分 30 分) 第一节 阅读下面短文，根据短文内容，判断句子的正（A）误（B）。 Harriet Tubman We all know that Harriet Tubman helped many African-Americans escape from slavery through the Underground Railroad. This was a transportation system, but not in the traditional sense. It was an organized effort by people to help slaves from the Southern states get to areas that banned slavery. Harriet, belonging to a farmer in Maryland, married a free black man named John Tubman in 1844. Yet she remained a slave. She decided to escape. In 1849, the farmer who owned her died. Harriet Tubman heard that she was to be sold immediately. She ran to the home of a white woman who had offered to help. This woman told her how to reach another home where she could hide. Harriet Tubman went from place to place this way. Each place was a little closer to the northern states where slavery was illegal. This is how the Underground Railroad operated. Finally, she crossed the border into the northern state of Pennsylvania. But Harriet Tubman did not forget the slaves in Maryland. During the next ten years, she led a much expanded Underground Railroad. She traveled back and forth eighteen times and helped threehundred slaves escape. Harriet Tubman found another way to fight slavery after the Civil War began in 1861. She went into the Southern states to spy for the North. She also helped people as a nurse. Harriet Tubman died in 1913. By that time, she was recognized as an American hero. 36. It is well known that Harriet Tubman helped many slaves escape from the South through the Underground Railroad. 37. In 1844 the Southern states were areas that banned slavery. 38. Harriet Tubman was set free soon after she got married. 39. Harriet Tubman hated all the people in Maryland. 40. Harriet Tubman was recognized as an American hero because she had helped free three
hundred slaves and spied for the North. 第二节 阅读下列短文，从每题所给的四个选项（A、B、C 和 D）中，选出最佳选项，并 在答题卡上将该项涂黑。 A EVENTS Bicycle tour and race A bike tour and race will be held on August 26 and 27 (Sat. & Sun.). At 5:30 a.m., the riders will leave Tian’anmen Square and ride the first 35 kilometers as a training leg. Then the next 55 kilometers leg, from Yanjiao to Jixian, will be the first competitive part of the tour. The riders and their bikes will then be taken from Jixian to Changli. The second racing leg of the tour will be from Changli to the seaside of Nandaihe, covering a distance of 20 kilometers. Saturday night includes the stay at Nandaihe and supper. Sunday morning is free for playing at the seaside. At noon all the people and their bikes will be taken back to Beijing. Cost: 200 yuan Rock climbing The Third National Rock Climbing Competition will be held on August 26-27 at the Huairou Mountain-climbing Training Base. More than 10 teams from Beijing, Wuhan, Dalian, Jilin and other places will take part in it. A Japanese team will give an exhibition climbing. Free for spectators. Time/Date: 9—12 a.m. August 26—27 Telephone: 87143177, 87144850, Wang Zhenghua 41. The main purpose of announcing the above events is to give information about ______. A. visiting teams C. things to do for the weekend B. famous players D. prices to pay for the sports events Telephone: 84675027
42. If you take part in the bike tour, you will ride ______ kilometers. A. 35 B. 55 C. 75 D. 110
43. The underlined word “leg” in the first passage probably means “______”. A. race C. part of the training B. practice D. part of the tour
44. What is special about the rock climbing competition? A. A foreign team takes part in it. B. You can watch it without paying. C. You don’t have to be a sportsman to take part in it. D. The bus trip to the place of competition is free.
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45. Which telephone number(s) will you call, if you want to know more about the 3rd National Climbing Competition? A. Both 84675027 and 87143177 C. Either 87143177 or 87144850 B. Both 87144850 and 84675027 D. Neither 87143177 nor 87144850 B An underwater robot that can hear the calls of whales, and to help ships to avoid them, has just been successfully trialled in the Bahamas. The design relies on a fish-shaped glider that moves freely through the ocean. It can dive down as far as 200 metres below the surface and directs itself by shifting a weight from fore to aft. A microphone attached to the bottom of the glider can pick up calls from all whales, which until now has been difficult to detect. The glider returns periodically to the surface to radio its data back to base, or if that's too far away, it can call a satellite phone and send its information anywhere in the world. "We are entering a new era of underwater sensing," says Jim Theriault of Defence Research and Development Canada, Dartmouth, who ran the trial. "We can put a glider in the Bahamas and monitor it in Nova Scotia." The hope is that naval or other ocean-going operations that use sonar (声纳) will be able to more easily track where whales are, and so avoid using their noisy equipment when they are close by. There is circumstantial evidence that sonar can upset whales and a number of strandings (搁浅) have been seen shortly after naval sonar operations. "We're trying to lower the potential risk by knowing the animals are there," says Theriault. 46. The shape of the underwater robot is like ______. A. a man B. a fish C. a snake D. a turtle
47. The underwater robot is built to ______. A. help whales move to the Bahamas C. help ships avoid whales B. help whales give birth to their young D. help humans kill more whales
48. To radio its data back to base, the robot has to______. A. dive down as far as 200 meters below the surface B. stay deep in the water C. call a satellite phone D. come to the surface periodically 49. Which of the following statements is FALSE? A. Whales can be disturbed by naval sonar operations. B. Whales can be disturbed by noisy equipment.
C. Whales can be disturbed by noisy ocean-going operations. D. Whales’ strandings have nothing to do with naval sonar operations. 50.The best title for this passage is “ ______ ”. A. Whales are in danger C. Robot built to kill on whales B. Whales are difficult to find D. Robot built to spy on whales
第Ⅱ卷（共 25 分）
第四部分（共二节，满分 25 分） 第一节 单词拼写(共 10 小题；每小题 1 分，满分 10 分) 根据下列句子的意思及所给的汉语提示，在右边的横线上写出各单词的正确形式。 （每 空限填一词） 51. We are going to build a school in this ____________ (区域). 52. Joe Sanders has the most ____________ (漂亮的) garden in our town. 53. Do you think you can ____________ (爬上) that steep cliff? 54. They swim every day ____________ (在??期间) the holidays. 55. I love Italy, ____________ (尤其) in summer. 56. He is ____________ (友好的) to us all. 57. Billy is fourteen years old and in the ____________ (第九) grade. 58. Dogs like to ____________ (撕下) meat from the bones. 59. “Sixty ____________ (百分) of the pupils are boys” means that of every hundred pupils, sixty are boys. 60. I want the manager ____________ (本人) , not his secretary. 第二节 书面表达(共 1 小题，满分 15 分) 请用英文写一篇以 My Favourite Scientist Zhang Heng 为题的短文。要点如下： curious Zhang Heng careful creativity，imagination intelligent，patient 注意： 1．所写短文应包括表格中所提到的要点； 2．词数：100 左右； 3. 参考词汇：地震仪 seismograph，宇宙 universe _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ 51. ____________ 52. ____________ 53. ____________ 54. ____________ 55. ____________ 56. ____________ 57. ____________ 58. ____________ 59. ____________ 60. ____________
_______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________________________________ __________
录音材料 第一节 听下面 5 段对话。每段对话后有一个小题，从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最 佳选项，并标在试卷的相应位置。听完每段对话后，你都有 10 秒钟的时间来回答有关小题 和阅读下一小题。每段对话仅读一遍。 (Text 1) M: What are you doing with that camera? W: Smile. I want a picture of you. (Text 2) W: Did you go to the movies last night? M: Yes, I saw “Titanic”. I was deeply moved. (Text 3) W: Have you bought your textbooks, Jack? M: Yes, you gave me twenty Yuan, but I only spent 16 Yuan. (Text 4) W: May I help you? M: Yes, I’d like to try on some sports jackets. I prefer something like the one I’m wearing. (Text 5) W: I can’t sleep well and I eat less and less food recently. M: Let me have a look,… Well, it’s nothing serious. 第二节 听下面 2 段对话。每段对话后有几个小题，从题中所给的 A、B、C 三个选项中选出最 佳选项， 并标在试卷的相应位置。 听每段对话前， 你将有时间阅读各个小题， 每小题 5 秒钟；
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听完后，各个小题将给出 5 秒钟的作答时间。每段对话读两遍。 听下面一段对话，回答第 6 和第 7 两个小题。现在，你有 10 秒的时间阅读这两个小题。 W: You don’t look quite well today. What’s wrong with you? M: I have a bad cold. W: I’m sorry to hear that. How did this begin? M: It was very cold two days ago. I didn’t wear enough clothes. W: Drink plenty of water and take a rest. You’ll soon be all right. 听下面一段对话， 回答第 8 至第 10 三个小题。 现在， 你有 15 秒的时间阅读这三个小题。 W: What’s the time by your watch, David? M: Just a minute. It’s ten to ten by my watch. W: Is it? I had no idea it was so late. I must be going now. M: Can’t you stay a bit longer? W: I’m afraid not. I must catch the ten-thirty train back. M: You’ve got plenty of time yet. The rail station’s very near. It won’t take you more than fifteen minutes to get there. W: Well, I hate to rush at the last minute. M: OK, drop in whenever you like. W: Yes, I’ll do that. Thank you for asking me to dinner. It was a nice dinner party and I’ve enjoyed your cooking. M: I’m glad you enjoyed yourself. Good night. W: Good night.
第一部分 1. B 2. A 3. C 4. A 5. C 6. A 第二部分 11. B 12. C 13. B 14. C 15. A 16. A 17. C 18. D 19. C 20. D 21. C 22. C 23. D 24. B 25. A 第三部分 36. A 37. B 38. B 39. B 40. A D 49. D 50. D 第四部分 51. area 56. friendly 52. beautiful 57. ninth 53. climb 58. pick 54. during 59. percent 55. especially 60. himself 41. C 42. D 43. D 44. B 45. C 46. B 47. C 48. 26. D 27. C 28. A 29. B 30. D 31. C 32. B 33. A 34. C 35. A 7. C 8. C 9. A 10. B
One possible version：
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My Favourite Scientist Zhang Heng I admire Zhang Heng because he made great contributions to science and society and because he was good at so many different things. Zhang Heng made maps and models of the stars in the sky. By describing and explaining what he had observed, he was able to show how the stars move during the seasons. Zhang Heng was interested in everything around him and loved to think, write and draw pictures of what he saw. It was not always easy to make other people believe new theories. When Zhang Heng first introduced his seismograph, people laughed at him. Fortunately, Zhang Heng didn’t give up. Instead, he went on to make new discoveries and teach us about the universe.
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