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北师大版 2010届高考一轮复习:必修一至必修六 知识点总汇


北师大版 2010 届高考一轮复习:必修一至必修六

知识点总汇

Unit 1 Lifestyles Lesson 1. 1. complain v.抱怨、投诉、发牢骚[名词, complaint] He is always complaining. 他总是在抱怨。 complain of/about… 抱怨… They complain

ed to the police about the noise of the expressway. 他们向警察抱怨高速公路上的噪音。 I have nothing to complain of/about. complain that… 埋怨说… She often complains that he is dishonest. 她常埋怨说他不诚实。 2. take up ①占据、占用(时间、空间等) The table takes up a lot of space. I'm sorry I have taken up much of your time. ②拿起 He took up the pen and wrote some words on the paper. ③开始(工作等) He will take up his duties next week. 下周他就要开始履行职责。 She has taken up the piano. 她开始学起弹钢琴来了。 ④(跟着)一起唱、说等 to take up the song/cry 3. be filled with… 充满着… The bag is filled with air. 那个袋子充满了气。 Her eyes were filled with tears. The result filled his heart with joy. 这样的结果使他心中充满了欢喜。 4. bored adj.厌烦的 be bored with sth.对…厌烦 I am bored with his endless talk. bored 常指人的情感,boring 常指事情 如:a boring story, The story is boring. 5. What kind of lifestyle do you think the men in the picture have? 你认为图画中的这些人会有什么样的生活方式? do you think/believe/suppose/expect… 常在特殊疑问句中作插入语,该疑问句要用陈述 语序。 Who do you think he will ask for help? When do you think they will pay back our money? 6. It takes me less than fifteen minutes to wash, get changed, have breakfast, leave home and get on a bus.

从洗漱,穿衣,吃早饭,离开家到坐上公共汽车我只用 15 分钟。 It takes sb. some time to do sth.句型,意为―某人花多少时间做某事‖。又如: It took me three hours to finish drawing this picture. get changed 换衣服、穿衣服 7. I get to bed around mid-night when my wife and children are already asleep. 我一般半夜才上床睡觉,那时妻子和孩子们都早已进入梦乡。 关系副词 when 引导定语从句,在从句中作时间状语,修饰先行词 mid-night。 Lesson 2. 1. suffer n.遭受(痛苦) ,感到疼痛 suffer from… 遭受,忍受 He suffered a sharp pain in the stomach. 他胃疼得厉害。 She often suffers from headaches. 她常受头痛之苦。 Her health suffered from overwork. 她的健康因工作过度而受损。 2. stand vt.忍耐,忍受(常用于否定句、疑问句中,一般不用过去时和被动语态) I can't stand this cold any longer. 我再也无法忍受这种寒冷了。 I can't stand sitting and doing nothing. 3. prefer vt.更喜欢,宁愿 ①prefer(doing)sth. Tom preferred spending weekends by himself. ②prefer to do sth. She prefers to go to work on foot. 她更喜欢步行去上班。 ③prefer…to… (to 为介词,前后为并列的名词,代词或 v.-ing 形式)与…相比,更喜 欢… They prefer walking to cycling. 他们宁愿步行而不愿骑自行车。 He said he preferred the country to the city. 他说城市与农村相比,他更喜欢农村。 ④prefer to do…rather than do… 愿意做…不愿做… She preferred to go with us rather than stay behind. 她宁愿和我们一道去而不愿留下。 ⑤prefer sb. to do sth.宁愿某人做某事 They preferred her to learn art. Lesson 3. 1. graduate vi.毕业[名词,graduation] graduate from 从…毕业 I graduated from Harvard University in 1983. 我 1983 年于哈佛大学毕业。 n.[C]毕业生 undergraduate 大学生 postgraduate 研究生 2. support v.①支持,支撑 Please support the ladder. 请扶着梯子。 ②扶养,维持(生活等) He supports a large family. 他维持一个大家庭的生活。 ③扶持,赞成(人,主义等) Nobody supports his idea. 没人支持他的意见。

n.①支持,支撑,支持物 ②支持,支援 ③扶养,生活费,维持生计者 Lesson 4. 1. crowded adj.拥挤的 be crowded with 挤满了… The bus was crowded with passengers. 那辆公交车挤满了乘客。 crowd n. 群众,人群 All the crowd were waiting for him to arrive. 所有群众在等他到场。 (把群众视作整体时, crowd 当单数;侧重个体时为复数义) There was a large crowd in the park. a crowd of…=crowds of… 一大堆的,一大群的 There were crowds of(a crowd of)people in the street. in crowds 成群地 2. otherwise conj.&adv.否则,另外 I went at once;otherwise I would not meet her at the station. 我马上过去了,否则在车站就见不到她了。 Hurry up, otherwise we will miss the train. 快点吧,不然我们会误了火车的。 Unit 2 Heroes Warm-up calm adj.平静的,可用于指天气平静,无风的;海、湖等无风浪的;也可指人心境镇定 平静、宁静、无忧虑。 eg. The storm had passed and the sea became calm again. 暴风雨过去了,大海又恢复了往日的平静。 You should keep calm about what has happened. 对于所发生的事情,你要保持镇静。 辨析:quiet,silent,still Δquiet 意―宁静的,静止的,文静的‖等,常用来形容大海,街道,生活,时代,人等。 eg. a quiet sea 一片平静无浪的大海 a quiet evening 宁静的傍晚 to live a quiet life in the country 在乡间过着悠然自在的生活 quiet times 平静的时代 a quiet girl 文静的女孩 Δsilent 指人时,意―沉默无语的‖;指物时,意―无声的,声音极小的‖。 eg. He kept silent about the matter. 他对此事保持沉默。 a silent film 无声电影 a silent letter 不发音的字母 Δstill 不动的;静止的;无声的,有时同 quiet,但侧重指静止不动。 eg. Keep still while I comb your hair. 我给你梳头时,请不要动。 另外,calm 还可作动词,意―使…平静/平息/静下来‖。

eg. Calm yourself! 请你平静下来 !(=calm down) The sea calmed down. 大海风浪平息了下来。 Lesson 1 1. How do you feel about him? 你认为他怎么样? 表示对人或事物的看法,态度;除此句型外,还有: How do you like/find…? What do you think of…? What's your opinion of…? What/How about…? 2. China's first manned spaceship lifted off at 9 am. on Wednesday, October 15th, 2003… 中国第一艘载人宇宙飞船于 2003 年 10 月 15 日星期三上午九点发射升空…… manned adj.载人的;人操纵的 manned space flight 载人的宇宙飞行 lift off 指(火箭,太空船等)升空,发射 lift vt.提起,举起,抬,吊 lift(up)a table 抬起一张桌子 This box is too heavy for me to lift. 这箱子太重,我搬不动。 lift(up)one's eyes to sth. 向上看 3. The spaceship, called Shenzhou V, was carrying China's fist astronaut, Yang Liwei. 这艘命名为神舟五号的宇宙飞船当时上面正载着中国第一位宇航员杨利伟。 called Shenzhou V 为过去分词短语作定语, 修饰 the spaceship, 相当于定语从句 which was called Shenzhou V。 4. When the spaceship separated from the rocket… 当宇宙飞船与火箭分离时… separate from…意―与…分开‖,separate 在此用作不及物动词;separate 常用于及物动词 短语 separate…from…,be separated from…,指把两个独立的个体分隔开。 eg. Separate the good ones from the bad. 把好的和坏的分开。 divide…into…常指把一个整体分成若干部分,意―把…分成…‖。 eg. They divided the cake into 5 parts. 他们把蛋糕分成五块。 5. Yang Liwei showed the flags of China and the United Nations, expressing the wishes of the Chinese people to explore and use space peacefully. 杨利伟向人们展示了中国和联合国旗帜,表达了中国人民和平探索和使用太空的希望。 expressing the wishes of…是动词-ing 形式短语作伴随状语,表示与上文动作 show 同时 发生的动作或状态。 6. Yang Liwei landed in Inner Mongdia safely. 杨利伟安全降落在内蒙古地区。 land 在此作不及物动词,意―降落,上岸,登陆‖。 eg. The plane will land in five minutes.

飞机将在五分钟后降落。 land 作及物动词,意―使降落,使上岸,使登陆‖。 land the troops at a beachhead 把部队送上滩头阵地 land an aeroplane 使飞机降落 7. When Shenzhou V let out its parachute. 当神州五号放出它的降落伞时。 let out―放出(水,气等) ,泄露‖ eg. He let the air out of the tyres. 他将轮胎的气放掉了。 Let the water out of the bathtub. 把浴盆中的水放掉。 Let out the secret. 泄露秘密。 8. Helicopters were flying to where he would land, ready to collect him. 飞行员正飞往他要着陆的地方,准备去接回他。 ready to collect him 为形容词短语作伴随状语,又如: Crusoe stared at the footprints, full of fear. 克鲁索盯着那些脚印,心中充满了恐惧。 9. He smiled and waved to the crowds waiting for him. 他微笑着向等候他的人群挥手示意。 waiting for him 为 v.-ing 短语作定语, 修饰 crowds, 相当于定语从句 who were waiting for him。 10. I thought 21 hours was too short to stay in space. 我认为在太空呆 21 个小时真是太短暂了。 too…to do… 在此并不是表否定义―太…而不能…‖,而表肯定义,表示很强烈的语气。 又如: I'm too happy to hear the good news. 听到这个好消息我真是太高兴了。 Lesson 2 1. fight v. 战斗,打斗 fight for… 为…而战 fight against 与…斗争 fight with… 与…(并肩)战斗,与…战斗 Elizabeth Blackwell fought for women's rights. 伊丽莎白· 布莱克威尔为妇女的权利而斗争。 2. found vt.建立,成立。指组建组织,机构,政权,国家等。 Dr. Sun Yat-Sen founded the first republic of China. found a school/hospital 创办学校/医院 found a new city/factory 建立一个新城市(工厂) 3. in one's opinion 依某人看来 在此短语中,opinion 用单数形式,也可用 in the opinion of sb.。 have a good/bad/high/low opinion of… 对…的评价很好/坏/高/低 opinion 可用复数形式,eg. political opinions 政见 Those are my opinions about the affair.

4. equal adj.相等的,同样的 equal pay for equal work 同工同酬 equal opportunity 机会均等 two boys of equal height 一样高的两个男孩子 be equal to sth. 和…相同 One pound is equal to ten yuan. 一英镑等于十元人民币。 be equal to(doing)sth. 胜任的,经得起的 He is equal to(doing)the task. 他能胜任这项任务。 vt. ①等于 Three times three equals nine. 三乘三等于九。 ②比得上,敌得过 No one can equal him in strength. 没有人能在气力上比得过他。 5. struggle n. 斗争,拼搏,奋斗,努力 the struggle for freedom 为自由奋斗 vi. struggle against/with… 与…斗争 struggle for… 为…奋斗 struggle against difficulties 与困难搏斗 struggle for power 争夺权力 The thief struggled to get free. 那个小偷挣扎着要脱逃。 6. He made a famous speech there beginning with the words… beginning with…为 v.-ing 形式短语作定语修饰 speech, 意―用…开始‖, 反义短语 end up) ( with…。 The party began with a song. 晚会从唱一首歌开始。 Knowledge begins with practice. 知识从实践开始。 7. He received the Nobel Peace Prize in 1965. 他于 1965 年荣获诺贝尔和平奖。 receive 在此意―接受,受到,领取‖。 receive a good education 受到良好教育 receive a warm welcome 受到热烈欢迎 receive a Dr degree 被授予博士学位 8. He retired in 1999 and now travels around the world, meeting leaders and talking about problems like AIDS. …,会见各国领导人并谈论有关艾滋病的问题。 meeting leaders…是 v.-ing 短语作伴随状语,又如: He sat in the armchair, reading the newspaper. 他坐在扶手椅上读报纸。 Lesson 3

1. skilful adj.熟练的,有技巧的 be skilful with sth. be skilful at doing sth. 做某事很熟练 He is not very skilful with his chopsticks/at using chopsticks. 他用筷子不太熟练。 skillfully adv. 巧妙地,技术好地 skill n. 技能,技艺 skilled adj. 有训练的,有经验的,熟练的 skilled workmen 有经验的工人 be skilled in doing sth.做某事熟练 2. compete v.竞争,比赛(赛跑,比赛,考试等) to compete in a race 参加赛跑比赛 to compete against/with sb.… 与某人竞争 to compete for sth.… 为…竞争 competition n.竞争 competitor n.竞争者 competitive adj.竞争性的 3. keen adj.热心的,渴望的 keen listeners 热心听众 He is keen to know the result of the exam. 他很想知道考试结果。 be keen about 喜爱 be keen on(doing)sth. 喜爱,渴望 be keen on(playing)table tennis 4. It was full of drugs and violence. 那里毒品泛滥,暴力横行。 be full of… ―充满…‖,同 be filled with 相近。 The bag is full of money. 口袋里装满了钱。 The boss is full of anger. 那个老板心中充满怒意。 5. In a recent interview, Venus spoke about the time when she and Serena were practising tennis and… 在最近的一次采访中,维纳斯谈到了她们当时训练网球时的那段时光…… when 为关系副词,引导定语从句,在从句中做时间状语。 6. …so that they completed their high school while developing their tennis careers. …为了她们能发展自己网球职业的同时完成高中学业。 while 和 when 后可接 doing 形式构成省略结构,相当于 doing 前省去了主语+be,原句 可为 while they were developing… 又如: You should take some notes while/when listening to the teacher. Don't talk when/while eating food. 7. Has tennis ever caused problems between sisters? 打网球是否给两姐妹带来了一些问题? cause v.造成,常指造成不好的一些结果。 The coming exam has caused her much worry. cause sb./sth. to do sth. 使某人(物)做… The delay caused him to lose a good chance.

那次耽搁使他失去了一次好机会。 Lesson 4 1. What terrible thing happened to him in real life? 在现实生活中他发生了一些什么事情? happen to sb./sth. 某人(物)发生了… What has happened to you, Tom? Look, something is happening to Tom. 看,汤姆现在出事了。 2. Four days after the injury, I came to understand my situation. 受伤四天之后,我就开始意识到自己的处境。 come to do sth.意―逐渐…‖,后常接明白、了解等意思的动词,如: He came to realize that he was mistaken. 他终于明白他错了。 I have come to believe/know… 我终于相信/明白… 3. The doctor said I was not going to pull through. pull(sb.)through(帮某人)恢复健康,渡过难关, (帮某人)通过考试 It was very hard for the patient to pull through. The doctor pulled me through at last. 那位医生最终帮助我恢复了健康。 Tom's teacher did what he could to pull him through. 汤姆的老师尽力帮助他通过了考试。 4. We have always got on really well. 我们一直相处得很融洽。 get on/along…(with sb.) (和某人)相处得…,常用于进行时态。 How are you getting on with your girl friend? 你目前与女朋友关系怎么样? get on/along…with sth.…事情进展… How are you getting along with your paper? 你的论文情况进展如何? 5. How did you get involved with charity work? 你是如何介入(参与)慈善事业的? be/get involved in sb./sth.与某人(某事)有关连,参与… get involved in the business affairs 介入那些商业事务 become involved in criminal activities 与犯罪活动有关 6. I'm far too busy with living to think of giving up. 我现在太忙着生活了,决不会考虑放弃。 far too 程度副词短语,意―太…‖,后修饰形容词,副词,同 much too 相近。 He is far too excited. 他太兴奋了。 be busy with(doing)sth. 忙于做…,后接 doing 时常用介词 in 或省略不用介词。 eg. They are busy(in)getting in crops. 他们正忙着收庄稼。 be busy with/at/about/over sth. 忙于某事 He was busy with his business then.

他当时正忙着做生意。 Unit 3 Celebration 一、固定短语与搭配 1. go to church 做礼拜 2. apply 申请,应用 3. marry 和……结婚 4. take part in 参加,参与 5. serve 服务,服役 6. contribute 捐献,贡献 7. dress up 盛装,打扮 8. be supposed to 应该做…… 9. burn down 烧毁,烧掉 10. decorate…with 用……装饰,装点 二、重点知识的讲解与应用 1. take part in & join & attend take part in=join in + 活动 join sb in sth 加入到某人的行列中去一起做事 join+组织名称 加入某组织 attend a meeting/conference/class/party/celebration/reception How many athletes took part in the competition? Will you join us in the research? He joined the army last year. Please let us know if you are able to attend the meeting. 2. carry on & carry out carry on sth/doing sth 继续进行下去,后接宾语可有可无 carry out the order/plan/promise/duty 贯彻,执行,必须后接宾语 Carry on (doing) your work while I am away. You should carry on in the face of disaster. He didn‘t carry out his promise to us. 3. contribute & contribution contribute v. contribute sth to sth contribution n. make a contribution to sth You don‘t have to contribute a lot of money. Everyone has to contribute to the class. He contributes books to the children in remote areas. Poor food contributes to his illness. Many companies make contributions to the church. 4. put up 1) 举起,升起 2) 搭起,修建 3) 张贴,挂上 4)留……食宿 Put up your hand if you have any questions. On Christmas Eve, the whole family helped to put up the Christmas tree.

The notice will be put up on the board tomorrow. I hope you can put me up for a few days when I am visiting here. 5. apply for, be applied to apply to sb for sth 向某人申请某物 be applied to sth 应用 If you are interested in the job, you can apply to the company for it. The new technology was applied to farming. 6. marry A marry B sb marry sb get married A be(get) married to B She married a man with a lot of money. They (got) married last year. She married young. She was married to a Frenchman. 7. burn down & burn up burn down 烧毁 burn up 烧光 The building was burnt down and only ashes were left. He burnt up all the old letters. 8. including & included There are five students in this group, including me. There are five students in this group, me included. 9. congratulate & celebrate congratulate sb on sth congratulation n. celebrate sth/sb celebration n. I congratulated myself on my good fortune. We decided to hold a party to celebrate our wedding. 10. be said to do & it‘s said that… He is said to have been killed in the accident. It‘s said that he has been killed in the accident. Part 1: Vocabulary Study 词汇学习 本单元重点词汇 1.mark 当被用作名词时它可以表示 line, cut, stain etc.that spoils the appearance of sth.痕迹; 斑点; 污点;symbol or sign 符号;记号。例如: His feet left dirty marks all over the floor. What do those strange marks at the top mean? Make a mark at the bottom of the page. (特别是在英式英语中)可以用来表示 a letter or number given by a teacher to show how good a student's work is 老师给学生的成绩或分数,例如: The highest mark was a B+. She always gets good marks.

当被用作动词时它可以表示 to write or draw on something, so that someone will notice what you have written 做标记。例如: I've marked the pages you need to look at. When you're done, put your sheet in the envelope marked with your name. Peter marked his name on the first page. 还可以表示 to celebrate an important event 纪念重要的事件。例如: celebrations to mark Australia Day Carter‘s 90th birthday will be marked with a large party at the Savoy Hotel. Mrs. Lawson was presented with a gold watch to mark the occasion. (特别是在英式英语中) 可以表示 to read a piece of written work and put a number or letter on it to show how good it is 打分。例如: I've got a pile of exam papers to mark. 2.destroy 及物动词,表示 to damage sth. so badly that it no longer exists, works, ect 破坏;毁坏。例 如: The building was completely destroyed by the fire. You have destroyed my hopes of happiness. 词语辨析 destroy/damage/ruin destroy 指彻底破坏、毁灭,以至于无法使用或辨认,主要强调破坏方式有力和粗暴。 例如: The earthquake destroyed much of the city. damage 指对价值和功能局部的破坏或降低,一般可以修复。例如: The accident didn‘t do much damage to either of the motor cars. ruin 只是强调彻底毁灭或毁坏,但方式不一定有多大力量,也许是一次性的行动。例 如: This illness has ruined my life. 3.light 作动词时可以表示 to start to burn, or to make something start to burn 点燃。 该词的过去式 和过去分词形式为 lighted 或 lit。例如: He stopped to light a cigarette. I lit the fire and poured a drink. I couldn't get the candles to light. 作动词时还可以表示 to provide light for a place 照亮…… 例如: The room was lit by one large, central light. The porch is always well lit at night. The kitchen was warm and brightly lit. 关于 light 的动词短语有 light up。例如: The flames lit up the sky.(to give light to a place or to shine light on something) At night the harbour lights up.(to become bright with light or colour) 4.be said to 短语―sb./sth.is said to do…‖相当于―It is said that…‖表示―据说……‖。例如: He is said to be rich.= It is said that he is rich.据说他很富有。 The British are said to love tradition.= It is said that the British love tradition.据说英国人热 爱传统。

相似用法的短语还有: 主语 + is/are + considered/reported/thought/known … + to do… = It is considered/reported/thought/known … that … 例如: The storm is reported to be going to happen tonight.= It is reported that the storm is going to happen tonight.据报道今晚将发生风暴。 The bridge is known to be the oldest one in the world.= It is known that the bridge is the oldest one in the world.据人们所知这座桥是世界上最古老的桥。 5.dress 作动词时可以表示 to put clothes on yourself or someone else,给自己或其他人穿衣服。 例如: Aunt Margaret told her to dress herself in her nicest dress. I dress the kids before I go to work. I've got to go home to dress.(表示自己穿衣服时 dress 可用作不及物动词) I dressed quickly. 关于 dress 的短语有 dress for 表示为特殊要求或场合着装。例如: How do you normally dress for work? We usually dress for dinner (=wear formal clothes for our evening meal) . dress up 的一个意思是 to wear special clothes for fun, or to put special clothes on someone 装扮,用法如: He went to the party dressed up as a Chicago gangster.(dress up as) I keep a box of old clothes for the children to dress up in.(dress up in) We dressed him up as a gorilla.(dress somebody up) dress up 的另外一个意思是 to wear clothes that are more formal than the ones you would usually wear 穿上盛装。与这个意思相反的表达为 dress down。例如: It's a small informal party - you don't have to dress up. In many offices, people dress down on Fridays. 6.marry 动词,表示 to become the husband or wife of sb.(与某人)结婚;嫁;娶。例如: He married Bea in 1925. I'm going to ask her to marry me on St Valentine's Day. People in higher social classes are more likely to marry late (=when they are older than is usual).(此句中 marry 作不及物动词) 注意: 1)marry(作及物动词时)和 get married to 不能与表示持续一段时间的状语连用。 2)be married to 意为―与……结婚‖,可与表示持续时间的状语连用。例如: She has been married to a Mr. Bacon for ten years.她与一个姓培根的先生结婚十年了。 7.treat 作动词时可以表示 to behave towards sb. in a particular way 对待(人) 。例如: Don‘t treat me as a child! 不要把我当小孩对待。 She treats me like one of the family. 注意:当 treat 表示 to deal with, regard, or consider something in a particular way 对待;处 理;看待某事物时,有短语 treat sth. as sth., 此处 as 不可以换作 like。例如: Please treat this information as completely confidential. She treats everything I say as a joke.

treat 还可以表示 to try to cure an illness or injury by using drugs, hospital care, operations etc.治疗。例如: Are they able to treat this disease? 他们能治这种病吗? It was difficult to treat patients because of a shortage of medicine. 还可以表示 to buy or do something special for someone that you know they will enjoy 款 待;招待。例如: I‘ll treat you to lunch.我请你吃午饭。 (treat sb. to sth.) Guests were treated to wine and caviar at the reception. 8.a variety of something 意为 a lot of things of the same type that are different from each other in some way 各式各 样的;种种,指同一事物的不同种类。例如: The girls come from a variety of different backgrounds. There are a wide variety of patterns to choose from. variety 前可有形容词修饰,如 a wide/great/endless etc variety of something, 例如: Cafe Artista offers a wide variety of sandwiches. 该词的形容词形式为 various。用法如: The jacket is available in various colours. There are various ways to answer your question. Unit 4 Cyberspace Part 1: Vocabulary Study 词汇学习 本单元重点词汇 1. affect 作动词,它可以表示 to cause some results and changes or influence 影响。 例如: Smoking affects health. 还可以表示 to cause feelings of sorrow, anger, love, etc. 激起悲伤、愤怒、爱等情绪;使感动。 例如: She was deeply affected by the news of his death. 还可以表示 (of a disease) to attack (指疾病)侵袭;使感染。 例如: The old lady was affected by heat. 词汇辨析:affect 与 effect 两个词都有―影响‖的意思,但是 affect 是动词,effect 是名词。affect sb. = have an effect on sb. 对某人有影响。effect 也可用作动词,意为―实现;产生‖。 Music affects some people strongly. This had a great effect on the future of both you and me. 相关短语 have no effect on 对……毫无影响 be in effect 有效,生效 come into effect 生效 put... into effect 使……生效 take effect 开始起作用,生效 without effect 无作用(作状语) 2. offer 作可数名词时,它可以表示 a statement in which you offer to give someone something if they want it (要给予某物的)提议,建议; (主动要做某事的)提议,建议。 例如: He accepted an offer of help / to help.

还可以表示 a price that you say you will pay for sth.报价,开价。 例如: We‘ve received and offer of 250,000 RMB. Did he make you an offer for the bike? 作及物动词时,它可以表示 to let someone know you will give them sth. if they want it (主动) 给予。 例如: The manager offered me a better position. = I was offered a better position by the manager. = A better position was offered to me by the manager. 还可以表示 to let someone know that you are willing to do sth. for them(主动)表示愿意(做 某事) ;提议;提出。 例如: I do think that you should have offered to help. 还可以表示 to say that you will pay a particular price for sth.出价,开价。 例如: They offered me the computer for 1000 dollars. She offered 5000 dollars for the antique print. 相关短语及表达 accept / take an offer 接受建议 make an offer 提出建议 refuse / reject / turn down an offer 拒绝建议/提议 make sb. an offer for / on sth. 向某人开价购买某物 on offer 供出售的;提供的 under offer (待售房屋)已有人出价(要买)的 an offer of sth. / to do sth. (做)某事的建议 offer sb. sth. / offer sth. to sb. (主动)给予某人某物 offer s to do sth. 主动要求做某事 offer sb. sth. for sth. 向某人开价(……钱)购买某物 offer oneself to... 献身于…… offer sympathy / regrets / thanks / congratulations 表示同情/后悔/感谢/祝贺 3. imagine 作动词,它可以表示 form a mental image to (sth.) 想象,设想(某物) 。 例如: We can hardly imagine life without telephone. You can‘t imagine what a terrible week we had. Try to imagine being on the moon. Can you imagine me being so stupid? 相关词汇 imagination n. 想象力 imaginary adj. 虚构的,想象出来的 imaginative adj. 有想象力的 imaginable adj. 可以想象出的 Poets, artists and inventors need imagination. This story is not real, it is only imaginary. The imaginative child made up fairy stories. Advertisements can be seen in every imaginable place. 4. population 作名词,它可以表示 the number of people (or animal) living in a particular area, country, etc.人

口;人口总数。 例如: China has a large population. Eighty percent of the population of China are farmers. --- What / How large is the population of China? --- China has a population of 1.3 billion. 用法归纳 1. population 作主语时,谓语动词用单数,但是当其前面有分数或百分数修饰时,谓语动词 要根据后面的表示来确定。 2. population 指的是人口―整体‖, 所以表示人口―多‖ 、 ―少‖不用 many, much 或 little, few, 而 用 large 或 small。 3. 表示―有多少人口‖用 have a population of...结构。 4. 在提问―人口多少‖时应用 What is the population of...? 或 How large is the population of...? 句型。 相关词汇 populous adj. 人口众多的,人口稠密的 populate vt. 居住于(某地域) ;使某人定居于(某地域) population explosion 人口激增;人口爆炸 5. locate 做动词,它可以表示 to discover, show the position of... 找出……的位置,指出……的位置。 例如: The police are trying to locate the missing boy. The mechanic located the fault immediately. Rescue planes are trying to locate the missing sailors. 还可以表示 to put or build sth. in a particular place 把……安置在,把……建造于……。 例如: The company wishes to locate its new factory beside the river. He located his home in the country. 相关词汇 located adj. 位于,坐落在 The offices are conveniently located just a few minutes from the main station. The National Museum is also located on that street. location n. 地方,地点,位置 What‘s the exact location of the ship? The hill is a good location for the new church. 用法归纳 locate sth. 确定某物的位置,找出某物的场所 locate sth. in... 把某物建(设置)在…… be located on / in... 位于…… (= lie in / on / to...) on location 拍摄外景的,拍摄外景中 6. settle 做动词,它可以表示 make one‘s home in a place 安居;安家落户。 例如: After years of travel, we decided to settle here. He settled in the country after his retirement. 还可以表示 come to rest on some place; stay for some time on some place. 在某处停歇或停留 一时。 例如: The bird settled on a branch.

The dust has settled on everything. 还可以表示 make an agreement about sth.; deal with sth. 对某事达成一致意见;解决;处理。 例如: I must settle all my affairs before leaving. 相关短语 settle down 坐下来;平静下来;定居下来 settle up 负债;结账 settle for 勉强同意;接受 settle on 决定,同意;选择 settle in / into 迁入新居;适应新环境(或新工作) That settles it! 事情就那样决定了! 相关词汇 settler n. 殖民者;定居者 settled adj. 不变的;稳定的 settlement n. 解决;处理;殖民地;定居点 China plays an important part in the settlement of Korean nuclear dispute. The settlement of North America by Europeans began in the 16th century. This town has developed from a small settlement. 7. consist of 它表示 to be formed form the things or people mentioned 由……组成(构成) 。 例如:The committee consists of ten members. Their diet consists largely of vegetables. Most of the fieldwork consisted of making tape recording. 提示 consist of sth. / doing sth. 不能用于被动语态或进行时。 8. protest 作动词时,它可以表示 express strong disagreement or disapproval about (sth.) 抗议,反对(某 物) 。 例如: The consumers are protesting against the increasingly high prices of oil. He protested against being called an old fool. The students protested about the bad food in the school. 作 可 数 名 词 时 , 它 表 示 statement or an action that shows one‘s strong disapproval or disagreement 抗议,抗议书,抗议活动。 例如: Loud protests were heard when the decision was announced. 作不可数名词时,它表示 strong disapproval or disagreement that is expressed by a statement or an action 抗议,异议,反对。 例如: The minister resigned in protest against the decision. Unit 5 Rhythm use v. 1.If you use your common sense, you will see what he meant. 2.The soldiers were used up(用光)all their energy after the long battle. 3.There used to be(过去常常)a restaurant here. 4.I am not used to(习惯)getting up early. 5.You will soon get used to(习惯)our way of living.

n. daily use 日常使用, make use of 利用, in general use 普通用途 注意区别: sb. bring sth. into use 某人把……投入使用 sth. come into use 某物投入使用(无被动) It is (of) no use doing … 做……是没有用的 sell 1.The ticket to the play sold well/badly(卖得好/差,不用被动语态). 2.Cabbage is sold at a high price this year. 3.The shop sold out (卖光) all the books. 4.The tickets were sold out within a week. a good/best seller 畅销, poor seller 滞销 sale n. sales 销售额,for sale 为出售的,on sale 在售/打折 award v. 1.The judges awarded the first price to her for her picture. 2.The winner was awarded a gold medal. n. 奖金 reward v. 1.How can I reward your kindness? 2.His effort was rewarded with remarkable success. n. 1.He worked very hard without any hope of reward. 2.She offered a reward of $2000 for information. 注意:award 只要指的是获得的荣誉等,是附加的,可有可无。但 reward 则侧重于报酬,是 劳动/付出的所得。 rewarding adj. 值得做的,有意义的 Teaching can be a very rewarding job. identify v. 1.It is impossible to identify the man among so many people. 2.How did you identify the wallet as your own? 3.His accent identified him as a Frenchman. 4.It is a mistake to identify art with life. 5.I identify with the character in the play. identity The gentleman showed his identity at the police office. The identity of the killer is still unknown. practice n. 1.How did you put your plan into practice? 2.With practice, you will be able to do it. 3.In practice, the economic policy didn‘t work. v. practise 1.I practise walking 1000 steps every day. 2.He practised speaking in front of others.

run v. 1.Please run to the super market for some bread. 2.As soon as the police arrived, the robber ran off. 3.The engine is running(运作)properly. 4.Who is running(经营)this restaurant? 5.He is not running for(竞选)President in the coming election. 6.I ran across(偶遇) an old friend in the street. 7.A dog is running after(追逐) a rabbit. 8.I ran against(撞到) a glass door. 9.We are running out of(用光)fuel. 10.Time is running out(用光). n. in the long run 从长远来看, on the run 逃跑 辨析: ordinary: 普通的, 没有什么特别之处 in ordinary dress 便装, ordinary work 平 常的工作 common:普遍的 a common event 普遍的事, be in common 共同的 common sense 常识 common interest 共同的爱好, usual:通常的,惯例的 as usual 像往常一样, than usual 比往常 fit adj. 1.What kind of job is he fit for? 2.It is not fit for you to say that. 3.The crop is fit for getting in. 4.Exercise keeps you fit(保持苗条). v. 1.The jacket fits me well(尺寸大小合适). 2.The key doesn‘t fit the lock. 3.We fitted(安装)the front door with a new lock. come out 1. The sun came out(出来) later in the afternoon. 2. That magazine comes out(出版) once a week 3. Some flowers have begun to come out(开花). 4. The game came out(结果…) as we had hoped. 5. The secret will finally come out(透露). 与 word 有关的词组: in a word 总之 e.g. In a word, I don‘t trust him. in other words 换句话说 e.g. They are very humorous. In other words, they make people laugh all the time while talking. keep one‘s word 遵守诺言 e.g. You must keep your word if you promised to take the children to the cinema. send word 捎信 e.g. She sent word that she had arrived safely.

Unit 6 Design Vocabulary Learning 一、本单元中几个需要重点讲解的词和词组 1. speed I. noun ①[U/C] the rate at which something moves or travels 速度;速率 e.g. The truck was travelling at a speed of 50 mph. ②[U] the quality of being fast 速度;快速 e.g. The women's basketball team has talent, speed, and power. II. verb (past tense and past participle sped also speeded) ① to go quickly 快速移动;疾驰;急行 e.g. The car sped along the dusty highway. ② speed something up to make something happen faster 加速;使……发生得更快 e.g. The new system will speed up the registration process. speed up to move or happen faster, or to make something move or happen faster 加速(驶向) ;提速 opposite slow down e.g. The truck speeded up going down the hill. 2. fix verb ① to repair something that is broken or not working properly 修理 e.g. He's outside fixing the brakes on the car. ② to decide on a limit for something, especially prices, costs etc, so that they do not change 限定(价格等) e.g. The interest rate has been fixed at 6.5%. ③ to decide on a particular time etc when something will happen 约定(日期、时间和地点 等) e.g. Have you fixed a date for the wedding yet? ④ to attach something firmly to something else, so that it stays there permanently 安装固定 fix something to/on something e.g. The shelves should be fixed to the wall with screws. fix somebody/something up ① to arrange a meeting, event etc 安排 e.g. I fixed up an interview with him. ② to decorate or repair a room or building 装修 e.g. We fixed up the guest bedroom before my parents came to stay. 3. add verb ① to put something with something else or with a group of other things 添加 e.g. If the mixture seems dry, add water. add something to something e.g. Do you want to add your name to the list? ② if you add numbers or amounts together, you calculate their total 加;把……加起来(求

和) e.g. Add 7 and 5 to make 12. add (something) up to calculate the total of several numbers e.g. I can add up in my head quite easily. e.g. Specialized software adds up the statistics. 4. put something up ① to build something such as a wall, fence, building etc 搭建 e.g. We're going to put up a new fence around our garden. ② to put a picture, notice etc on a wall so that people can see it 张贴 e.g. Can I put up some posters? ③ to raise something to a higher position 举起 e.g. I put up my hand and asked to leave the room. 5. breath noun [C/U] the air that goes into and out of your lungs e.g. Her breath smelled of garlic. e.g. He burst into the room, red-faced and out of breath (=unable to breathe comfortably because of tiredness or excitement). e.g. How long can you hold your breath (=stop breathing) for? e.g. The doctor told me to take a deep breath (=breathe in a lot of air). 6. date noun [C] ① particular day of the month or year, especially shown by a number 日期 e.g. What‘s the date today? ② to date: up to now 目前 e.g. The cost of the work to date has been about £150 million. verb ① to write or print the date on something 注明日期 e.g. Make sure you sign and date it at the bottom. ② to find out when something old was made or formed 鉴定(某物的)年代 e.g. The rocks are dated by examining the fossils found in the same layer. ③ if clothing, art etc dates, it begins to look old-fashioned 过时 e.g. His designs are so classic, they've hardly dated at all. ④ to have a romantic relationship with someone (与某人)约会 e.g. Is he still dating Sarah? ⑤ if something that you say, do, or wear dates you, it shows that you are fairly old 使(某人/ 某物)显得过时 e.g. Yes, I remember the moon landings - that dates me, doesn't it? date from something or date back to to have existed since a particular time in the past 产生于(某时期) ;可追溯至 e.g. The church dates from the 13th century. Unit 7 The Sea 1. set sail 启航

The ship riding close to shore will set sail tomorrow. 近岸停泊的那艘船将于明日起航。 They set sail with the first fair wind. 他们一有顺风就扬帆起航。 We set sail (for France) at high tide. 我们在涨潮时起航(去法国) 。 2. There be sb / sth doing 某地有某人在做某事 There is a student doing homework in the classroom. 有一个人在教室里写作业。 There are a lot of boys playing basketball on the playground. 操场上有很多男孩在打篮球。 3. commit 犯(错误等),干(蠢事等) One cannot commit crimes with impunity. 一个人不能犯了罪不受惩罚。 The novelist makes his heroine commit suicide at the end of the book. 那小说作者在书的结尾让他的女主人公自杀了。 4. get into trouble 发生麻烦(陷入困境) George keeps a tight rein on his children, but they still seem to get into trouble regularly. 乔治对他的孩子们管教很严,但他们似乎仍然时常陷入麻烦。 Some people blamed Harry when he got into trouble, but Joe stood by him. 当哈里陷入困境时,一些人责备他,然而乔却支持他。 Nobody likes to get into trouble. 没有谁愿意惹麻烦。 5. persuade sb (not) to do/ into (out of) doing sth 说服某人做(不做)某事 She persuaded me into buying it. 她说服我买下了它。 The salesman persuaded us to buy his product. 那个推销员说服了我们买他的产品。 6. make it to 到达某地 I can't make it to dinner tonight; but, can I take a rain check? 今天晚上我不能去吃晚饭,但是我们改天再吃好吗? Whew! I make it to the train. 唷! 我上火车了。 It's hard to make it to the top in the show business. 想在演艺圈出人头地,殊非易事。 7. in search of 寻找 He's sailed the seven seas in search of adventure. 他闯荡七大洋去历险。 It fared worse with the family who left their hometown in search of better jobs. 那家人为寻找更好的工作离开家乡,运气却更糟。 The scientists are in search of a new element. 科学家们正在寻找一种新元素。 8. off 偏离 You're going off the subject.

你们离题了。 9. find oneself in some place (不知不觉)发现自己在某地 find oneself doing sth (不知不觉)发现自己在做某事 When he regained consciousness, he found himself in hospital. 当他苏醒过来时,发现自己在医院里。 He found himself walking in the direction of Mike‘s place. 他不知不觉地发现自己正朝迈克的住处走去。 10. tie a. 系,拴,捆,扎 He tied the magazines with string. 他用绳子把杂志捆起来。 The robber tied him to a pillar. 强盗把他捆在柱子上。 b. 与……打成平手 The All-Japan was tied for first place. 全日本联队得并列第一。 c. 联系;关系;纽带 We have established trade ties with these regions. 我们和这些地区建立了贸易关系。 11. terrified 恐惧的 I am really terrified to witness the slaughter. 我亲眼目睹这场屠杀,真是吓坏了。 The child would be terrified of being left alone in the big house. 这孩子一个人留在那座大房子里会感到害怕的。 12. all at once 突然 All at once, a rabbit came out of a hole. 突然,一只兔子从一个洞中跑了出来。 All at once the door opened. 门突然打开了。 All at once she lost her temper. 她突然发起脾气来。 13. survive 生存,生还 The urge to survive drove them on. 求生的欲望驱使他们继续努力。 You need to be tough to survive in the jungle. 要在丛林中活下来就要有坚忍不拔的意志。 If the industry doesn't modernize it will not survive. 该制造业若不现代化就不能继续存在。 14. in the direction of 朝……方向(沿……方向) The contingent marched in the direction of the Western Hills. 队伍朝西山的方向前进。 The ship launched in the direction of Japan. 船起航前往日本。 15. bring sth to a conclusion 结束

Let's congratulate ourselves that this transaction has been brought to a successful conclusion. 祝贺我们圆满达成交易。 I will bring my story quickly to a conclusion. 我会尽快结束这个故事的。 16. in addition to 除了……之外(还) In addition to an album, I gave him a pen and a pencil. 除了一本照相簿外,我还给了他一支钢笔和一支铅笔。 The negotiations struck a snag when the union leaders asked for paid holidays in addition to the usual wage increase. 当工会领袖们要求在通常的工资增加之外还应有带薪假日时,商谈遇到了阻碍。 In addition to a diet, she pursues various exercises on TV. 除了节食,她还随电视做体操。 17. on board 在船(车或飞机)上 Are meals served on board? 机上有餐饮供应吗? Many of the tourists on board had begun bargaining with the tradesman. 船上的很多旅客开始与商人讨价还价了。 The hijackers kept the pilot on board as (a) hostage. 劫机者把飞机驾驶员扣留在飞机上作为人质。 18. hit 打击 Heavy floods hit Northeastern India. 大洪水袭击了印度东北部。 The rent increase will hit the pockets of the poor. 租金的提高将加重穷人的负担。 Unit 8 Adventure 1. feel, look, smell, taste, sound + adj. 不用被动,不用进行时 2. horizon (1) the horizon: on / below / above the horizon A ship appeared on the horizon. 在天水交接处出现了一艘船。 (2) on the horizon: about to happen There is trouble on the horizon. 3. watch the sun go down She watched the children crossing/as they crossed the road, i.e. observed them as they did it (but not necessarily from start to finish). 她看着孩子们横过马路(但不一定注视全过程) 。 She watched the children cross the road, i.e. observed the action from start to finish. 她看着孩子们横过了马路(注视着全过程) 。 4. lead (1) lead sb. / sth. + 介词短语 / 副词 She led the group out into the garden. She led them downstairs. (2) be the leader of head of: lead sb. / sth. into… lead an army, a strike, a discussion, the singing Who is to lead the party into the next election? (3) lead to: give rise to, result in

The bad harvest led to severe food shortage. (4) be in first place They are leading the world in cancer research. The champion is leading by 18 seconds. 5. accommodation 单数 British / 复数 American find suitable, cheap, temporary accommodation Hotel accommodation is scarce. accommodate vt: provide room for This hotel can accommodate up to 500 guests. The ballroom can accommodate 400 people. 6. maximum adj. The car has a maximum speed of 120 mph. They made maximum use of the resources available. To get the maximum benefit, do the exercises slowly. n. minimum adj. The minimum number of students we need to run the course is fifteen. The minimum age for retirement is 55. n. 7. trade n. [U] (1) buying and selling: do trade with sb. / sth. China does a lot of trade with many countries. (2) business of a particular kind: trade in sth. My father is in furniture / book trade. the international trade in oil (3) way of making a living: be a tailor / carpenter by trade v. (1) vi. buy and sell: trade in sth. with sb. Our company trades in silk with their country. (2) vt. exchange sth. for sth.: trade…for… The boy used to trade food for the answers to the homework. 8. welcome vt. welcomed, welcomed We were welcomed at the door by the children. adj. be welcome to do sth. / sth. You are welcome to use my car at any time. You are welcome to any books you like. 9. serve (1) He asked Marco to serve in his court and sent… vt./vi. serve in… / serve as… He returned to China to serve in the army. He served as an officer in the army. (2) serve sb. as: work for sb. especially as a servant

He served his master for many years. (3) serve: give food to / place food on the table at a meal serve sb. with sth. Can you help me serve? Dinner is served. / All the guests have been served with deserts and coffee. 10. send sb. to do sth. 送、寄;派遣某人 Send: cause…to go / be taken without going oneself Send sb. / sth. to sb. Send a letter, telegram, message His mother sent him to the shop to get some bread. 11. in turn in turn:as a result of something; one after the other Theory is based on practice and in turn serves practice. All the students answer the questions in turn. 12. seat 容纳 vt. + 数字 admit, hold, accommodate, seat The theatre admits only 200 people. The hotel can accommodate 500 guests. The new playground can hold eighty thousand people 13. connection, connect (1) vt. to join two or more things together connect sth to/with sth The railway link would connect Beijing with Hongkong. Wu usually helps teachers to connect the computer with / to the projector. (2) vt. relationship to realize or show that a fact, event, or person is related to something She did not connect the two events in her mind. connect sb/sth with sth There is little evidence to connect them with the attack. 14. cover (1) travel (a certain distance) Although the Silk Road covered a huge distance… By sunset we had covered thirty miles. They were hoping to cover 40 miles yesterday. The city covers 25 square miles. (2) 覆盖;铺 He covered the table with a piece of cloth. (3) include vt: This word is not covered in this dictionary. This book covers the areas from politics to economics. (4) 看完(多少页书) I have covered many books related to economics. (5) a sum of money covers the cost of something, it is enough to pay for it 够付(费用) The scholarship should be enough to cover her tuition fees.

10 will cover our supper. cover 的含义丰富,请同学们多翻词典,会有意想不到的收获噢~ 15. identify vt. (1) identify sb. / sth. as sb. / sth.: recognize sb. / sth. (as being the specified person or thing) 确认、证明鉴别出 The researchers identified the author as Shakespeare. (2) identify sth. with sth.: consider sth. to be identical with sth; equate two things 认为某事物与另事物等同 One cannot identify happiness with wealth. 幸福和财富不能混为一谈。 16. the race was on on: adv. (1) indicating continued activity, progress or state She talked on for two hours without stopping. He can work on without a break. (2) The lights were all on. / The strike has been on now for six weeks. (3) The film was already on when we arrived. (4) What's on at the cinema tonight? / What time is the news on? 17. in preparation for: in order to prepare for sth.(为某事物)作好准备 They've sold their house and car in preparation for leaving the country. He memorizes words every day, in preparation for the 100 words test. make preparations for In August they began to make preparations for the conference. Have you made good preparations for the English contest next month? 18. break down 不用被动 (1) cease to function because of a mechanical, electrical, etc fault The telephone system has broken down. Our car broke down on the way home. The printing machines are always breaking down. (2) fail 失败;崩溃;瓦解;垮 Negotiations between the two sides have broken down. (3) (of sb.‘ s health) become very bad; collapse Her health broke down under the pressure of work. (4) lose control of one's feelings He broke down and wept when he heard the news. 19. have difficulties / trouble with sth. / (in) doing sth. 20. exhausted adj. (1) extremely tired He was exhausted after such a long journey. (2) having or containing no more of a particular thing or substance an exhausted coal mine She did not cry out; her tears were exhausted. exhaust: the smell of the exhaust 21. prove (1) vt. to show that sth. is true: prove sth. to sb. I‘ll prove to you that the witness is not speaking the truth.

prove sb‘s guilty / innocence The all say I‘m stupid, but I‘m going to prove them wrong. (2) turn out to be 系动词 prove sb. wrong / innocent The design proved to be a success. The test proved more difficult than we thought. Unit 9 Wheels Lesson 1 重点词汇、词组 1.enjoy vt. enjoy equal rights 2. benefit n. be of great benefit to… The new hospital will be of great benefit to the town. be to sb.‘s benefit: The new law will be to everyone‘s benefit. vt. Reading can benefit us a lot. vi. We can benefit a lot from good books. 3. convenient: It is convenient for sb. to do sth. Will it be convenient for you to start work tomorrow? convenience: at sb.‘s convenience You can come over at your convenience. 4. save vt. (1) He saved my life. (2) I save 100 yuan a month. (3) Please save your energy. You have more important work to do. (4) Computers can save us a lot of time. (5) She promised to save a room for me in the new house. 5. work My computer doesn‘t work. My plan worked. 6. work out (1) I work out in the gym every day to keep fit. (2) The plan worked out quite well. (3) I‘ve worked out the sum total. (4) Can you work out what the signals mean? (5) The manager worked out a new plan. 句型+小点 1. not…but… He is not clever but diligent. Not what you said but the way you said it made me angry. 2. be hopeful that… He was hopeful that he would win the competition. 3. paint…white / yellow / blue… They are going to paint the wall yellow.

4. record vt. 5. The advantages of emails over letters 6. They carried on walking in the rain / snow / wind 7. be fed up with I‘ve been fed up with the boring work in this company. 8. give sb. a lift to I gave him a lift to the bus station on my way home. Lesson 2 1. give …away He gave the secrets away to the enemy. He pretended to be a businessman from Guangdong, but his Beijing accent gave him away. He gave away all his money to the charities. The chairman gave away the prize to LiuXiang. 2. rely on sb. to do sth. You can rely on me to keep the secret. reliable adj. My car is not as reliable as it used to be. 3. pull out As I arrived the train was pulling out. The train was pulling out of the station. The train was pulling into the station. pull up She pulled up suddenly at the traffic lights. Lesson 3 1. be worried about worry vt. Don‘t worry. What worries you? We were worried by the possibility of an earthquake. 2. persuade sb. of sth. He tried to persuade the police of his innocence. persuade sb. to do sth. / persuade sb. into doing sth. 3. have a good impression of I‘ve met her twice, but I don‘t have a good impression of her. 4. The first question I have for you is that do you like solar car racing? Lesson 4 重点词汇、词组 1. compare Compared with your company, we are nothing. We usually compare children to flowers. 2. addicted He used to be addicted to cartoons. My sister is a complete love story addict. 3. average

He felt happy because his grade was above average. 4. suit (1) The color doesn‘t suit me. It‘s too bright. (2) Will it suit to come at 5? (3) The climate doesn‘t suit me. (4) You should suit your spending to your income. suitable: be suitable for… 5. pick up (1) I‘ll pick you up at 7. (2) We are waiting for the weather picks up. (3) I can pick up music radio in my car. (4) We‘ll pick up where we finished yesterday. (5) He has picked up a cold so he has to stay at home. (6) She picked up a valuable book at a village sale. (7) He picked up an interesting piece of news. 句型+小点+复习 1. get stuck in / be stuck in The bus was stuck in the mud for 3 hours. 2. stress out He felt stressed out after such a long journey. 3. go up Everything went up except salaries. 4. be related to His bad health is related to his lifestyle. 5. carry on doing / with sth. I carried on with my study after my parents went out. 6. cut the risk of…by… Regular exercise cuts the risk of heart disease by 50 percents. 7. take action to do The government should take action to solve the problem of pollution. 8. do sth. about sth. You should do sth. about the cough. Culture corner 1. available You‘ll be informed when the book becomes available. 2. be a huge success The movie Harry Porter is a huge success. 3. base sth. on sth. They based their inventions on Newton‘s theories. 4. become bored with He doesn‘t work hard because he is bored with his work. 5. connect …to… Don‘t forget to connect the computer to the projector.

Unit 10 Money and bargaining Lesson 1 1. be determined to do… (1) Tom is working hard because he is determined to pass the exam. He is determined to contribute his life to science. (2) determined adj. He is a determined fighter. His eyes took on a determined look. a determined woman 2. be concerned about be concerned about: be worried about, be bothered by (1) I‘m concerned about your safety. The whole society should be concerned about the health of children. (2) concerning: about or related to They have worked out many plans concerning the future of the company. I like reading novels concerning detective stories. 3. sign (1) 迹象 There are signs that the sales are increasing slightly. She shows no sign of being interested. There wasn‘t a sign of life on that planet. (2) 手势 She gave us a sign to leave the room. (3) 路标 You‘ll see a traffic sign. That‘s where you should make a left turn. Please pay attention to the traffic signs. A no smoking sign (4) 符号 mathematical signs I cannot work out what those signs mean. They are so strange. 4. give…away He gave most of his money away to the charities. He pretended to be a businessman from Guangdong, but his Beijing accent gave him away. The chairman gave away the prize to the champion in the in the men's 110 m hurdles. 5. drop out (dropped-dropped) (1) He dropped out just as the contest started. Liu Xiang dropped out of the race because of his injury. (2) She dropped out of school to become a waitress. Lesson 3 1. appeal to sb appeal to sb: If someone or something appeals to you, they seem attractive or interesting. The programme appeals especially to young children. The idea of working abroad really appeals to me. 2. to be exact

He's in his mid-fifties; well, fifty-six to be exact. It happened late last century in 1895, to be exact. 其它类似的表达还有:to be brief, to be sure, to be frank, to be honest… 3. balance n. keep the balance/lose the balance Try to keep a balance between work and play. v. keep equal or keep steady: She tries to balance home life and career. You Should balance your spending and your income. v. weigh: The judge balanced the contention of both parties. 法官权衡了双方的论点。 4. over time: as time goes by 久而久之 indicating the passing of time Her patience wear thin over time. We can discuss it over lunch. We had a pleasant talk over a cup of coffee. Over the next few days they began to know the city well. 5. agree agree 后面接介词法比较复杂,常见用法有: (1) 涉及讨论的题目用 about。 (在……一致) They never agree about politics. 关于政治问题,他们总是意见不一致。 They could not agree about the procedure of the meeting. We agree about some books but disagree about others. (2) 要确定一样事情用 on。 (两方就……达成一致) Can we agree on a date for the next meeting? 我们能不能为下次会议确定一个时间? We couldn‘t agree on a date. (3) 涉及一件建议或计划用 to。 (同意) Neither father nor mother would agree to your plan. (4) 涉及意思、想法、分析、解释以及涉及人的时候用 with。 (赞成) They might not agree with his opinions. 他们可能不同意他的意见。 Do you agree with me? 6. change into They are changing desert into farmland. change for: We change the car for a bigger one. 7. come to do come to do: come to admire/realize/know/ 开始做某事 Strangers may come to know one another. 萍水相逢的人也会互相了解。 8. think twice You need to think twice of the matter. If I were you, I would think twice. Lesson 4 Advertisement 1. go through The signals go through glass, doors and walls. The gate was locked so he went over the fence. (1) study or examine sth. in order to find sth.

仔细或系统地研究或检查(尤为寻找﹑ 发现某事物): I've gone through all my pockets but I can't find my keys. (2) experience, endure or suffer sth. 经历﹑忍受或遭受某事物: He went through a bad time after the mid-term examination. 2. plus prep. plus prep: with the edition of It gives you freedom to move around plus top quality sound. 2 plus 3 is 5. Your salary is 1000 yuan plus a bonus. The work of an engineer requires intelligence plus experience. 3. amazing amazed Your performance is amazing. I was amazed to find her looking so confident. To our amazement, she…. 4. produce vt. (1) 制造、生产 She has produced little work recently. (2) cause to occur; create His speech produces great excitement. (3) 制作电视节目、电影等 He hopes to find the money to produce a film about Japan. 5. convenient 复习 It is convenient for sb. to do. at sb.‘s convenience 你明天方便给我打电话吗? 6. special offer 特价 Our special offer price is 200 yuan. The wine is on special offer at 15 yuan. make an offer / what‘s your offer /one last offer Culture corner 1. be associated with A currency is associated with one country. White is associated with peace in the West. We usually don‘t associate the two persons together; they have totally different characteristics. 2. develop He developed an interesting solution to the problem. (1) The place has developed from a poor village into a busy city. The argument developed into a bitter quarrel. (2) The course is designed to help students develop their speaking skills. The first step is to develop students‘ interest in English. (3) Students should develop the habit of thinking for themselves. (4) Drinking too much may develop liver disease. He has developed flu. (5) take a film to be developed

3. make up Make up a dialogue. She has to make up the homework because she was absent yesterday. 4. imaginary – imaginative - imaginable Peter pan is only an imaginary character. We had the greatest difficulty imaginable getting here in time. He is the most suitable person imaginable. 5. represent 代表 The rose represents England. Brown areas represent deserts on the map. Unit 11 The media Lesson 1 World news I. 重点词汇 1. form (formation) vt. / vi. (L1) (1) to establish an organization, committee, government etc: (构成,形成) The winning party will form the government. Our university is formed by 18 departments. (2) to be part of something else, often having a particular use (组成) Understanding and trust should form the basis of friendship. The river formed a natural boundary between the two countries. (3) 形成、养成 form the habit of doing sth. / develop the habit of doing sth. We should form the habit of reading English every day. (4) to develop or reach an idea or opinion (形成想法,观点等) I can't form an idea about it. 2.concern (P2 L5) Vt. (1) be about sth This week‘s blackboard newspaper concerns our secrets. The news concerns our school. (2) be concerned about: be worried about She is concerned about her son‘s future. (3) be concerned with: be about This article is concerned with the problem of overpopulation. This article includes many parts concerning the problem of overpopulation. n. [U] worry, anxiety: concern for / about / over There is now growing concern for their safety. [C] thing that is important or interesting to sb. What are your main concerns as a student? 3.demand: (P3 L1) to ask for something very firmly, especially because you think you have a right to do this 要求(东西、权利) demand sth demand to see/ know/ have The workers are on a strike to demand better working conditions. The workers demand to have better working conditions.

demand that…should He demanded that Joe should go there at once. Students in our school demand that we should have a school bus. 对比:demand, require, request (requirements 一般是复数) I have done all that is required by law. Requirements 一般都用复数 require sb. to do. request 请求 I requested him to help. 4.escape: vt. / vi. (P3 L4) (1) to get away from a place or difficult situations It is hard for these nations to escape their painful pasts. I like to go to the countryside to escape my busy life. Two prisoners escaped last night. (2) avoid He narrowly escaped death in the earthquake. The two passengers escaped serious injury. 5.Distinction distinct distinctive (P1 L6) (1) [U] being special, excellent (卓越,突出,杰出) have / earn / achieve the distinction of doing sth. She had the distinction of being the first woman to swim across the Channel. Paris has the distinction of being the center of fashion. Toby has the distinction of the tallest boy in our class. (1) difference (区别) [U/C] There is often no clear distinction between British English and American English. II. 词组、搭配、句式 1. be remembered as (P2 L1) Beethoven is remembered as a great composer. 2.detail 细节 in detail (P2 L2) in detail (Uncountable) He described the process in detail. This will be discussed in more detail. 3.Their belief is that: (P3 L3) Our belief is that we will find a way to cure AIDS. Their belief is that the economy will recover soon. Their goal is that… / My dream / problem / concern is that… III. 复习 1.make up (P1 L2) (1) combine together to form something 组成 be made up of: consist of The G8 is made up of political leaders from 8 countries. Forty 9 students make up our class. (2) pretend that something is true 编造 I think they're making the whole thing up. (3) to work at times when you do not usually work, because you have not done as much work as you should I'm trying to make up for the time I lost while I was sick.

(4) to make people look better. She spends a lot of time making up every morning. 2.prevent vt. Prevent sth./sb. from doing… (P3 L3) keep / stop sb. from doing The country tries to prevent the disease from spreading. She was prevented from entering the classroom because she was late. preventable: preventable accidents, disease 3.hit 袭击 attack Four bombs hit London. Financial depression hit the whole world. I was hit by the beautiful scenery of the lake. strike 4.is responsible for (respond to response respondent responsible responsibility) Taliban claimed to be responsible for the attack. Who is responsible for this meeting? Lesson 3 The Advertising Game I. 重点词汇 1.apply: (application, applicant) (1) request formally 申请 apply to sb. for sth 目的 (passport, visa, job, post) apply to 单位(universities) He decided to apply for a job in the local newspaper. She applied to 4 universities and was accepted by all of them. (2) apply sth. to sth. 运用 New technology has been applied to every industrial process. I applied his method to my study and it worked. (3) apply to sth affect concern 与……有关;适合…… Do the same rules apply to part-time workers? 2.approach (1) n. method, way [C] approach to sth. He adopted a new approach to teaching children. We should take a positive approach to dealing with this problem. (2) approach v. (n) move (movement) towards, get(getting) close to 时间;地点 As I approached the classroom, I heard quite a few students shouting. The military training is approaching. Night was approaching. 3.matter v. to be important (to sb.) Whether you come or not matters little. It mattered a great deal to her what other people thought of her. Will it matter if I come a little later? / It doesn‘t matter to me what you do. / It matters much to me. 4. 部分否定 All of them didn‘t come to the meeting on time. None of the them came to the meeting on time. (both not / neither) II. 词组、搭配、句式 1.It is likely to do / that… / Sb. is like to do… (possible, probable)

Children living in the countryside are likely to be poor. It is likely that we will have a good time during the military training. She is most likely to succeed. more/less/most/least likely 2.be used to doing Be used to do / be used doing / used to do 3.stand out (1) to be very easy to see or notice 突出,显眼 She stands out in the crowd, for she is 2 meters in height. The outlines of rooftops and chimneys stood out against the pale sky. (2) stand out as 是个杰出的 Jay Chou stands out as a pop singer. That day still stands out as the greatest day in my life. outstanding: extremely good (student, piece of work, performance) 4.their aim is to… / their aim is that… (dream, goal, problem…) 5.make contributions to make contributions/ a contribution to Everyone should make contributions to society. A contribution of 5 yuan will buy a tree for the western area. This is a famous magazine with contributions from well-known writers. contribute v. contribute…to…; contribute to sth. 导致;add to / increase III. 复习 1.in such situations: on this occasion 2.consist of / be made up of / be formed by 3.hold the attention of sb. Draw one‘s attention to / pay attention to / receive a great deal of attention in 4.combine A with B combine A with B : to make A work together with B 结合,合并 (and) If you can combine your hard work with a good method, you are sure to succeed. If you want to lose weight, you‘d better combine exercise with a healthy diet. combination n. 结合,合并 [U]组合[C]组合物 A combination of exercise and a healthy diet can help you lose weight. [C] She has the right combination of looks and talent to be a star. [U] combined adj. 联合的 combined effort/ effect/ action The patient was saved with the combined effort of two doctors. 5.link (1) join: link A to/with B, link something/ sb. together, link A and B: Please link the pipe to the water supply. A corridor links the teaching building and the lab. The climbers are linked together by a rope. (连成一串) (2) be linked with: be related or affected Our economy is closely linked with America‘s. Our healthy is linked with our eating habit. 6.aim to do

(1) aim: n/v (aim to do; the aim of doing sth.; with the aim of doing sth.) Our aim is to help you make greater progress. The aim of the bomber is to get publicity. The advertisement aimed to attract more attention. (2) with the aim of doing sth. He went America last year with the aim of earning a lot of money. aimless (lead an aimless life) 7.participate in sth. / participate doing participate: take part in We should participate actively in class discussion. He participated in too many activities. participation n. participant n Lesson 4 What‘s in the Papers? I. 重点词汇 1.comment (1) Vt. : give one‘s opinion: comment on sth. I‘m afraid I can‘t comment on their decision. The star refused to comment on rumors of his marriage. (2) n. [U / C] make comments on… She made helpful comments on my work. ___ (The teacher) made some comments on …‘s free talk. Could you please make some comments on his presentation? 2.conclude (1) vt. conclude that… We can conclude that trust and understanding form s the basis of friendship. After the discussion, we may conclude that we there are different ways to deal with pollution. We may conclude from his speech that ... End: conclude sth. with She concluded her free talk with a funny story. (2) conclusion [C] Jump to a conclusion, draw a … conclusion, come to a …conclusion, reach a conclusion conclusive adj. convincing, showing that sth. is definitely true II. 词组、搭配 1. a certain amount of / a large amount of (一般与不可数名词连用) A large amount of money is needed on the project. Since we have just moved in, we need a large amount of furniture. 对比: A large number of books have been stolen from the library (+可数名词) Considerable numbers of animals have died. 2. be meant for (打算或注定成为……) Those books are meant for teenagers. She was meant for a teacher. I was never meant for the monitor.

3. crash into The plane crashed into the mountain. The car crashed into a tree and was damaged. III. 复习 1.as long as As long as you combine hard working and good study method, you‘ll get high grades. I can lend you money as long as you pay me back the money you borrowed last time. as far as… / as well as… / as much as… As far as I am concerned, I think sleeping early is good for you skin. 2.keep…away from Parents should keep bad websites away from their children. Keep away from that house. There is a A flu patient inside. The teacher tries to keep the students away from the pool. get ride of… / get out of… 3. in the way of I am sorry but your car is in the way. He stood in the way of my plan. He parked his bike in the way of a car. 4.get stuck in 5.the scene:place of an actual or imaginary event The scene of an accident / murder The scene of the ghost story is set in Beijing. be on the scene = be on the spot 在现场 Reporters were soon on the scene after the accident. 6.contact vt. : reach sb. by telephone, letter, email… Where can I contact you tomorrow? For more information, please contact Mr. Wang at 139…… 7.make a journey to… make / go on a journey to: distance covered in travelling, esp by land, often far away We are going on a journey to the North Pole. My mother has to make a long journey to come to Beijing to see me. Trip: short journey, esp for pleasure a trip to the seaside Last week, we made a trip to Fang Shan and we stayed in farmhouses. 8.with happiness / pleasure / ease / care / anxiety / confidence He passed the exam with ease. He listened to music with happiness / pleasure. Please put the box on the table with care. Communication workshop + culture corner + bulletin board Useful structure and patterns 1. I am writing to… I‘m writing to comment on the film X-men. 2. be against / be for

3. from the start Your argument is clear to us from the start. I don‘t know what I have done but she disliked me from the start. 4. it is clear that… 5. affect vt.: have an influence on The change in climate may affect our health. Their opinion will not affect my decision. Effect: have a … effect on… His words has a great effect on me. 6. be harmful to Harm sth. / do harm to / be harmful to It is proved that smoking is harmful to our health. 7. have an effect on 8. we should do everything we can to stop this. Which do you prefer to spend your holiday? 9. look forward to sth. / doing sth. I am looking forward to visiting you next month. 10. Recently, things seem to be changing (P32) 11. win second place (P33) He failed to win the first place in the competition. 12. owe…to… He owes his success to luck. We owe this discovery to Newton. 13. Liu came first by two seconds. Unit 12 Culture Shock Language points Lesson 1 Visiting Britain 1. owe vt. owe sb. sth / owe sth. to sb. (1) 欠 I owe Miss Zhang 10 yuan. / I owe 10 yuan to Miss Zhang. I owe you an apology for my impoliteness last night. (2) 归功于 owe A to B He owes his success more to luck than to ability. We owe our discovery to Newton. (3) 感谢 I owe a lot to my wife and children. I owe a great deal to my parents. The basketball star owes a lot to his coach. 2. absorb vt. (1) 吸收:take in / suck up Dry sand absorbs water. Clever children absorb knowledge easily. So many good ideas! It's too much for me to absorb all at once. (2) 精神集中于 be absorbed in He didn‘t hear the bell because he was too absorbed in that book.

The children were absorbed in playing games and they didn‘t feel hungry. What are you usually absorbed in? (3) 合并 The larger company absorbs the smaller one. Winbook was absorbed by TCL. Because of the milk scandal, San Lu was absorbed by San Yuan. 3. afford vt. have enough money, time, space… for… (1) 买得起,担负得起 (+n/to v.)affor sh. / to do sth. They walked because they couldn‘t afford a taxi. I can‘t afford a holiday this summer. I‘m very busy this week and can‘t afford to see two films. 2. 提供,给予 afford sb. sth. / afford sth. to sb. These trees afford a pleasant shade in summer. Dancing affords us a lot of fun. 4. refuse vt. (1) 拒绝 (refuse sth./refuse to do) He refused my offer of help. Martin refused to discuss this matter. I refused to go to dinner with my friend because I plan to reduce weight. In your life, what have you ever refused to do? (2) 废物,垃圾(n.)[U] He threw all the refuse into the refuse bin. Who usually throws the refuse bag in your family? 5. expect vt. (1) 想,认为:(expect that…)suppose I expect (that) you are right. I expect you are innocent. (2) 期待,盼望,预料(expect +to/that): think or believe sth. will happen Do you expect to have more time to rest this summer vacation? I expect you will become somebody in the future. You can‘t expect to learn a foreign language in a week. I expect that I will be back on Sunday. (3) 要求(被动) We were expected to arrive on time. You will be expected to work on Sundays. (4) 怀孕 be expecting (a baby / child) Mary is expecting. expectation n. 6. need (1) 需要(情态动词)否定,疑问句中 You needn‘t finish that work today. Nobody need be afraid of catching A flu. Need you go? No I needn‘t.

(2) 需要,有必要(need +to do/v-ing/n) I need to go back home and fetch my book. I don‘t think you need to worry about this. Sth. needs doing / to be done (want, require) The garden needs watering. n. the need for A friend in need is a friend indeed. There‘s no need to do… 7. avoid vt. (1) 避免,躲开(avoid +n. / v-ing) They all avoided mentioning that name. She stopped suddenly and avoided an accident. He is trying to avoid being caught by the police. I think he is avoiding me. 8. suggest vt. (1) 建议(suggest doing/that) The doctor suggested that she (should) come another day. I suggest that we should go to the park He suggested borrowing some books from the library. (2) 暗示,启发 不用加 should Her expression suggested pleasure. His silence suggested that he didn‘t like the idea. He talked to me this morning, which suggested that he had forgiven me. Suggestion n. [C / U] 9. advise (1) 建议 advise doing/that / advise sb. (not) to do… I advise taking a different approach. We advised that they should start early. I advise you not to tell him the truth. (2) 通知,告知(+of)inform notify Please advise us of any change in your plan. Advice n. [U] a piece of advice 10. consider vt. think about sth. in order to make a decision. (1) 考虑(consider +n /doing/ wh-) I‘ll consider your suggestion. I have begun to consider what to do next. We are considering moving to Shanghai. (2) 认为,视为 consider that: We consider that you are not to blame. We consider it important to avoid being late. consider sb./sth. (as/to be)…: (regard / think of sb. / sth. as…) He is considered as a great leader.

Consideration n. [U/C]: take sth. into consideration 11. enjoy vt: get pleasure from… (1) 享受,喜爱(enjoy +n. / v-ing) I enjoyed reading these books very much. Tom doesn‘t enjoy going to school. (2) 享有(利益,权利…) We enjoy free medical care / enjoy equal rights / a high standard of living / high reputation (3) 过得快活,得到乐趣(+oneself) Are you enjoying yourself? 12. risk (1) vt. 冒…的风险(risk+ v-ing) Don‘t smoke any more. You are risking your life. He risked being caught in a storm and set off on time. She risked losing her job and criticized her boss. I don‘t think she will risk being caught by the paparazzi. (2) 风险,危险(n) Take the risk of doing sth. 13. be amazed to do sth. I was amazed to know that she was only 8. She was amazed to find him so calm. 14. get used to doing sth. 15. majority The majority of people are on John‘s side. The majority of people prefer TV to radio. The majority of the young people today prefer e-mails to letters. Lesson 3 Living Abroad 1. cautious: careful be cautious about This old lady is cautious about spending money. You should be cautious about making promises. Cautiousness [U] cautiously 2. suit vt. (1) be convenient for or acceptable to 适合 Will Thursday suit you? / Will it suit you to come at 5? The climate here doesn‘t suit me. The climate will suit you down to the ground. (2) suit one‘s needs (satisfy / meet one‘s needs) (3) suit A to B 使…与…相符 She can suit her performance to the audience Suit words with occasion (4) Does the shirt suit me? / The color doesn‘t suit me. 3. appetite [U]/[C]胃口 When I was ill I completely lost my appetite. The long walk has given me a good appetite.

I seem to have lost my appetite lately. Don‘t eat cake now; you‘ll spoil your appetite. appetite for… She has an amazing appetite for knowledge. He had no appetite for the competition / fight. 4. have a difficult time doing (have a bad time) We had a difficult time last winter. I had a difficult time trying catch up with other students last semester. I had a difficult time trying to get used to his rudeness. 5. see sb. off We all went to the airport and saw her off. Will you see her off tomorrow? 6. at the table / at table (be at table: 在吃饭; be in prison: 在坐牢; be at school: 在上学; be at desk: 在工作) He was at table when I called. Children must learn how to behave at table. There are two waitresses waiting at table. 7. insist on doing He insisted on checking everything himself. If you insist on doing that, you will be on your own head. My friend insisted on going with me. The teacher insisted that everyone (should) arrive on time. 8. keep on doing / keep doing sth. It kept on raining for three days. 中间间断,但是长期来看还是一直在持续的。 It kept raining for a whole day. 中间不间断 We just have keep on trying. He kept dialing that number for 1 hour. Lesson 4 The New Australians 1. attach vt. fasten or join sth. to sth. 系,栓,贴,附着…… He‘ll attach a label to your luggage. You will find a document attached to the letter. attach importance / significance to… 认为……很重要 / 很有意义 I attach too much importance to this research. Attachment [C] 附件 I‘ll send the plan as an attachment. 2.bear vt. (bore, born): stand, endure, tolerate 忍受,承受 bear sth. / bear doing… She bore her sorrow without complaint. She was afraid she wouldn‘t be able to bear the pain. I can‘t bear having mouse in the house. He can‘t bear to be laughed at / being laughed at.

3. well-off adj. (better-off, best-off) 富足的,富有的 Children in this school are from well-off families. Most people are better-off than ten years ago. be well-off for sth.: have plenty of something 有足够的…… We are well-off for public transport here. You don‘t know when you are well-off. 身在福中不知福。 4. look out for be alert or watchful in order to see, find or be aware of sth. 留心、当心 You should look out for snakes. Some of them are dangerous. Will you go to the station and look out for Mr. Green? Please look out for spelling mistakes when you check your work. 5. take…seriously Why can‘t you take anything seriously? Fevers nowadays should be taken seriously. Don‘t take it seriously. I‘m just kidding. 6. be contrary to The government‘s actions are contrary to public interests. My sister‘s taste in dress is contrary to mine. Contrary to your belief, he is very diligent. On the contrary,… 相反,…… 7. in poor condition be in good / poor / excellent condition After the earthquake, the house was in a terrible condition. The car is in excellent condition. Unit 13 People 1. predict 预言、预测 predict that… Newspapers predicted that Davis would be re-elected. predict whether/what/how etc. It is difficult to predict what the long-term effects of the accident will be. As Liz had predicted, the rumors were soon forgotten. be predicted to do sth. Unemployment is predicted to increase to 700,000 by the end of the year. 注意:forecast 表示―(根据所获得的信息)预报‖ forecast that… They forecast that it will rain tomorrow. forecast what/when etc. It‘s hard to forecast what the outcome of the election will be. According to the weather forecast it will be sunny tomorrow. 2. deserve v. 应受,应得,值得 英文意思: sb./sth. deserves sth., it is right that they should have it, because of the way they if have behaved or because of what they are

deserve +n./ pron. You deserve a rest after all that hard work. The report deserves careful consideration. What have I done to deserve this? deserve + to do They didn't deserve to win. He deserves to be punished for what he did. 3. fault 和 mistake 区别 fault 表示―过失、责任、缺点、故障‖ It was his fault that we were late. I think my worst fault is impatience. There is a fault in the electrical system. mistake 表示―误解、错误‖,它还可以作动词表示―弄错‖ You can't arrest me! There must be some mistake! You must try to learn from your mistakes. She is often mistaken for her twin sister. I helped him in the mistaken belief that he needed me. 4. stare & glare & glance & gaze 的区别 stare at 表示―盯着看‖ glare at 表示―怒视‖ glance at 表示―瞥一眼‖ gaze at 表示―凝视‖ 1) Do you like being stared at? (v.) 2) We received a number of curious stares from passers-by. (n.) 3) He didn't shout; he just glared at me silently. (v.) 4) She gave him a hostile glare. (n.) 5) She glanced shyly at him and then lowered her eyes. (v.) 6) She stole a glance at her watch. (n.) 7) He just sat gazing through the window. (v.) 8) He didn't dare to meet her gaze. (n.) 5. disturb 和 interrupt 的区别 disturb 表示―打扰、扰乱、弄乱‖ 英文意思:to interrupt someone so that they cannot continue what they are doing: Sorry to disturb you, but do you know where Mr. Li is? Only the cry of seabirds disturbed the silence. He took the phone off the hook so no calls would disturb him. Sorry to disturb you, but I have an urgent message. I intended to visit him, but I was afraid I would disturb him. Talk quietly in the reading room in order not to disturb others. She awoke early after a disturbed night. Do not disturb (=a sign you put on a door so that people will not interrupt you). interrupt 表示―中断、打断(别人说话或思路)‖ 英文意思:to make a process or activity stop temporarily: to stop someone from continuing what they are saying or doing by suddenly speaking to them, making a noise etc:

My studies were interrupted by the war. Will you stop interrupting me! Sorry to interrupt, but I need to ask you to come downstairs. 6. confirm 1)证实,肯定 英文意思:to show that something is definitely true, especially by providing more proof: New evidence has confirmed the first witness's story. Research has confirmed that the risk is higher for women. He confirmed the rumor. The experiment confirmed his theory. 2)确认, 确定 英文意思:to tell someone that a possible arrangement, date, or situation, a position is now definite or official: Could you confirm the dates we discussed? Smith was confirmed as the club's new manager yesterday. I am writing to confirm a booking for a single room for the night of 6 June. The president confirmed that he would visit France the following month. 3)坚定,牢固信心,意见,使人有信心 英文意思:to make you believe that your idea or feeling is right Their advice confirmed my decision. The walk in the mountains confirmed his fear of heights. 7. leave behind 留下; 遗留 英文意思:to not take someone or something with you when you leave a place I think I might have left my wallet behind. He departed for Washington, leaving the children behind with their mother. It's time to leave the past behind. 8. determine 1)确定 英文意思:find out the facts about something Investigators are still trying to determine the cause of the fire. 2)决定,决心 英文意思: decide to do something We determined /were determined to leave at once. He firmly determined to rise in the world whatever it took. Investigators are still trying to determine the cause of the fire. The aim of the inquiry was to determine what had caused the accident. Experts have determined that the signature was forged. 9.end up Wasteful people usually end up in debt. If you continue to steal you'll end up in prison. Their effort ended up in failure. The meeting ended up with a song. We ended the dinner up with fruit and coffee. If you continue to eat like that, you will end up putting on more weight.

You could end up running this company if you play your cards right. Every time she tries to quarrel with her husband, she ends up crying. Whenever we go out to dinner with them, I end up paying the bill. At first he refused to accept any responsibility but he ended up apologizing. Unit14 Careers Lesson 1 1. have problems/difficulty/fun/a good time/a hard time doing/with eg: I hope one day you will have no problems/difficulty with English grammar/your English studies. My little son had no difficulty (in) making himself understood. 2. give aid to eg: Chinese government often gives aid to African countries. I didn't speak any French, but a nice man came to my aid and told me where to go. financial aid, first aid, medical aid, This job would be impossible without the aid of a computer. 3.aid vt./ vi eg: They aided in solving the problem. Aided by heat and strong winds, the fire quickly spread. I aid him in his work. They were accused of aiding him in his escape. 4. set an example to sb. eg: He sets an example to the other students. Tom worked hard and set a good example to his classmates. He arrived at the office early to set an example to the others. 5. be stuck/get stuck in eg: The bus was stuck in the mud. I got stuck in the traffic jam/heavy traffic 6. take charge of=be in charge of/be in the charge of 开始管理,接管 eg: As group leader, you should take charge. I'm going to take charge of the engineering department next month. 7. approach vt./ vi. 1) to come near to sb./sth. in distance or time eg: We heard the sound of an approaching car / a car approaching Winter is approaching. As you approach the town, you'll see the college on the left. 2) to start dealing with a problem, task, etc. in a particular way eg: What's the best way of approaching this problem? 8. a way of dealing with sb/sth n. eg: She hadn't heard his approach and jumped as the door opened. The school has decided to adopt a different approach to discipline. There is no easy approach to math. We‘d better find another approach to dealing with this matter. 9. stand out be easy to see and notice

eg: The chimneys stand out against the pale sky. His red hair made him stand out in a crowd/from the crowd. The stonework stands out from the rest of the wall. The road sign is easy to read: the words stand out well. 10. take on 1) agree to do some work or be responsible for sth. eg: Don‘t take on too much work. The extra cash isn‘t worth it. He takes on additional work in the evening. 2) to have a popular quality or appearance eg: The Great Wall takes on a new look. 11. distinguish…from; distinguish between…and… recognize the difference between two people or things eg: distinguish right from wrong, distinguish good from evil eg: The twins are so alike that I can hardly distinguish one from the other. We can distinguish between gold and silver. Can you distinguish the twins apart? 12. achieve ( success, victory, goal, target, ambition, purpose) 1) to successfully complete something or get a good result, especially by working hard eg: Frances achieved very good exam results. Wilson has achieved considerable success as an artist. She eventually achieved her goal of becoming a professor. You will achieve your ambition if you work hard. 2) to succeed in doing sth or causing sth to happen eg: Argument between you and me---it never achieved much. Did you achieve all that you expect today? I‘ve achieved only half of what I hoped to do. achievement n. scientific achievements educational achievement subject achievement It will give students a feeling of success and achievement. 13.grasp 1) to take a firm hold of sb/sth eg: He grasped my hand and shook it warmly. Kay grasped him by the wrist. 2) to understand sth completely eg: They failed to grasp the importance of his words. She was unable to grasp how to do it. It took him some time to grasp that he was now a public figure. I grasped the opportunity to work abroad. 14.inspect to look closely at sth/sb, especially to check that everything is satisfactory eg: The police inspected the scene and interviewed all the staff. The teacher walked around inspecting their work.

The fire prevention branch inspects factories and all sorts of public buildings. The mayor will inspect our school tomorrow. 15.pay off if something you do pays off, it is successful or has a good result eg: Teamwork paid off. His hard work paid off. He won the first prize. He paid off all the debts. 16.produce 1) to create sth, especially when skill is needed Produce high-quality report. She produced a delicious meal out of a few leftovers. Their efforts produced no results. His joke produced a great deal of laughter. 2) to show sth or make sth appear from somewhere He produced a letter/two apples from his pocket. Produce your tickets/proof! 17.add to say sth more; to make a further remark eg: I have nothing to add to my earlier statement. 'And don't be late,' she added. He added that they would return a week later. 18. work sth. out 1) to think carefully about how you are going to do something and plan a good way of doing it eg: It wasn‘t too long before we had worked out a plan acceptable to all. We need to work out how we're going to get there. 2) to calculate an answer, amount, price etc eg: See if you can work this bill out. Please work out the figures. We'll have to work out how much food we'll need for the party. 3) especially BrE. to think about something and manage to understand it eg: The plot is very complicated - it'll take you a while to work it out. I believe that you can work out this problem by yourself. She worked out the problem with no difficulty. 4) to make your body fit and strong by doing exercises eg: I work out regularly to keep fit. These athletes work out at the gym for two hours every day. 19. respond vi 1) ~ (to sb/sth) (with sth) (rather formal) to give a spoken or written answer to sb/sth eg: I asked him his name, but he didn't respond. 'I'm not sure,' she responded. She never responded to my letter. Dave didn't respond to any of her emails. More than fifty people responded to the advertisement. When asked about the company's future, the director responded that he remained optimistic. 2) ~ (to sth) (with sth / by doing sth) to do sth as a reaction to sth that sb hassaid or donebr

eg: How did they respond to the news? he body often responds to stress by getting sick. He failed to respond to the medicine. 20. consider to think about sth carefully, especially in order to make a decision eg: We're considering buying a new car. I consider him as my best friend/to be my best friend/my best friend. He is considered to have invented the machine. considering: used to say that you are thinking about a particular fact when you are giving your opinion eg: Considering his age, he is in good health. Considering he's only been learning English a year, he speaks it very well. Unit15 Learning Lesson 1 Life-long learning Important points: 1. swell v. (swelled or, swelled, swelled) (1) vi swell up: to become bigger or rounder Her arm was beginning to swell up where the bee had stung her. (2) vt. / vi swell sth. to sth.: to increase or make sth. increase in number or size Last year's profits were swelled by a fall in production costs. Crowds of commuters were swelled by Christmas shoppers. Membership has swelled to over 20 000. 2. suspect< v. (not used in the progressive tenses) (1) vt. to have an idea that sth. is probably true or likely to happen, especially sth. bad, but without having definite proof I began to suspect (that) they were trying to get rid of me. I suspect (that) she might be lying. As I had suspected all along, he was not a real policeman. (2) vt. to be suspicious about sth; to not trust sth I suspected her motives in offering to help. (3) vt. suspect sb (of sth / of doing sth): to have an idea that sb is guilty of sth, without having definite proof He resigned after being suspected of theft. The drug is suspected of causing over 200 deaths. N.: a person who is suspected of a crime or of having done sth wrong a murder suspect He is the prime suspect in the case. Do you have a list of likely suspects? 3. instruct vt. (1) (formal) to tell sb to do sth, especially in a formal or official way Instruct sb. to do The letter instructed him to report to headquarters immediately. Instruct + whYou will be instructed where to go as soon as the plane is ready.

Instruct + n. She arrived at 10 o'clock as instructed. Instruct + that (should be) He instructed that a wall be built around the city. (2) vt. instruct sb. in sth.: (formal) to teach sb sth, especially a practical skill All our staff have been instructed in sign language. 4. aside from = apart from(besides/except for) Money continues to be a problem but aside from that we're all well. I hardly watch any television, aside from news and current affairs. Aside from his meager savings, he has no resources to fall back on. Lesson 3 Teachers Important points: 1. pour v. (1) vt. Pour + N. +adv./prep.: to make a liquid or other substance flow from a container in a continuous stream, especially by holding the container at an angle She poured boiling water down the sink. (2) vi. N. + pour +adv./prep.: (of liquid, smoke, light, etc.) to flow quickly in a continuous stream Tears poured down his cheeks. Blood was pouring from the wound. The sweat was pouring off her. Light poured in. (3) vi. when rain pours down or when it's pouring with rain, rain is falling heavily The rain continued to pour down. It's pouring outside. (4) vi. +adv./prep.: to come or go somewhere continuously in large numbers Letters of complaint continue to pour in. Commuters came pouring out of the station. 2. set off (1) to begin a journey: We set off for London just after ten. (2) to make a bomb, etc. explode: A gang of boys were setting off fireworks in the street. (3) to make an ALARM start ringing: Opening this door will set off the alarm. (4) to start a process or series of events: Panic on the stock market set off a wave of selling. set off / set out / set down / set about 3. lack v. (1) vt. + N.: to have none or not enough of sth. He lacks confidence. She has the determination that her brother lacks. (2) N. [U, sing.] lack of sth.: the state of not having sth or not having enough of sth a lack of food / money / skills There was no lack of volunteers. She showed a lack of enthusiasm for the idea of becoming a mother.

4. drag v. (-gg-) (1) vt. drag + N. +adv./prep.: to pull sb./sth. along with effort and difficulty I dragged the chair over to the window. They dragged her from her bed. The sack is too heavy to lift-you'll have to drag it. (2) drag + adv./prep.: to move yourself slowly and with effort vt. I managed to drag myself out of bed. 5. worthwhile adj. it is worthwhile to do sth. it is worthwhile doing sth.: worth spending time, money or effort on a worthwhile cause / discussion / job The smile on her face made it all worthwhile. High prices in the UK make it worthwhile for buyers to look abroad. It didn't seem worthwhile writing it all out again. We all felt we had done something worthwhile for the local community. Lesson 4 Understanding Important points: 1. acquire v. (1) vt. (formal): to gain sth. by your own efforts, ability or 'text-align:left;lineheight:150%'>She has acquired a good knowledge of English. How long will it take to acquire the necessary skills? He has acquired a reputation for honesty. (2) to obtain sth. by buying or being given it: My sister couldn't take her desk with her to the new house: that's how I came to acquire it. We've just acquired a dog. 2. observe v. (1) vt. to see or notice sb/sth: Have you observed any changes lately? I want you to observe all the details. Observe sb. do sth. The police observed a man enter the bank. Observe doing sth. They observed him entering the bank. Observe that She observed that all the chairs were already occupied. Sb. is observed to do sth. (只用于被动) He was observed to follow her closely. (2) vt. to watch sb. /sth. carefully, especially to learn more about them: I felt he was observing everything I did. Observe whThey observed how the parts of the machine fitted together. vi. He observes keenly, but says little. 3. hold an important rank

4. put forward (1) propose: to suggest a plan, proposal etc, for other people to consider or discuss They put forward a number of suggestions. (2) to suggest formally that you or someone else should be considered for a particular job, membership of an organization etc Her name was put forward for the lead role in the play. Unit 16 Stories Lesson 1 Stories from History Important points: 1. witness vt. (1) to see sth happen because you are there when it happens: 目击 He witnessed that accident yesterday. We are witnessing a very important event in Chinese history. (2) time / place witnesses… 见证…… Recent years have witnessed the development of information technology. China has witnessed great changes in economy in the last 20 years. Witness N. 目击者 They are looking for witnesses to that accident. We have a witness to the killing. 2. tremble vi. (1) tremble with… : to shake in a way that you cannot control, especially because you are very nervous, excited, frightened, etc: My legs were trembling with fear. Her voice trembled with excitement. (2) to shake slightly: leaves trembling in the breeze The train trembled as the train sped across it. 3. preserve vt. (1) to prevent sth, especially food, from decaying by treating it in a particular way: 保存 olives preserved in brine Wax polish preserves wood and leather. (2) [often passive] to keep sth in its original state in good condition: 保存 a perfectly preserved 14th-century house (humorous) Is he really 60? He's remarkably well preserved. (3) to keep a particular quality, feature, etc.; to make sure that sth is kept: 保护;维护 He was anxious to preserve his reputation. Efforts to preserve the peace have failed. She managed to preserve her sense of humor under very trying circumstances. Minor points: 1. lie on one‘s back / side / stomach He lay on his back and looked up at the sky. 2. feel sorrow / sympathy for sb.

I felt sorrow for the poor girl. Revision: 1. in one‘s way / path; on one‘s way; in this / that way; in a way I‘m sorry but your bike is in my way. On my way home, my purse was stolen. In this way, I can memorize more words. In a way, what you have done is not right. 2. leave a deep impression on sb. The story of Pompeii has left a deep impression on me. 3. be caught in… / be caught doing sth. He was caught in the snowstorm. Tom was caught sleeping in class. L3 Life Stories 1. bring in bring sb in 1) arrest sb 逮捕某人 e.g. Two suspicious characters were brought in. 2) 介绍某人充当顾问、助手等 e.g. Experts were brought in to advise the government. bring sth in 1) 摘取并收集(作物、水果等) bring in a good harvest 2) 提出 bring in a bill to improve road safety 2. expand 1) become greater in size, number… A tyre expands when you pump air into it. His modest business eventually expanded into a supermarket empire. 2) spread out, unfold 伸展,展开 The pedals of the flowers expanded in the sunshine. 3)(人)变得热情或愿意交谈 The guest expanded a little when they‘d had a glass of wine. 4) expand on sth 阐述或详述 Would you expand on that topic? 3. draw v/n. 1) to make pictures, or a picture of sth, with a pencil, pen or chalk (but not paint) You draw beautifully. He drew a circle in the sand with a stick. 2) to move sth/sb by pulling it or them gently I drew my chair up closer to the fire. 3) to move in the direction mentioned The train drew into the station. Her graduation is drawing near. 4) ~ sb (to sth) to attract or interest sb:

The movie is drawing large audiences. Her screams drew passers-by to the scene. 5) (usu sing 通常作单数) ~ (for sth)抽奖; 抽签; 抓斗龟儿: The draw for the raffle takes place on Saturday. 抽彩仪式星期六举行. the draw for the second round of the European Cup 为欧洲杯足球赛第二轮抽签. 6) 平局; 不分胜负: The match ended in a draw 2-2. Communication workshop Important points 1. present present sb. with sth. / present sth. to sb. (1) give sth. to sb. formally 赠送、授予 The family presented a vase to the museum. (2) show sth. to sb.: This job presents many difficulties to me. He presented me with an impossible task. (3) 颁奖 The mayor presented the prizes to the players. Minor points 1. I came last in the competition 2. in his loud voice 3. the instant The instant I got home it began to rain. 4. refer to When I said someone was stupid, I wasn‘t referring to you. Please don‘t refer to it anymore. Revision 1. remind sb. about sth The teacher had to remind the girl about their drama play. 2. remind sb. to do. Remind me to call you tonight. 3. remind sb. of sth.: The cartoon Astroboy reminds me of my childhood. 4. attract one‘s attention / hold The speaker used a joke to attract our attention. 5. rather than I‘ll have a cold drink rather than coffee. 6. in this case 7. distinguish A from B Sometimes it is difficult to distinguish fantasy from reality. 8. add A to B 9. put up with (stand / bear) I can‘t put up with him anymore. He is talking all the time. 10. work out (1) Can you work out this problem? (2) He works out in the gym twice a week. Unit 17 Beauty 1. I wanted to withdraw 40 dollars from our bank account.

(1) vt. 取钱 I‘d like to withdraw 200 dollars please. (2) vt. / vi. 撤退 The general refused to withdraw his troops. The U.S.A. decided to withdraw its troops from Iraq. (3) vt. 收回 stop giving sth. to sb. He withdrew his support for our program. Unless you realize your promise, we will withdraw our help. 2. account (1) n. 账户 我的户头里有 10000 元钱——I have 10000 yuan in my account. · open / close an account (2) v. account for sth.: explain the cause of sth. His illness accounts for his absence. 他的粗鲁的行为时由于他的坏心情。 ——His bad mood accounts for his rude behavior. 3.He felt his daughter was mature enough and he didn‘t want to overlook her opinion so he asked her. (1) vt. 忽视,忽略,不理会 I put forward a suggestion but he overlooked my opinion. (2) vt. fail to see; miss 未注意到… He overlooked a spelling error on the first page. 我读得如此快以至于我忽略了一句话。 ——I read so fast that I overlooked a sentence. over- : too much overestimate / overdo / overwork / oversleep / overeat 4. This time she didn‘t hesitate, ―Then I‘d like to go to Hainan Island.‖ 犹豫 他没有犹豫,接受了邀请。——He didn‘t hesitate and accepted the invitation. (1) vi. hesitate to do = be reluctant to do 不情愿…… 他不情愿撒谎。——He hesitated to lie. (2) vi. hesitate about / over / at sth. 对……犹豫 He was hesitating about whether to join the competition. n. hesitation without hesitation adj. hesitant a hesitant speaker, voice, reply 5. …hundreds of unlucky passengers who had been expecting to board a flight to New York were told it had been cancelled. (1) expect to do sth.: 预料,预计,期盼 你不要指望一个星期就可以学会一门外语。—— You can‘t expect to learn a foreign language in a week. n. expectation (2) board a flight / a ship / a boat 登记,上船 在他们等待登机的时候,他们谈到了他们的工作。—— When they were waiting to board their flights, they talked about their jobs. Please board the plane immediately. Minor points and Revision 1. Have you ever had trouble trying to spell a word? have trouble doing

I have trouble working out this problem. 2. …when an angry man, who had been queuing for some time, pushed his way to the front. If you walk in total darkness, you have to feel your way. 3. ―I want a first class seat on this flight, now!‖demanded the man angrily. demand vt./vi. 要求 demand to do / demand that…should… 他要求收到平等对待。——They demanded that they should be treated equally. 我要求见经理。——I demand to see the manager. 辨析:demand / request / require ● demand: to ask for sth. very firmly, especially because you think you have a right to do this ● request: to ask for sth. in a polite and formal way (vt. request sb. to do / request that…) ● require: if you are required to do sth., a law or rule says you must do it (vt. be required to do / require that…) The workers demanded to be better paid. You are required by law to wear a seat belt. 4. He yelled at the young girl, so that the passengers waiting in line behind him could hear. wait in line / queue up / line up 排队等候是个好习惯。——It‘s a good habit to wait in line. 我们排队买票。——We lined up to buy tickets. / queue up My Favorite Comedy Important points When the waiters are not looking, however, he busies himself hiding the raw meat anywhere he can reach—the sugar bowl. 1. busy oneself with sth. / (in) doing sth. busy vt. 她忙着考试。——She busies himself preparing for the exam. be busy with, be busy in doing sth. adj. 2. reach (1) vt. / vi. be able to touch sth. 我够不着这棵树上的苹果。——I can‘t reach the apples in this tree. (2) reach for sth. She sat up and reached for her watch. Minor points 1. Mr. Bean is an internationally recognized comedy character on TV and in films. He constantly gets into awkward and absurd situations, which greatly amuses audiences regardless of their nationality or culture. He delightedly puts it on the table for everyone to see. He finds the taste truly disgusting. (请注意副词的用法。) I was greatly impressed by his speech. regardless of sth. 不管,不顾 adv. (用法:用在句子末尾) 不管报酬多少我都要这份工作。——I‘ll accept this job regardless of the pay. 2. a fancy restaurant 豪华的 a fancy dress, a fancy cake, necklace 3. …an astonished look swiftly appears on his face. ―他的脸上很快出现了一丝惊讶的表情‖。——

When she saw her score, an astonished look swiftly appears on his face. 4. He then looks from the menu to the money with concern until he finds one thing that makes him smile. 他忧虑地在名单上寻找着自己的名字。—— He was looking for his name on the name list with concern. 5. If you think that Rowan Atkinson is anything like his famous creation, then you are in for a surprise. (你肯定会……的) If you break the school windows, you‘ll be in for trouble. 6. At 13, Rowan earned a scholarship to a boarding school. 他赢得了奖学金。 He has earned / won a scholarship to Harvard University. 7. He compensated for this by talking very deliberately. (补偿) 失去健康是无法补偿的。 ——Nothing can compensate for the loss of health. 8. when you realize you are in the presence of genius. (当着某人) 请不要当着老师提起这件事情. Please don‘t refer to this matter in the presence of the teacher. Revision 1. The humour is always made clear through a series of simple and funny acts that relypurely on body language, which is universal. 依赖,依靠 rely one / depend on / count on 2. He makes an attempt to eat it. 他们企图逃跑但是失败了。——They made an attempt to escape but they failed. 3. …He is best known for the dizzy, awkward…but always amusing Mr. Bean. Be best known for / be famous for / be well-known for / as 中国以她五千年的历史而最为著名。—— China is best known for her history of 5000 years. 4. For a time, he attended the same school. 5 至 16 岁的孩子必须上学。—— Children between 5 and 16 must attend school. 5. At Oxford, he obtained his Master‘s degree in electrical engineering. 6. This might explain his interest in fast cars, of which he has a vast collection. He has a vast collection of fast cars. 7. Rowan‘s career change…was partly due to some speaking problems. (部分地因为…) 他这次考试失败部分由于缺乏准备。—— His failure in this exam was partly due to his lack of preparation. 8. While still at primary school, Rowan had already shown admirable acting talent. 在日本的时候,我学了一点日语。——While in Japan, I picked up a little Japanese. 9. …he met a group of talented people at university, who were involved in theatre. (1) 与……有关联 他认识一些政界的人。——He knows some people who are involved in politics. (2) 陷入 He was involved in a lot of trouble. 18. I was convinced (that) he would be more famous. (我确信……) Communication Workshop + Language Awareness + Culture Corner Important points I tried to rise, but found that my arms and legs were strongly tied to the ground.

1. rise (rise-rose-risen) (1) The sunrises. / The sun sets. (1) vi. 起床 他习惯早起。——He is used to rise early. (2) 站起来 she rose to her feet to welcome me. They rose from the table. Please rise from the chair. (3) Smoke was rising from the chimney. Her voice rose in anger. The river has risen by several meters. Air pollution has risen above an acceptable level. Minor points and Revision 1. I found myself within my depth. find sb. + 介词短语 (at, in, on…) I found myself in a dark room. 2…the sun had just come up. (1) The flowers are beginning to come up. (2) She came up and said, ?Glad to meet you.‘ (3) He asked me to come up with some new ideas. (4) The sun just came up. 3. be strongly tied to: 被绑在…… Tie the horse to the tree. This mad man was tied to the chair. 4. …be almost starved with hunger… 这些可怜的孩子快被饿死了。—— The animals were left to starve to death. I felt faint with hunger. / tremble with fear. 5. It was no wonder that (难怪……) It‘s no / little / small wonder that…不足为奇 There is no doubt that…; there is no point doing…; there is no need to do… 6. …who was feeling very down. After he had been feeling depressed for over a month… He felt depressed about his future. 7. Finally…he was called in. to call in a doctor / police 我的洗衣机坏了。我要找海尔公司的人来修一下。 My washing machine doesn‘t work. I will call in someone from Haier Company to repair it. 8. A dry sense of humour relates to the way a person says something funny without showing much expression. (与……相关) 这项新的法律只于盗窃案相关。——This new law only relates to theft. 9. …but some people are able to make the target of the joke burst out laughing too. 他一听到这个消息就失声痛哭。—— The instant he heard the news he burst out crying. Burst into laughter / crying; burst out laughing, crying. Unit 18 Laughter Lesson 1 state 1. v. to formally write or say sth, especially in a careful and clear way:叙述,说明

The facts are clearly stated in the report. It was stated that standards at the hospital were dropping. He stated that he knew nothing about the deal. 2. n. the mental, emotional or physical condition that a person or thing is in 状态, 状况, 情形 a confused state of mind He was in a state of permanent depression. She was in a state of shock. mark v. 1. to write or draw a symbol, line, etc. on sth in order to give information about it: 标明,标注 Prices are marked on the goods. The teacher marked her absent (= made a mark by her name to show that she was absent). The cross marks the spot where the body was found. The route has been marked in red. Do not open any mail marked 'Love'. 2. to celebrate or officially remember an event that you consider to be important 纪念 a ceremony to mark the 50th anniversary of the end of the war 3. to be a sign that sth new is going to happen: 标志 The agreement marks a new phase in international relations. 4. to give marks to students' work 打分 I hate marking exam papers. desire 1. v. (formal) to want sth; to wish for sth: 想要,渴望 We all desire health and happiness. The house had everything you could desire. The medicine did not achieve the desired effect. 2. n. [C, U] (for sth)(to do sth) a strong wish to have or do sth: 欲望 a strong desire for power enough money to satisfy all your desires die out 1. to disappear or stop existing completely 消失,灭绝 There will be outbreaks of rain, gradually dying out in the afternoon. 2. die away if sound, wind, or light dies away, it becomes gradually weaker until you cannot hear, feel, or see it 变弱,渐渐停止 Her voice died away as she saw the look on David's face. She waited until the footsteps had died away. 3. die down if something dies down, it becomes less strong, active, or violent 渐渐消失 平息,变弱 Don't worry, the gossip will soon die down. accompany v. 1. (formal) to travel or go somewhere with sb: 陪伴(同) His wife accompanied him on the trip. I must ask you to accompany me to the police station.

2. to happen or appear with sth else: 伴随 Strong winds were accompanied by heavy rain. 3. ~ sb (at / on sth) to play a musical instrument, especially a piano, while sb else sings or plays the main tune: 为……伴奏(唱) The singer was accompanied on the piano by her sister. casual adj. 1. [usually before noun] not showing much care or thought; seeming not to be worried; not wanting to show that sth is important to you: 漠不关心的 a casual manner It was just a casual remark-I wasn't really serious. They have a casual attitude towards safety (= they don't care enough). 2. [usually before noun] without paying attention to detail: 不认真的,马虎的 a casual glance It's obvious even to the casual observer. 3. not formal:临时的 casual clothes (= comfortable clothes that you choose to wear in your free time) family parties and other casual occasions Minor points adapt 使适应,改编 A large organization can be slow to adapt to change. Most of these tools have been specially adapted for use by disabled people. as well 也 I like English and Chinese as well. one in every ten people, one out of ten people 每十个人中有一个… remain a secret 依然是一个秘密… follow the diet/recipe/treatment/instructions/directions/one‘s advice in preparation for 准备 The team has been training hard in preparation for the big game. Lesson 3 1. in the hope that…in the hope of…in hopes of, in hopes that…hoping to do 希望 He did it in hopes of a reward. 2. dance Dreams dance in their heads. The leaves were dancing in the wind. I saw a boat dancing on the waves. 3. in an instant 立刻,马上 I'll be back in an instant. Communication Workshop replace 1. to be used instead of sth/sb else; to do sth instead of sb/sth else: 代替 替代 The new design will eventually replace all existing models. She replaced her husband as the local doctor. 2. to change sth that is old, damaged, etc. for a similar thing that is newer or better: 更换 All the old carpets need replacing.

offer v. to say that you are willing to do sth for sb or give sth to sb 给予;提议 They decided to offer the job to Tom. They decided to offer Tom the job. I gratefully took the cup of coffee she offered me. Taylor offered him 500 dollars to do the work. The kids offered to do the dishes. The city has a lot to offer the business traveler. trap v. keep (sb) in a place from which he wants to move but cannot 使(某人)陷入困境 They were trapped in the burning hotel. The lift broke down and we were trapped inside (it). I feel trapped in my job. transform v. completely change the appearance or character of sth/sb 完全改变某事物[某人]的外观或 特性 Success and wealth transformed his character. A steam engine transforms heat into power. She used to be terribly shy, but a year abroad has completely transformed her. Minor points treat…as 把……当作…… get lost in 迷失,迷路 look in the mirror 照镜子 back and forth =up and down =backwards and forwards 来回地 the striking use 显著的;惹人注目的,容貌出众的 a striking feature / example She was undoubtedly a very striking young woman. convey a message that 传达了……信息 Ads convey the message that thin is beautiful. judge a book by its cover 以貌取人 people of all ages 各种年龄的人 Language Awareness call on sb 拜访某人 call on sb to do 号召(呼吁)某人做某事 solve the problem/question, a crime/a puzzle, a mystery/ a myth/riddle 解决…… in uniform 穿着制服 He stood there in uniform, smiling at us. 一些小知识 限定词的用法 限定词是在名词词组中对名词中心词起特指、 类指以及表示确定数量和非确定数量等限 定作用的词类。名词词组除有词汇意义外,还有其所指意义,是特指(即指特写的对象〕 , 还是类指(即泛指一类人或物〕 ;是有确定的数量,还是没有确定的数量。能在名词词组中 表示这种所指意义的词类就是限定词。 英语的限定词包括: 1. 定冠词,不定冠词,零冠词

2. 形容词性物主代词(my, your, his, her, our, your, their, one‘s, its) 3. 名词所有格(John‘s, my friend‘s) 4. 指示代词(this, that, these, those, such) 5.关系代词(whose, which) 6. 疑问代词(what, which, whose) 7. 不定代词(no, some, any, each, every, enough, either, neither, all, both, half, several, many, much, (a) few, (a) little, other, another) 8. 基数词和序数词 9. 倍数词和分数词 10. 量词(a lot of, lots of, plenty of, a great of, a good deal of, a large of, a small amount of, a quantity of, a great of, a good number of) 限定词与名词词组中心词之间有着某种固定的搭配关系; 如果名词之前带有两个或两个 以上的限定词, 则限定词与限定词之间也有某种固定的搭配关系。 本讲主要解决这两种搭配 关系问题。 限定词的选择决定于随后的名词的类别,是单数名词、复数名词,还是不可数名词。 能与三类名词搭配的限定词 有些限定词如 the, some, any, no, other, whose 以及 my, your 等物主代词和名词所有格 (John‘s, my friend‘s〕等能与三类名词搭配。例如: the book, my book, my friend‘s book, John‘s book, any book, some book, no book, the other book, whose book, the books, some money, no money, the other money, whose money 只能与单数名词搭配的限定词 有些限定词如 a(n), one, another, each, every, either, neither, many a, such a 等只能与单数 名词搭配。例如: each worker, either book, an apple, another book, such a book, every student, neither sentence, one copy, many a book 只能与复数名词搭配的限定词 有些限定词如 both, two, three, another two / three, many, (a) few, several, these, those, a (great) number of 等只能与复数名词搭配。例如: both workers, several students, a number of essays, many students, (a) few words, these / those books, two / three visitors, another two / three students 只能与不可数名词搭配的限定词 有些限定词如 a (little) bit of, a great amount of, a great deal of, (a) little, much 等只能与不 可数名词搭配。例如: a bit of water, a great amount of labour, a great deal of work, (a) little space, much noise would 和 used to 的区别 would 与 used to 都可用来表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作,常常可以换用。 如: When we were boys we used to/would go swimming every summer. 小时候,每到夏天我们都要去游泳。 He used to/would spend every penny he earned on books. 过去,他通常把挣来的钱全花在买书上。 would 与 used to 都不能用来表示动作发生的具体频度或具体的一段时间。 例如,不能说: I would/used to go to France six times.

He used to live in Africa for twenty years. 上两句应改成: I went to France six times. 我去过法国 6 次。 He lived in Africa for twenty years. 他在非洲住过 20 年。 would 与 used to 的区别主要有以下几点: used to 可指过去的状态或情况,would 则不能。 如: School children used to know the story of how Abraham Lincoln walked five miles to return a penny he'd overcharged a customer. (不能用 would) 过去,学校的孩子们都知道亚伯拉罕· 林肯怎样步行 5 英里退还多收顾客 1 便士的故事。 Yet,he cannot but remember China as it used to be. 然而,他不会不记得旧日的中国(不能用 would) 。 would 表示反复发生的动作。如果某一动作没有反复性,就不能用 would,只能用 used to。 例如: And from that day on, as soon as the table was cleared and the dishes were gone. Mother would disappear into her sewing room to practice. 从那天起, 只要碗盘撤掉、 饭桌一清理干净, 妈妈就马上躲进做针线活的房间练习起来。 (具有反复性) I used to live in Beijing. 我过去住在北京。 (没有反复性) used to 表示过去经常性或习惯性的动作或状态现在已经结束,would 则表示有可能再发生。 如: People used to believe that the earth was flat. 过去,人们总以为地球是扁平的。 (现在已不再这样认为) He would go to the park as soon as he was free. 过去,他一有空就去公园。 (现在有可能再去) 注意:used to 的否定式和疑问句: I used not to like opera. I usedn't to like opera. I didn't use to like opera. Used you to like opera? Did you use to like opera? Didn't you use to like opera? 你过去不喜欢歌剧吗? You used to like opera, didn't you? 你过去喜欢歌剧,是吗? There used to be a church here,usedn't there? 过去这里有座教堂,是不是?


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