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Section B Directions: Complete the following passage by using the words in the box. Each word can only be used once. Note that there is one word more than you need.

A. majority F. distraction

B. involving G. attentively

C. association H. fatal

D. visible I. specifically

E. wearing J. needed

People who wear headphones might want to throw them away while walking outside. A study finds that accidents involving walkers 41 the devices have increased three times in recent years. Researchers combed several sources to find incidents in the U.S. of crashes 42 walkers and vehicles from 2004 to 2011. Searching the National Injury Surveillance System, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, Google News archives and Westlaw Campus Research, they found 116 cases of death or injury involving walkers wearing headphones. Cases in which people were using mobile phones (including hands-free devices) were not included. Over the years the number of cases increased, from 16 in 2004 and 2005 to 47 in 2010 and 2011. The victims’ average age was 21, and most (68 percent) were male. The 43 ( 67percent ) were under the age of 30. Most (55 percent) were hit by trains, and 70 percent of the crashes, most of which were in urban areas, were 44 . In 74 percent of the cases, police or eyewitness reports said the walker had headphones on when hit. And 29 percent of reports made mention of horns or warning bells going off before the crash. The study authors pointed to two likely causes that may be a factor in what they call “the possible 45 between headphone use and walker injury”: sensory deprivation(感官剥夺) and 46 . The latter is more 47 called “inattentional blindness,” referring to the use of electronic devices and how they decrease attention to things going on around us. Hearing what’s going on in the environment, they point out, could be more important than 48 clues for walkers. But the authors add that this study doesn’t show cause or relationship of headphone use and walker risk, and other factors could have been involved in the accidents, such as walkers being intoxicated(陶醉)or drivers being at fault. More comprehensive information on such accidents is which groups of people may be most at risk. III. Reading Comprehension Section A Directions: For each blank in the following passage there are four words or phrases marked A, B, C and D. Fill in each blank with the word or phrase that best fits the context. Reading involves looking at illustrative symbols and expressing mentally the sounds and ideas they represent. Concepts of reading have changed 50 over the centuries. During the 1950’s and 1960’s especially, increased attention has been devoted to 51 the reading process. Although experts agree that reading 52 a complex organization of higher mental 53 , 49 , the researchers said, to see

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they disagree about the exact nature of the process. Some experts, who regard language primarily as a code using symbols to represent sounds, 54 reading as simply the decoding(解码)of symbols into the sounds they stand for. These authorities 55 that meaning, being concerned with thinking, must be taught independently of the decoding process. Others maintain that reading is inexplainably related to thinking, and that a child who pronounces sounds without 56 their meaning is not truly reading. The reader, 57 some, is not just a person with a theoretical ability to read but one who 58 reads. Many adults, although they have the ability to read, have never read a book in its 59 . By some experts they would not be 60 as readers. Clearly, the philosophy, objectives, methods and materials of reading will depend on the definition one use. By the most 61 and satisfactory definition, reading is the ability to 62 the sound-symbols code of the language, to interpret meaning for various 63 , at various rates, and at various levels of difficulty, and to do so widely and enthusiastically. 64 , reading is the interpretation of ideas through the use of symbols representing sounds and ideas. 50. A. specifically 51. A. understanding 52. A. involves 53. A. opinions 54. A. view 55. A. support 56. A. interpreting 57. A. in addition to 58. A. completely 59. A. part 60. A. applied 61. A. instructive 62. A. strike 63. A. purposes 64. A. On the other hand B. dramatically B. translating B. concentrates B. effects B. look B. argue B. saying B. for example B. carefully B. whole B. granted B. doubtful B. illustrate B. degrees B. In short (C) Discoveries in science and technology are thought by “untaught minds” to come in blinding flashes or as the result of dramatic accidents. Sir Alexander Fleming did not, as legend would have it, look at the mold ( 霉 ) on a piece of cheese and get the idea for penicillin there and then. He experimented with antibacterial substances for nine years before he made his discovery. Inventions and innovations almost always come out of tough trial and error. Innovation is like soccer; even the best players miss the goal and have their shots blocked much more frequently than they score.
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C. abstractly C. defining C. specializes C. manners C. reassure C. attempt C. reciting C. according to C. publically C. standard C. classified C. certain C. define C. stages C. By the way

D. ridiculously D. substituting D. analyzes D. functions D. agree D. compete D. reading D. such as D. actually D. straight D. graded D. complicated D. unlock D. steps D. So far

The point is that the players who score most are the ones who take most shots at the goal—and so it goes with innovation in any field of activity. The prime difference between innovation and others is one of approach. Everybody gets ideas, but innovators work consciously on theirs, and they follow them through until they prove practicable or otherwise. What ordinary people see as fanciful abstractions, professional innovators see as solid possibilities. “Creative thinking may mean simply the realization that there’s no particular goodness in doing things the way they have always been done.” Wrote Rudolph Flesch, a language authority. This accounts for our reaction to seemingly simple innovations like plastic garbage bags and suitcases on wheels that make life more convenient: “How come nobody thought of that before?” The creative approach begins with the proposal that nothing be as it appears. Innovators will not accept that there is only one way to do anything. Faced with getting from A to B, the average person will automatically set out on the best-known and apparently simplest route. The innovator will search for alternate courses, which may prove easier in the long run and are sure to be more interesting and challenging even if they lead to dead ends. Highly creative individuals really do march to a different drummer. 72. What does the author probably mean by “untaught mind” in the first paragraph? A. An individual who often comes up with new ideas by accident. B. A person who has had no education. C. A citizen of a society that restricts personal creativity. D. A person ignorant of the hard work involved in experimentation. 73. According to the author, what differs innovators from non-innovators? A. The way they present their findings. B. The way they deal with problems. C. The intelligence they possess. D. The variety of ideas they have. 74.The phrase “march to a different drummer” (the last line of the passage) suggests that highly creative individuals are _____. A. unwilling to follow common ways of doing things B. diligent in pursuing their goals C. concerned about the advance of society D. devoted to the progress of science 75.The most suitable title for this passage might be _____. A. The Relation Between Creation and Diligence B. To Be a Creative Expert in the Study of Human Creativity C. What Are So Special about Creative Individuals D. Discoveries and Innovation Directions: Read the passage carefully. Then answer the questions or complete the statements in the fewest possible words. That experiences influence future behaviour is evidence of an obvious but nevertheless remarkable activity called remembering. Learning could not occur without the function popularly
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named memory. Constant practice has such an effect on memory as to lead to skillful performance on the piano, to recitation of a poem, and even to reading and understanding these words. So called intelligent behaviour demands memory, remembering being a primary requirement for reasoning. The ability to solve any problem or even to recognize that a problem exists depends on memory. Typically, the decision to cross a street is based on remembering many earlier experiences. Practice (or review) tends to build and maintain memory for a task or for any learned material. Over a period of no practice what has been learned tends to be forgotten; and the adaptive consequences may not seem obvious. Yet, dramatic instances of sudden forgetting can be seen to be adaptive. In this sense, the ability to forget can be interpreted to have survived through a process of natural selection in animals. Indeed, when one’s memory of an emotionally painful experience leads to serious anxiety, forgetting may produce relief. Nevertheless, an evolutionary interpretation might make it difficult to understand how the commonly gradual process of forgetting survived natural selection. In thinking about the evolution of memory together with all its possible aspects, it is helpful to consider what would happen if memories failed to fade. Forgetting clearly aids situation in time, since old memories weaken and the new tend to stand out, providing clues for inferring duration. Another line of thought assumes a memory storage system of limited capacity that provides adaptive flexibility specifically through forgetting. In this view, continual adjustments are made between learning or memory storage (input) and forgetting(output). Indeed, there is evidence that the rate at which individuals forget is directly related to how much they have learned. Such data offer common support of contemporary models of memory that assume an input-output balance. (Note: Answer the questions or complete the statements in NO MORE THAN TEN WORDS) 81. According to Para. 1, memory plays an important role in _____________________________. 82. We can obviously notice that over a period of no practice what has been learned tends to be forgotten from _______________________________________________________________. 83. What does it seem that the author disagree to explain? 84. According to the last paragraph, how do we exactly make adjustments between memory and forgetting? 翻译 85. 今天的报告有多少人缺席?( absent ) 86. 对自己有信心是获取成功的第一步。( confidence ) 87. 做了错事能及时为自己的所作所为道歉是有礼貌的。( It ) 88. 因为他的优秀作品,莫言被公认为是世界上一名伟大的作家。( recognize )

89. “中国好声音”迷倒了许多年轻人,它也是 2012 年在中国最受观众喜爱的娱乐节目之 一。( fascinate)

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